Porch

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Chartres Cathedral south facade

A porch (from Old French porche, from Latin porticus "colonnade", from porta "passage") is a term used in architecture to describe a room or gallery located in front of the entrance of a building forming a low front, and placed in front of the facade of the building it commands. It can be defined more simply as a "projecting building that houses the entrance door of a building or as a vestibule, or hall.

The porch exists in religious architecture as well as in secular architecture and is found in different forms and structures, built from various materials around the world.

Terminology[edit]

There are various styles of porches, many of which depend on the architectural tradition of its location, as well as various names used. Porches will allow for sufficient space for a person to comfortably pause before entering or after exiting a building, or to relax on. Many porches are opened on the outward side with balustrade supported by balusters that usually encircles the entire porch except where stairs are found.

The word "porch" is almost exclusively used for a structure that is outside the main walls of a building or house, with many different designs and roofs either under the same roof line or as towers and turrets, supported by simple porch posts or ornate colonnades and arches, such as found in Queen Anne style architecture, Victorian style houses[1] Spanish Colonial Revival Style, or any of the American Colonial style buildings and homes.[2]

Domestic timber porch detail

Some porches are small[3] covering mostly just the entrance, or larger even wrapping around the sides or completely running around the entire building. A porch can be part of the ground floor, or an upper floor, such as exampled by the Mrs. Lydia Johnson House built in 1895.

Related terms[edit]

  • Apadana: A veranda-shaped structure that is open to the outside elements on one of its four sides.
  • Peristyle: In Ancient Greek architecture; a continuous porch with a row of columns around the outside of building or a courtyard.

Types[edit]

Porch (circa 1872) at Concrete Cottages, Old Burghclere, Hampshire, UK, May 2018. Possibly designed by Thomas Robjohns Wonnacott (1834-1918), RIBA. Probably built using Charles Drake's 1868 concrete patent, for the 4th Earl of Carnarvon of nearby Highclere Castle.

Arizona room[edit]

An Arizona room is a type of screened porch commonly found in Arizona.

Screened porch[edit]

A screened porch, also called a screened-in-porch, is a porch that was built or altered to be enclosed with screens that effectively creates an outdoor type room[4][5]

Sleeping porch[edit]

A sleeping porch is a porch that was built or modified to be a type of semi-outdoor sleeping area. A sleeping porch can be an ordinary open porch, screened or with screened windows that can be opened.

Rain porch[edit]

A rain porch is a type of porch with the roof and columns extended past the deck and reaching the ground. The roof may extend several feet past the porch creating a covered patio. A rain porch, also referred to as a Carolina porch, is usually found in the Southeastern United States.[6]

Portico[edit]

A Portico (Italian) is a porch style that utilizes columns or colonnades, and even arches, such as used in Italian modern and contemporary architecture.

Loggia[edit]

A Loggia is a covered exterior corridor or porch that is part of the ground floor or can be elevated on another level. The roof is supported by columns or arches and the outer side is open to the elements.[7]

Veranda[edit]

Honolulu Museum of Art - entrance veranda

A Veranda (verandah) style porch[8] is usually large and may encompass the entire facade as well as the sides of a structure. An extreme example is the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, Michigan, which has the longest porch in the world at 660 feet (200 m) in length.

Lanai[edit]

A Lanai is a roofed, open-sided veranda, patio or porch originating in Hawaii.

Sun porch[edit]

A sun porch, or sun room, also referred to as a Florida room, can be any room or separate structure, usually enclosed with glass, but can be an enclosed porch..[9]

Stoop[edit]

A stoop is a landing, usually small, at the top of stairs and when covered by a roof is a small porch.[10]

North America[edit]

In northeastern North America, a porch is a small area, usually unenclosed, at the main-floor height and used as a sitting area or for the removal of working clothes so as not to get the home's interior dirty, when the entrance door is accessed via the porch. In the Southwestern United States, ranch-style homes often use a porch to provide shade for the entrance and southern wall of the residence.

In the Southern United States and Southern Ontario, Canada, a porch is often at least as broad as it is deep, and it may provide sufficient space for residents to entertain guests or gather on special occasions. Adobe-style homes in Santa Fe, New Mexico, often include large porches for entertainment called 'portals,' which are not usually seen in the more traditional adobe homes.

Older American homes, particularly those built during the era of Victorian architecture, or built in the Queen Anne style, often included a porch in both the front and the back of the home. The back porch is used as another sitting space. However, many American homes built with a porch since the 1940s have only a token one, usually too small for comfortable social use and adding only to the visual impression of the building.

The New Urbanism movement in architecture urges a reversal in this trend, recommending a large front porch, to help build community ties.[11]

When spacious enough, a covered porch not only provides protection from sun or rain but comprises, in effect, extra living space for the home during pleasant weather — accommodating chairs or benches, tables, plants, and traditional porch furnishings such as a porch swing, rocking chairs, or ceiling fans.

Some porches are screened in to exclude flying insects. Normally, the porch is architecturally unified with the rest of the house, using similar design elements. It may be integrated into the roof line or upper storey.

Many porch railings are designed with importance to the design of the building as well as curb appeal but local, state, or federal zoning laws usually mandate the height of the railing and spacing of balusters. There are exemptions for houses in historic districts or that are on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Park Service produced a pamphlet or brief concerning Preserving Historic Wood Porches.[12]

Britain[edit]

Highly decorated two-storey south porch of 1480 at Northleach Parish Church, England.

In Great Britain the projecting porch had come into common use in churches by early medieval times. They were usually built of stone but occasionally were of timber. Normally they were placed on the south side of the church, but also on the west and north sides, sometimes in multiple. The porches served to give cover to worshipers, but they also had a liturgical use. At a baptism, the priest would receive the sponsors, with the infant, in the porch and the service began there.

In later medieval times, the porch sometimes had two storeys, with a room above the entrance which was used as a local school, meeting room, storeroom, or even armoury. If the village or town possessed a collection of books, it would be housed there.

Sometimes the church custodian lived in the upper storey and a window into the church would allow supervision of the main church interior. Some British churches have highly ornamented porches, both externally and internally. The south porch at Northleach, Gloucestershire, in the Cotswolds, built in 1480, is a well-known example, and there are several others in East Anglia and elsewhere in the UK.[13]

India[edit]

Ancient temple porch to a mandapa, India
The porch to the entrance to Cave Two, Ajanta Caves, India

In India porches and verandahs are popular elements of secular as well as religious architecture. In the Hindu temple the mandapa is a porch-like structure through the gopuram (ornate gateway) and leading to the temple. It is used for religious dancing and music and is part of the basic temple compound.[14] Examples of Indian buildings with porches include:

The term sit-out is used to describe a porch of residential building.[15][16][17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ businessinsider.com: Classic Victorian mansions- Retrieved 2017-08-31
  2. ^ HGTV porch styles- Retrieved 2017-08-31
  3. ^ Small porches- Retrieved 2017-09-01
  4. ^ Screened porches- Retrieved 2017-08-31
  5. ^ Google: Examples; images of screen porches-Retrieved 2017-09-01
  6. ^ Carolina porch (pages 41–43, and 178)
  7. ^ NYC Landmark Preservation Commission: Glossary (L): - Retrieved 2017-09-01
  8. ^ Oxford dictionary- Retrieved 2017-08-30
  9. ^ Four-seasons sun porch- Retrieved 2017-09-01
  10. ^ WiseGeek: What is a stoop?- Retrieved 2017-09-01
  11. ^ Mohney & Easterling 1991.
  12. ^ Preserving Historic Wood Porches- Retrieved 2017-08-31
  13. ^ Jones 1965, pp. 46-48.
  14. ^ Ching 1995, p. 253.
  15. ^ Nihalani, Paroo; Tongue, Ray K.; Hosali, Priya (1979). Indian and British English: a handbook of usage and pronunciation. Oxford University Press. p. 162.
  16. ^ Gomez, Maya Josephine (2002). Kumar, S, ed. "Participatory Design Aid - A System for Beneficiary Participation in Dwelling Unit Design in Public Housing Scheme". Journal of the Indian Institute of Architects. Indian Institute of Architects. 67 (1). ISSN 0019-4913. OCLC 1752884.
  17. ^ Sugandhi, Rajendra Kumar (2003). Rediscovering the Customer. Customer Relationship Management. New Age International. p. 29.
  18. ^ Professional Porch Sitters Unite- Retrieved 2017-08-30