Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger
Heidegger 2 (1960).jpg
Heidegger in 1960
Born26 September 1889
Died26 May 1976(1976-05-26) (aged 86)
EducationCollegium Borromaeum [de]
University of Freiburg
(PhD, 1914; Dr. phil. hab. 1916)
SpouseElfride Petri (m. 1917)
Partner(s)Elisabeth Blochmann (1918–1969)
Hannah Arendt (1924–1928)
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolContinental philosophy
Ontological hermeneutics[1]
Hermeneutic phenomenology (early)[2]
Transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology (late)[3]
Existential phenomenology[4]
InstitutionsUniversity of Marburg
University of Freiburg
Doctoral advisorArthur Schneider (PhD advisor)
Heinrich Rickert (Dr. phil. hab. advisor)
Doctoral studentsHans Jonas
Main interests
Notable ideas
Political partyNazi Party (1933–1945)

Martin Heidegger (/ˈhdɛɡər, ˈhdɪɡər/;[12][13] German: [ˈmaʁtiːn ˈhaɪdɛɡɐ];[14][12] 26 September 1889 – 26 May 1976) was a German philosopher who is best known for contributions to phenomenology, hermeneutics, and existentialism. He is among the most important and influential philosophers of the 20th century.[5][15] He has been widely criticized for supporting the Nazi Party after his election as rector at the University of Freiburg in 1933, and there has been controversy about the relationship between his philosophy and Nazism.[16][17]

In Heidegger's fundamental text Being and Time (1927), "Dasein" is introduced as a term for the type of being that humans possess.[18] Dasein has been translated as "being there". Heidegger believes that Dasein already has a "pre-ontological" and concrete understanding that shapes how it lives. This mode of being he terms "being-in-the-world". Dasein and "being-in-the-world" are unitary concepts at odds with rationalist philosophy and its "subject/object" view since at least René Descartes. Heidegger explicitly disagrees with Descartes, and uses an analysis of Dasein to approach the question of the meaning of being. This meaning is "concerned with what makes beings intelligible as beings", according to Heidegger scholar Michael Wheeler.[19]


Early years[edit]

The Mesnerhaus in Meßkirch, where Heidegger grew up

Heidegger was born in rural Meßkirch, Baden, the son of Johanna (Kempf) and Friedrich Heidegger.[20] Raised a Roman Catholic, he was the son of the sexton of the village church that adhered to the First Vatican Council of 1870, which was observed mainly by the poorer class of Meßkirch. His family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered a Jesuit seminary, though he was turned away within weeks because of the health requirement and what the director and doctor of the seminary described as a psychosomatic heart condition. Heidegger was short and sinewy, with dark piercing eyes. He enjoyed outdoor pursuits, being especially proficient at skiing.[21]

Studying theology at the University of Freiburg while supported by the church, he later switched his field of study to philosophy. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologism in 1914,[22] influenced by Neo-Thomism and Neo-Kantianism, directed by Arthur Schneider.[23] In 1916, he finished his venia legendi with a habilitation thesis on Duns Scotus[24] directed by the Neo-Kantian Heinrich Rickert[25] and influenced by Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.[26] He attempted to get the (Catholic) philosophy post at the University of Freiburg on 23rd June 1916 but failed despite the support of Heinrich Finke.[27]

In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent then served as a soldier during the final year of World War I; serving "the last ten months of the war" with "the last three of those in a meteorological unit on the western front".[5]

Heidegger taught courses at the University of Freiburg from 1919-1923. See his published courses in Gesamtausgabe. Early Freiburg lecture courses, 1919–1923.


In 1923, Heidegger was elected to an extraordinary professorship in philosophy at the University of Marburg.[28] His colleagues there included Rudolf Bultmann,[29] Nicolai Hartmann, Paul Tillich,[30] and Paul Natorp.[31]: 65  Heidegger's students at Marburg included Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Gerhard Krüger, Leo Strauss, Jacob Klein, Günther Anders, and Hans Jonas. Following on from Aristotle, he began to develop in his lectures the main theme of his philosophy: the question of the sense of being. He extended the concept of subject to the dimension of history and concrete existence, which he found prefigured in such Christian thinkers as Paul of Tarsus, Augustine of Hippo, Martin Luther, and Søren Kierkegaard. He also read the works of Wilhelm Dilthey, Husserl, Max Scheler,[32] and Friedrich Nietzsche.[33]


In 1927 Heidegger published his main work, Sein und Zeit (Being and Time). When Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburg's election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining later offers including one from Humboldt University of Berlin. His students at Freiburg included Hannah Arendt, Günther Anders, Hans Jonas, Karl Löwith, Charles Malik, Herbert Marcuse, and Ernst Nolte.[34][35] Karl Rahner likely attended four of his seminars in four semesters from 1934 to 1936.[36][37] Emmanuel Levinas attended his lecture courses during his stay in Freiburg in 1928, as did Jan Patočka in 1933; Patočka in particular was deeply influenced by him.[38][39]

Heidegger was elected rector of the University on 21 April 1933, and joined the Nazi Party on 1 May.[40]: 82  During his time as rector he was a member and an enthusiastic supporter of the party.[41][42][43] There is continuing controversy as to the relationship between his philosophy and his political allegiance to Nazism.[16]

He wanted to position himself as the philosopher of the party, but the highly abstract nature of his work and the opposition of Alfred Rosenberg, who himself aspired to act in that position, limited Heidegger's role. His withdrawal from his position as rector owed more to his frustration as an administrator than to any principled opposition to the Nazis, according to historians.[44] In his inaugural address as rector on 27 May he expressed his support of a German revolution, and in an article and a speech to the students from the same year he also supported Adolf Hitler.[45]: 3 : 11  In November 1933, Heidegger signed the Vow of allegiance of the Professors of the German Universities and High-Schools to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialistic State.

Heidegger resigned from the rectorate in April 1934, but remained a member of the Nazi Party until 1945 even though the Nazis eventually prevented him from publishing.[45]: 3  From 1936 to 1940, Heidegger delivered a series of lectures on Nietzsche at Freiburg that presented much of the raw material incorporated in his more established work and thought from this time. Of this series, Heidegger said in his 1966 interview with Der Spiegel: "Everyone who had ears to hear was able to hear in these lectures... a confrontation with National Socialism."[46] Later scholars, however, have come to the opposite conclusion about this material; for example David Farrell Krell, in the introduction to an English translation of the seminar, writes: "The problem is not that Heidegger lacked a political theory and praxis but that he had one."[47]

In the autumn of 1944, Heidegger was drafted into the Volkssturm and assigned to dig anti-tank ditches along the Rhine.[48]

Heidegger's Black Notebooks, written between 1931 and into the early 1970s and first published in 2014, contain several expressions of antisemitic sentiments, which have led to a reevaluation of Heidegger's relation to Nazism.[49][50] Having analysed the Black Notebooks, Donatella di Cesare asserts in her book Heidegger and the Jews that "metaphysical anti-semitism" and antipathy toward Jews was central to Heidegger's philosophical work. Heidegger, according to di Cesare, considered Jewish people to be agents of modernity disfiguring the spirit of Western civilization; he held the Holocaust to be the logical result of the Jewish acceleration of technology, and thus blamed the Jewish genocide on its victims themselves.[51]


In late 1946, as France engaged in épuration légale in its occupation zone, the French military authorities determined that Heidegger should be blocked from teaching or participating in any university activities because of his association with the Nazi Party.[52] The denazification procedures against Heidegger continued until March 1949 when he was finally pronounced a Mitläufer (the second lowest of five categories of "incrimination" by association with the Nazi regime). No punitive measures against him were proposed.[53] This opened the way for his readmission to teaching at Freiburg University in the winter semester of 1950–51.[53] He was granted emeritus status and then taught regularly from 1951 until 1958, and by invitation until 1967.


Heidegger died on 26 May 1976 in Meßkirch[54]: 1  and was buried in the Meßkirch cemetery.[55]

Personal life[edit]

Heidegger's stone-and-tile chalet clustered among others at Todtnauberg

Heidegger married Elfride Petri on 21 March 1917,[56] in a Catholic ceremony officiated by his friend Engelbert Krebs [de], and a week later in a Protestant ceremony in the presence of her parents. Their first son, Jörg, was born in 1919.[57]: 159  Elfride then gave birth to Hermann [de] in August 1920. Heidegger knew that he was not Hermann's biological father but raised him as his son. Hermann's biological father, who became godfather to his son, was family friend and doctor Friedel Caesar. Hermann was told of this at the age of 14;[58] Hermann became a historian and would later serve as the executor of Heidegger's will.[59] Hermann Heidegger died on 13 January 2020.[60]

Heidegger spent much time at his vacation home at Todtnauberg, on the edge of the Black Forest.[61] He considered the seclusion provided by the forest to be the best environment in which to engage in philosophical thought.[62]

Heidegger's grave in Meßkirch

A few months before his death, he met with Bernhard Welte, a Catholic priest, Freiburg University professor and earlier correspondent. The exact nature of their conversation is not known, but what is known is that it included talk of Heidegger's relationship to the Catholic Church and subsequent Christian burial at which the priest officiated.[63][64][65]: 10 


Heidegger had a four-year affair with Hannah Arendt and a decades-long affair with Elisabeth Blochmann; both women were his students.[66] Arendt was Jewish, and Blochmann had one Jewish parent, making them subject to severe persecution by the Nazi authorities.

The 35-year-old Heidegger,[67] who was married with two young sons, began a long romantic relationship with 17-year-old Arendt[68] [a][69] who later faced criticism for this because of Heidegger's support for the Nazi Party after his election as rector at the University of Freiburg in 1933. They agreed to keep the details of the relationship a secret, preserving their letters but keeping them unavailable.[70] The relationship was not known until Elisabeth Young-Bruehl's biography of Arendt appeared in 1982. At the time of publishing, Arendt and Heidegger were deceased and Heidegger's wife, Elfride (1893–1992), was still alive. The affair was not widely known until 1995, when Elzbieta Ettinger gained access to the sealed correspondence.[71]

It is probably fair to say that, following his relationship with Hannah Arendt, Blochmann had one of the most important extramarital affairs with Heidegger (as is known since 2005, Heidegger led something of an open marriage and his wife Elfriede both knew about his affairs and conducted her own). Elfriede Heidegger and Elisabeth Blochmann were friends and former classmates. The story is well documented in the 1989 edition of their letters, starting in 1918.[72] Heidegger's letters to his wife contain information about several other affairs of his.[59] He helped Blochmann emigrate from Germany before the start of World War II and resumed contact with both of them after the war.[73]


View from Heidegger's vacation chalet in Todtnauberg. Heidegger wrote most of Being and Time there.


In the 1927 Being and Time, Heidegger rejects the Cartesian view of the human being as a subjective spectator of objects, according to Marcella Horrigan-Kelly (et al.).[74] The book instead holds that both subject and object are inseparable. In presenting "being" as inseparable, Heidegger introduced the term Dasein (literally: being there), intended to embody a "living being" through their activity of "being there" and "being-in-the-world".[74] "Famously, Heidegger writes of Dasein as Being-in-the-world," according to Michael Wheeler (2011). Understood as a unitary phenomenon rather than a contingent, additive combination, being-in-the-world is an essential characteristic of Dasein, Wheeler writes.[75]

Heidegger's account of Dasein in Being and Time passes through a dissection of the experiences of Angst, "the Nothing" and mortality, and then through an analysis of the structure of "Care" as such. From there he raises the problem of "authenticity", that is, the potentiality for mortal Dasein to exist fully enough that it might actually understand being and its possibilities. Dasein is not "man", but is nothing other than "man", according to Heidegger. Moreover, he wrote that Dasein is "the being that will give access to the question of the meaning of Being".[76]


Dasein's ordinary and even mundane experience of "being-in-the-world" provides "access to the meaning" or "sense of being" (Sinn des Seins). This access via Dasein is also that "in terms of which something becomes intelligible as something."[77] Heidegger proposes that this meaning would elucidate ordinary "prescientific" understanding, which precedes abstract ways of knowing, such as logic or theory.[78]

This supposed "non-linguistic, pre-cognitive access" to the meaning of Being didn't underscore any particular, preferred narrative, according to an account of Richard Rorty's analysis by Edward Grippe.[79] In this account, Heidegger holds that no particular understanding of Being (nor state of Dasein and its endeavors) is to be preferred over another. Moreover, "Rorty agrees with Heidegger that there is no hidden power called Being," Grippe writes, adding that Heidegger's concept of Being is viewed by Rorty as metaphorical.

But Heidegger actually offers "no sense of how we might answer the question of being as such," writes Simon Critchley in his 2009 nine-part blog commentary on Being and Time for The Guardian. The book instead provides "an answer to the question of what it means to be human," according to Critchley.[80] Nonetheless, Heidegger does present the concept: "'Being' is not something like a being but is rather "what determines beings as beings."[81] The interpreters Thomas Sheehan and Mark Wrathall each separately assert that commentators' emphasis on the term "Being" is misplaced, and that Heidegger's central focus was never on "Being" as such. Wrathall wrote (2011) that Heidegger's elaborate concept of "unconcealment" was his central, life-long focus, while Sheehan (2015) proposed that the philosopher's prime focus was on that which "brings about being as a givenness of entities."[82][83] Heidegger claims that traditional ontology has prejudicially overlooked the question of being.


Heidegger believes that time finds its meaning in death, according to Michael Kelley. That is, time is understood only from a finite or mortal vantage. Dasein's essential mode of being-in-the-world is temporal: Having been "thrown" into a world implies a “pastness” to its being. Dasein occupies itself with the present tasks required by goals it has projected on the future. Thus Heidegger concludes that Dasein's fundamental characteristic is temporality, Kelley writes.[84][85]

Dasein as an inseparable subject/object, cannot be separated from its objective "historicality". On the one hand, Dasein is "stretched along" between birth and death, and thrown into its world; into its possibilities which Dasein is charged with assuming. On the other hand, Dasein's access to this world and these possibilities is always via a history and a tradition—this is the question of "world historicality".

Ontological difference and fundamental ontology[edit]

In Being and Time,"Heidegger drew a sharp distinction between ontical and the ontological -- or beings and "Being" as such. He labelled this the "Ontological Difference".[86] It is from this distinction that he developed the concept of "Fundamental Ontology".

According to Taylor Carman (2003), traditional ontology asks "Why is there anything?" whereas Heidegger's "Fundamental Ontology" asks "What does it mean for something to be?". Heidegger's ontology "is fundamental relative to traditional ontology in that it concerns what any understanding of entities necessarily presupposes, namely, our understanding of that in virtue of which entities are entities", Carman writes.[87]: 8–52 

This line of inquiry is based on the "ontological difference"—central to Heidegger's philosophy.[88][89] In 1937's "Contributions to Philosophy" Heidegger calls the ontological difference "the essence of Dasein".[90] He accuses the Western philosophical tradition of incorrectly focusing on the "ontic"—and thus forgetful of this distinction. This has led to the mistake of understanding being as such as a kind of ultimate entity, for example as idea, energeia, substantia, actualitas or will to power.[88][91][92] According to Richard Rorty, Heidegger envisioned no "hidden power of Being" as an ultimate entity.[79] Heidegger purportedly modifies "traditional" ontic philosophy by focusing instead on the meaning of being—or what he called "fundamental ontology". This "ontological inquiry" is required to understand the basis of the sciences, according to "Being and Time" (1927).[93]

This inquiry is engaged by studying the human being, or Dasein, according to Heidegger.[94] This method works because of Dasein's pre-ontological understanding of being that shapes experience. This implicit understanding can be made explicit through phenomenology and its methods, but these must be employed using hermeneutics in order to avoid distortions by the forgetfulness of being, according to interpretations of Heidegger.[88][95][96][97]

Fundamental Ontology, regarded as a project, is akin to contemporary meta-ontology.[97][98][99][how?]

Later works: The Turn[edit]

Heidegger's Kehre, or "the turn" (die Kehre) refers to a change in his work as early as 1930 that became clearly established by the 1940s, according to various commentators. Heidegger rarely used the term. Recurring themes include poetry and technology.[3] Commentators such as William J. Richardson (1963)[100] describe, variously, a shift of focus, or a major change in outlook.[101][failed verification]

The 1935 Introduction to Metaphysics "clearly shows the shift" to an emphasis on language from a previous emphasis on Dasein in Being and Time eight years earlier, according to Brian Bard's 1993 essay titled "Heidegger's Reading of Heraclitus".[102] In a 1950 lecture Heidegger formulated the famous saying "Language speaks", later published in the 1959 essays collection Unterwegs zur Sprache, and collected in the 1971 English book Poetry, Language, Thought.[103][104][105]

This supposed shift—applied here to cover about thirty years of Heidegger's 40-year writing career—has been described by commentators from widely varied viewpoints; including as a shift in priority from Being and Time to Time and Being—namely, from dwelling (being) in the world to doing (time) in the world.[3][106][107] (This aspect, in particular the 1951 essay "Building, Dwelling Thinking" influenced architectural theorists including Christian Norberg-Schulz, Dalibor Vesely, Joseph Rykwert, Daniel Libeskind and the philosopher-architect Nader El-Bizri.)[108][109]

Other interpreters believe "the Kehre" can be overstated or even that it doesn't exist. Thomas Sheehan (2001) believes this supposed change is "far less dramatic than usually suggested," and entailed a change in focus and method.[110] Sheehan contends that throughout his career, Heidegger never focused on "being", but rather tried to define "[that which] brings about being as a givenness of entities."[110][111] Mark Wrathall[112] argued (2011) that the Kehre isn't found in Heidegger's writings but is simply a misconception. As evidence for this view, Wrathall sees a consistency of purpose in Heidegger's life-long pursuit and refinement of his notion of "unconcealment".

Some notable "later" works are The Origin of the Work of Art", (1935), Contributions to Philosophy (1937), Letter on Humanism (1946). "Building Dwelling Thinking", (1951), "The Question Concerning Technology", (1954) " and What Is Called Thinking? (1954). Also during this period, Heidegger wrote extensively on Nietzsche and the poet Holderlin.

Heidegger and the ground of history[edit]

In his later philosophy, Heidegger attempted to reconstruct the "history of being" in order to show how the different epochs in the history of philosophy were dominated by different conceptions of being.[113] His goal is to retrieve the original experience of being present in the early Greek thought that was covered up by later philosophers.[92]

Michael Allen Gillespie says (1984) that Heidegger's theoretical acceptance of "destiny" has much in common with the millenarianism of Marxism. But Marxists believe Heidegger's "theoretical acceptance is antagonistic to practical political activity and implies fascism. Gillespie, however, says "the real danger" from Heidegger isn't quietism but fanaticism. "History, as Heidegger understands it, doesn't move forward gradually and regularly but spasmodically and unpredictably." Modernity has cast mankind toward a new goal "on the brink of profound nihilism" that is "so alien it requires the construction of a new tradition to make it comprehensible."[114]

Allen extrapolated from Heidegger's writings that mankind may degenerate into scientists, workers and brutes.[115] According to Allen, Heidegger envisaged this abyss to be the greatest event in the West's history because it would enable Humanity to comprehend Being more profoundly and primordially than the Pre-Socratics.[116]


Augustine of Hippo[edit]

Heidegger was substantially influenced by Augustine of Hippo,[117] and Being and Time would not have been possible without the influence of Augustine's thought. Augustine's Confessions was particularly influential in shaping Heidegger's thought.[118] Almost all central concepts of Being and Time are derived from Augustine, Luther, and Kierkegaard, according to Christian Lotz.[119]

Augustine viewed time as relative and subjective, and that being and time were bound up together.[120] Heidegger adopted similar views, e.g. that time was the horizon of Being: ' ...time temporalizes itself only as long as there are human beings.'[121]

Aristotle and the Greeks[edit]

Heidegger was influenced at an early age by Aristotle, mediated through Catholic theology, medieval philosophy and Franz Brentano.[122][123] Aristotle's ethical, logical, and metaphysical works were crucial to the development of his thought in the crucial period of the 1920s. Although he later worked less on Aristotle, Heidegger recommended postponing reading Nietzsche, and to "first study Aristotle for ten to fifteen years".[124] In reading Aristotle, Heidegger increasingly contested the traditional Latin translation and scholastic interpretation of his thought. Particularly important (not least for its influence upon others, both in their interpretation of Aristotle and in rehabilitating a neo-Aristotelian "practical philosophy")[125] was his radical reinterpretation of Book Six of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics and several books of the Metaphysics. Both informed the argument of Being and Time. Heidegger's thought is original in being an authentic retrieval of the past, a repetition of the possibilities handed down by the tradition.[126]

The idea of asking about being may be traced back via Aristotle to Parmenides. Heidegger claimed to have revived the question of being, the question having been largely forgotten by the metaphysical tradition extending from Plato to Descartes, a forgetfulness extending to the Age of Enlightenment and then to modern science and technology. In pursuit of the retrieval of this question, Heidegger spent considerable time reflecting on ancient Greek thought, in particular on Plato, Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Anaximander, as well as on the tragic playwright Sophocles.[127]

According to W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz, Heidegger believed "the thinking of Heraclitus and Parmenides, which lies at the origin of philosophy, was falsified and misinterpreted" by Plato and Aristotle, thus tainting all of subsequent Western philosophy.[128] In his Introduction to Metaphysics, Heidegger states:

Among the most ancient Greek thinkers, it is Heraclitus who was subjected to the most fundamentally un-Greek misinterpretation in the course of Western history, and who nevertheless in more recent times has provided the strongest impulses toward redisclosing what is authentically Greek.[129]

Charles Guignon wrote that Heidegger aimed to correct this misunderstanding by reviving Presocratic notions of 'being' with an emphasis on "understanding the way beings show up in (and as) an unfolding happening or event." Guignon adds that "we might call this alternative outlook 'event ontology.'"[130]


W. Dilthey circa 1855—the young Heidegger was influenced by Dilthey's work.

Heidegger's very early project of developing a "hermeneutics of factical life" and his hermeneutical transformation of phenomenology was influenced in part by his reading of the works of Wilhelm Dilthey.[131]

Of the influence of Dilthey, Hans-Georg Gadamer writes that Dilthey's influence was important in helping the youthful Heidegger "in distancing himself from the systematic ideal of Neo-Kantianism, as Heidegger acknowledges in Being and Time."[132]

Scholars as diverse as Theodore Kisiel and David Farrell Krell have argued for the importance of Diltheyan concepts and strategies in the formation of Heidegger's thought.[133]

Even though Gadamer's interpretation of Heidegger has been questioned,[134]: 32–33  there is little doubt that Heidegger seized upon Dilthey's concept of hermeneutics. Heidegger's novel ideas about ontology required a gestalt formation, not merely a series of logical arguments, in order to demonstrate his fundamentally new paradigm of thinking, and the hermeneutic circle offered a new and powerful tool for the articulation and realization of these ideas.[135]


Edmund Husserl, the man who established the school of phenomenology

Husserl's influence on Heidegger is controversial. Disagreements centre upon how much of Husserlian phenomenology is contested by Heidegger, and how much his phenomenology in fact informs Heidegger's own understanding. On the relation between the two figures, Gadamer wrote: "When asked about phenomenology, Husserl was quite right to answer as he used to in the period directly after World War I: 'Phenomenology, that is me and Heidegger'." Nevertheless, Gadamer noted that Heidegger was no patient collaborator with Husserl, and that Heidegger's "rash ascent to the top, the incomparable fascination he aroused, and his stormy temperament surely must have made Husserl, the patient one, as suspicious of Heidegger as he always had been of Max Scheler's volcanic fire."[136]

Robert J. Dostal understood the importance of Husserl to be profound:

Heidegger himself, who is supposed to have broken with Husserl, bases his hermeneutics on an account of time that not only parallels Husserl's account in many ways but seems to have been arrived at through the same phenomenological method as was used by Husserl.... The differences between Husserl and Heidegger are significant, but if we do not see how much it is the case that Husserlian phenomenology provides the framework for Heidegger's approach, we will not be able to appreciate the exact nature of Heidegger's project in Being and Time or why he left it unfinished.[137]

Daniel O. Dahlstrom saw Heidegger's presentation of his work as a departure from Husserl as unfairly misrepresenting Husserl's own work. Dahlstrom concluded his consideration of the relation between Heidegger and Husserl as follows:

Heidegger's silence about the stark similarities between his account of temporality and Husserl's investigation of internal time-consciousness contributes to a misrepresentation of Husserl's account of intentionality. Contrary to the criticisms Heidegger advances in his lectures, intentionality (and, by implication, the meaning of 'to be') in the final analysis is not construed by Husserl as sheer presence (be it the presence of a fact or object, act or event). Yet for all its "dangerous closeness" to what Heidegger understands by temporality, Husserl's account of internal time-consciousness does differ fundamentally. In Husserl's account the structure of protentions is accorded neither the finitude nor the primacy that Heidegger claims are central to the original future of ecstatic-horizonal temporality.[138]


Søren Kierkegaard, considered to be the first existential philosopher

Heideggerians regarded Søren Kierkegaard as, by far, the greatest philosophical contributor to Heidegger's own existentialist concepts.[139] Heidegger's concepts of anxiety (Angst) and mortality draw on Kierkegaard and are indebted to the way in which the latter lays out the importance of our subjective relation to truth, our existence in the face of death, the temporality of existence, and the importance of passionate affirmation of one's individual being-in-the-world.[140]

Patricia J. Huntington claims that Heidegger's book Being and Time continued Kierkegaard's existential goal. Nevertheless, she argues that Heidegger began to distance himself from any existentialist thought.[141]

Calvin Shrag argues Heidegger's early relationship with Kierkegaard as:

Kierkegaard is primarily concerned with existence as it is experienced in man's concrete ethico-religious situation. Heidegger is interested in deriving an ontological analysis of man. But as Heidegger's ontological and existentialist descriptions can arise only from ontic and existential experience, so Kierkegaard's ontic and existential elucidations express an implicit ontology.[142]

Hölderlin and Nietzsche[edit]

Friedrich Hölderlin,
Friedrich Nietzsche
Heidegger dedicated many of his lectures to both Hölderlin and Nietzsche

Friedrich Hölderlin and Friedrich Nietzsche were both important influences on Heidegger,[143] and many of his lecture courses were devoted to one or the other, especially in the 1930s and 1940s. The lectures on Nietzsche focused on fragments posthumously published under the title The Will to Power, rather than on Nietzsche's published works. Heidegger read The Will to Power as the culminating expression of Western metaphysics, and the lectures are a kind of dialogue between the two thinkers.

This is also the case for the lecture courses devoted to the poetry of Friedrich Hölderlin, which became an increasingly central focus of Heidegger's work and thought. Heidegger grants to Hölderlin a singular place within the history of being and the history of Germany, as a herald whose thought is yet to be "heard" in Germany or the West. Many of Heidegger's works from the 1930s onwards include meditations on lines from Hölderlin's poetry, and several of the lecture courses are devoted to the reading of a single poem (see, for example, Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister").

Heidegger and Eastern thought[edit]

Some writers on Heidegger's work see possibilities within it for dialogue with traditions of thought outside of Western philosophy, particularly East Asian thinking.[144][145]: 351–354  Despite perceived differences between Eastern and Western philosophy, some of Heidegger's later work, particularly "A Dialogue on Language between a Japanese and an Inquirer", does show an interest in initiating such a dialogue.[146] Heidegger himself had contact with a number of leading Japanese intellectuals, including members of the Kyoto School, notably Hajime Tanabe and Kuki Shūzō. Reinhard May refers to Chang Chung-Yuan who stated (in 1977) "Heidegger is the only Western Philosopher who not only intellectually understands Tao, but has intuitively experienced the essence of it as well."[147] May sees great influence of Taoism and Japanese scholars in Heidegger's work, although this influence is not acknowledged by the author. He asserts (1996): "The investigation concludes that Heidegger's work was significantly influenced by East Asian sources. It can be shown, moreover, that in particular instances Heidegger even appropriated wholesale and almost verbatim major ideas from the German translations of Daoist and Zen Buddhist classics. This clandestine textual appropriation of non-Western spirituality, the extent of which has gone undiscovered for so long, seems quite unparalleled, with far-reaching implications for our future interpretation of Heidegger's work."[148]


Heidegger has been influential in research on the relationship between Western philosophy and the history of ideas in Islam,[149] particularly for some scholars interested in Arabic philosophical medieval sources. These include the Lebanese philosopher and architectural theorist Nader El-Bizri,[150] who, as well as focusing on the critique of the history of metaphysics (as an 'Arab Heideggerian'), also moves towards rethinking the notion of "dwelling" in the epoch of the modern unfolding of the essence of technology and Gestell,[151] and realizing what can be described as a "confluence of Western and Eastern thought" as well. El-Bizri has also taken a new direction in his engagement in 'Heidegger Studies' by way of probing the Arab/Levantine Anglophone reception of Sein und Zeit in 1937 as set in the Harvard doctoral thesis of the 20th century Lebanese thinker and diplomat Charles Malik.[152]

It is also claimed that the works of counter-enlightenment philosophers such as Heidegger, along with Friedrich Nietzsche and Joseph de Maistre, influenced Iran's Shia Islamist scholars, notably Ali Shariati. A clearer impact of Heidegger in Iran is associated with thinkers such as Reza Davari Ardakani, Ahmad Fardid, and Fardid's student Jalal Al-e-Ahmad,[153] who have been closely associated with the unfolding of philosophical thinking in a Muslim modern theological legacy in Iran. This included the construction of the ideological foundations of the Iranian Revolution and modern political Islam in its connections with theology.[154][155][156]

Heidegger and the Nazi Party[edit]

The rectorate[edit]

The University of Freiburg, where Heidegger was Rector from 21 April 1933 to 23 April 1934

Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933. Heidegger was elected rector of the University of Freiburg on 21 April 1933, and assumed the position the following day. On May 1, he joined the Nazi Party.

On 27 May 1933, Heidegger delivered his inaugural address, the Rektoratsrede ("The Self-assertion of the German University"), in a hall decorated with swastikas, with members of the Sturmabteilung and prominent Nazi Party officials present.[157]

His tenure as rector was fraught with difficulties from the outset. Some Nazi education officials viewed him as a rival, while others saw his efforts as comical. Some of Heidegger's fellow Nazis also ridiculed his philosophical writings as gibberish. He finally offered his resignation as rector on 23 April 1934, and it was accepted on 27 April. Heidegger remained a member of both the academic faculty and of the Nazi Party until the end of the war.[158]

Philosophical historian Hans Sluga wrote:

Though as rector he prevented students from displaying an anti-Semitic poster at the entrance to the university and from holding a book burning, he kept in close contact with the Nazi student leaders and clearly signaled to them his sympathy with their activism.[159]

In 1945, Heidegger wrote of his term as rector, giving the writing to his son Hermann; it was published in 1983:

The rectorate was an attempt to see something in the movement that had come to power, beyond all its failings and crudeness, that was much more far-reaching and that could perhaps one day bring a concentration on the Germans' Western historical essence. It will in no way be denied that at the time I believed in such possibilities and for that reason renounced the actual vocation of thinking in favor of being effective in an official capacity. In no way will what was caused by my own inadequacy in office be played down. But these points of view do not capture what is essential and what moved me to accept the rectorate.[160]

Treatment of Husserl[edit]

Beginning in 1917, German-Jewish philosopher Edmund Husserl championed Heidegger's work, and helped Heidegger become his successor for the chair in philosophy at the University of Freiburg in 1928.[161]

On 6 April 1933, the Gauleiter of Baden Province, Robert Wagner, suspended all Jewish government employees, including present and retired faculty at the University of Freiburg. Heidegger's predecessor as rector formally notified Husserl of his "enforced leave of absence" on 14 April 1933.

Heidegger became Rector of the University of Freiburg on 22 April 1933. The following week the national Reich law of 28 April 1933 replaced Reichskommissar Wagner's decree. The Reich law required the firing of Jewish professors from German universities, including those, such as Husserl, who had converted to Christianity. The termination of the retired professor Husserl's academic privileges thus did not involve any specific action on Heidegger's part.[162]

Heidegger had by then broken off contact with Husserl, other than through intermediaries. Heidegger later claimed that his relationship with Husserl had already become strained after Husserl publicly "settled accounts" with Heidegger and Max Scheler in the early 1930s.[163]

Heidegger did not attend his former mentor's cremation in 1938. In 1941, under pressure from publisher Max Niemeyer, Heidegger agreed to remove the dedication to Husserl from Being and Time (restored in post-war editions).[164]

Heidegger's behavior towards Husserl has provoked controversy. Hannah Arendt initially suggested that Heidegger's behavior precipitated Husserl's death. She called Heidegger a "potential murderer". However, she later recanted her accusation.[165]

In 1939, only a year after Husserl's death, Heidegger wrote in his Black Notebooks: "The more original and inceptive the coming decisions and questions become, the more inaccessible will they remain to this [Jewish] 'race'. Thus, Husserl's step toward phenomenological observation, and his rejection of psychological explanations and historiological reckoning of opinions, are of enduring importance—yet it never reaches into the domains of essential decisions",[166] seeming to imply that Husserl's philosophy was limited purely because he was Jewish.

Post-rectorate period[edit]

After the failure of Heidegger's rectorship, he withdrew from most political activity, but remained a member of the Nazi Party. In May 1934 he accepted a position on the Committee for the Philosophy of Law in the Academy for German Law (Ausschuß für Rechtphilosophie der Akademie für Deutsches Recht), where he remained active until at least 1936.[167] The academy had official consultant status in preparing Nazi legislation such as the Nuremberg racial laws that came into effect in 1935. In addition to Heidegger, such Nazi notables as Hans Frank, Julius Streicher, Carl Schmitt and Alfred Rosenberg belonged to the Academy and served on this committee.[167]

In a 1935 lecture, later published in 1953 as part of the book Introduction to Metaphysics, Heidegger refers to the "inner truth and greatness" of the Nazi movement (die innere Wahrheit und Größe dieser Bewegung), but he then adds a qualifying statement in parentheses: "namely, the confrontation of planetary technology and modern humanity" (nämlich die Begegnung der planetarisch bestimmten Technik und des neuzeitlichen Menschen). However, it subsequently transpired that this qualification had not been made during the original lecture, although Heidegger claimed that it had been. This has led scholars to argue that Heidegger still supported the Nazi party in 1935 but that he did not want to admit this after the war, and so he attempted to silently correct his earlier statement.[168]

In private notes written in 1939, Heidegger took a strongly critical view of Hitler's ideology;[169] however, in public lectures, he seems to have continued to make ambiguous comments which, if they expressed criticism of the regime, did so only in the context of praising its ideals. For instance, in a 1942 lecture, published posthumously, Heidegger said of recent German classics scholarship:

In the majority of "research results," the Greeks appear as pure National Socialists. This overenthusiasm on the part of academics seems not even to notice that with such "results" it does National Socialism and its historical uniqueness no service at all, not that it needs this anyhow.[170]

An important witness to Heidegger's continued allegiance to Nazism during the post-rectorship period is his former student Karl Löwith, who met Heidegger in 1936 while Heidegger was visiting Rome. In an account set down in 1940 (though not intended for publication), Löwith recalled that Heidegger wore a swastika pin to their meeting, though Heidegger knew that Löwith was Jewish. Löwith also recalled that Heidegger "left no doubt about his faith in Hitler", and stated that his support for Nazism was in agreement with the essence of his philosophy.[171]

Heidegger rejected the "biologically grounded racism" of the Nazis, replacing it with linguistic-historical heritage.[172]

Post-war period[edit]

After the end of World War II, Heidegger was summoned to appear at a denazification hearing. Heidegger's former lover Hannah Arendt spoke on his behalf at this hearing, while Karl Jaspers spoke against him.[173]: 249  He was charged on four counts, dismissed from the university and declared a "follower" (Mitläufer) of Nazism.[158] Heidegger was forbidden to teach between 1945 and 1951. One consequence of this teaching ban was that Heidegger began to engage far more in the French philosophical scene.[174]

In his postwar thinking, Heidegger distanced himself from Nazism, but his critical comments about Nazism seem "scandalous" to some since they tend to equate the Nazi war atrocities with other inhumane practices related to rationalisation and industrialisation, including the treatment of animals by factory farming. For instance in a lecture delivered at Bremen in 1949, Heidegger said: "Agriculture is now a motorized food industry, the same thing in its essence as the production of corpses in the gas chambers and the extermination camps, the same thing as blockades and the reduction of countries to famine, the same thing as the manufacture of hydrogen bombs."[158]

In 1967 Heidegger met with the Jewish poet Paul Celan, a concentration camp survivor. Having corresponded since 1956,[175]: 66  Celan visited Heidegger at his country retreat and wrote an enigmatic poem about the meeting, which some interpret as Celan's wish for Heidegger to apologize for his behavior during the Nazi era.[176]

Der Spiegel interview[edit]

On 23 September 1966, Heidegger was interviewed by Rudolf Augstein and Georg Wolff for Der Spiegel magazine, in which he agreed to discuss his political past provided that the interview be published posthumously. ("Only a God Can Save Us" was published five days after his death, on 31 May 1976.)[177] In the interview, Heidegger defended his entanglement with Nazism in two ways: first, he argued that there was no alternative, saying that he was trying to save the university (and science in general) from being politicized and thus had to compromise with the Nazi administration. Second, he admitted that he saw an "awakening" (Aufbruch) which might help to find a "new national and social approach," but said that he changed his mind about this in 1934, largely prompted by the violence of the Night of the Long Knives.

In his interview Heidegger defended as double-speak his 1935 lecture describing the "inner truth and greatness of this movement." He affirmed that Nazi informants who observed his lectures would understand that by "movement" he meant Nazism. However, Heidegger asserted that his dedicated students would know this statement wasn't praise for the Nazi Party. Rather, he meant it as he expressed it in the parenthetical clarification later added to Introduction to Metaphysics (1953), namely, "the confrontation of planetary technology and modern humanity."[178]: 92 

The eyewitness account of Löwith from 1940 contradicts the account given in the Der Spiegel interview in two ways: that he did not make any decisive break with Nazism in 1934, and that Heidegger was willing to entertain more profound relations between his philosophy and political involvement. The Der Spiegel interviewers did not bring up Heidegger's 1949 quotation comparing the industrialization of agriculture to the extermination camps. In fact, the interviewers were not in possession of much of the evidence now known for Heidegger's Nazi sympathies.[179] Der Spiegel journalist Georg Wolff had been an SS-Hauptsturmführer with the Sicherheitsdienst, stationed in Oslo during World War II, and had been writing articles with antisemitic and racist overtones in Der Spiegel since the end of the war.[180]: 178 

Influence and reception in France[edit]

Heidegger is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century while remaining one of the most controversial."[5] His ideas have penetrated into many areas, but in France there is a very long and particular history of reading and interpreting his work which in itself resulted in deepening the impact of his thought in Continental Philosophy. He influenced Jean Beaufret, François Fédier, Dominique Janicaud, Jean-Luc Marion, Jean-François Courtine, Jean Paul Sartre, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and others.[181][182]: 166 

Existentialism and pre-war influence[edit]

Heidegger's influence on French philosophy began in the 1930s, when Being and Time, "What is Metaphysics?" and other Heideggerian texts were read by Jean-Paul Sartre and other existentialists, as well as by thinkers such as Alexandre Kojève, Georges Bataille and Emmanuel Levinas.[183] Because Heidegger's discussion of ontology (the study of being) is rooted in an analysis of the mode of existence of individual human beings (Da-sein, or there-being), his work has often been associated with existentialism. The influence of Heidegger on Sartre's Being and Nothingness (1943) is marked, but Heidegger felt that Sartre had misread his work, as he argued in later texts such as the "Letter on Humanism". In that text, intended for a French audience, Heidegger explained this misreading in the following terms:

Sartre's key proposition about the priority of existentia over essentia [that is, Sartre's statement that "existence precedes essence"] does, however, justify using the name "existentialism" as an appropriate title for a philosophy of this sort. But the basic tenet of "existentialism" has nothing at all in common with the statement from Being and Time [that "the 'essence' of Dasein lies in its existence"]—apart from the fact that in Being and Time no statement about the relation of essentia and existentia can yet be expressed, since there it is still a question of preparing something precursory.[184]: 250–251 

"Letter on 'Humanism'" is often seen as a direct response to Sartre's 1945 lecture "Existentialism Is a Humanism". Aside from merely disputing readings of his own work, however, in the "Letter on Humanism" Heidegger asserts that "Every humanism is either grounded in a metaphysics or is itself made to be the ground of one." Heidegger's largest issue with Sartre's existential humanism is that, while it does make a humanistic 'move' in privileging existence over essence, "the reversal of a metaphysical statement remains a metaphysical statement." From this point onward in his thought, Heidegger attempted to think beyond metaphysics to a place where the articulation of the fundamental questions of ontology were fundamentally possible: only from this point can we restore (that is, re-give [redonner]) any possible meaning to the word "humanism".

Post-war forays into France[edit]

After the war, Heidegger was banned from university teaching for a period on account of his support of Nazism while serving as Rector of Freiburg University.[185] He developed a number of contacts in France, where his work continued to be taught, and a number of French students visited him at Todtnauberg (see, for example, Jean-François Lyotard's brief account in Heidegger and "the Jews", which discusses a Franco-German conference held in Freiburg in 1947, one step toward bringing together French and German students).[citation needed] Heidegger subsequently made several visits to France, and made efforts to keep abreast of developments in French philosophy by way of correspondence with Jean Beaufret, an early French translator of Heidegger, and with Lucien Braun.

Derrida and deconstruction[edit]

Deconstruction came to Heidegger's attention in 1967 by way of Lucien Braun's recommendation of Jacques Derrida's work (Hans-Georg Gadamer was present at an initial discussion and indicated to Heidegger that Derrida's work came to his attention by way of an assistant). Heidegger expressed interest in meeting Derrida personally after the latter sent him some of his work. There was a discussion of a meeting in 1972, but this failed to take place.[186] Heidegger's interest in Derrida is said by Braun to have been considerable (as is evident in two letters, of September 29, 1967, and May 16, 1972, from Heidegger to Braun). Braun also brought to Heidegger's attention the work of Michel Foucault. Foucault's relation to Heidegger is a matter of considerable difficulty; Foucault acknowledged Heidegger as a philosopher whom he read but never wrote about. (For more on this see Penser à Strasbourg, Jacques Derrida, et al., which includes reproductions of both letters and an account by Braun, "À mi-chemin entre Heidegger et Derrida").

Derrida attempted to displace the understanding of Heidegger's work that had been prevalent in France from the period of the ban against Heidegger teaching in German universities, which amounted to an almost wholesale rejection of the influence of Jean-Paul Sartre and existentialist terms. In Derrida's view, deconstruction is a tradition inherited via Heidegger (the French term "déconstruction" is a term coined to translate Heidegger's use of the words "Destruktion"—literally "destruction"—and "Abbau"—more literally "de-building"). According to Derrida, Sartre's interpretation of Dasein and other key Heideggerian concerns is overly psychologistic, anthropocentric, and misses the historicality central to Dasein in Being and Time.

The Farías debate[edit]

Jacques Derrida, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, and Jean-François Lyotard, among others, all engaged in debate and disagreement about the relation between Heidegger's philosophy and his Nazi politics. These debates included the question of whether it was possible to do without Heidegger's philosophy, a position which Derrida in particular rejected. Forums where these debates took place include the proceedings of the first conference dedicated to Derrida's work, published as "Les Fins de l'homme à partir du travail de Jacques Derrida: colloque de Cerisy, 23 juillet-2 août 1980", Derrida's "Feu la cendre/cio' che resta del fuoco", and the studies on Paul Celan by Lacoue-Labarthe and Derrida which shortly preceded the detailed studies of Heidegger's politics published in and after 1987.

When in 1987 Víctor Farías published his book Heidegger et le nazisme, this debate was taken up by many others, some of whom were inclined to disparage so-called "deconstructionists" for their association with Heidegger's philosophy. Derrida and others not only continued to defend the importance of reading Heidegger, but attacked Farías on the grounds of poor scholarship and for what they saw as the sensationalism of his approach. Not all scholars agreed with this negative assessment: Richard Rorty, for example, declared that "[Farías'] book includes more concrete information relevant to Heidegger's relations with the Nazis than anything else available, and it is an excellent antidote to the evasive apologetics that are still being published."[187]

Bernard Stiegler[edit]

More recently, Heidegger's thought has influenced the work of the French philosopher Bernard Stiegler. This is evident even from the title of Stiegler's multi-volume magnum opus, La technique et le temps (volume one translated into English as Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus).[188] Stiegler offers an original reading of Heidegger, arguing that there can be no access to "originary temporality" other than via material, that is, technical, supports, and that Heidegger recognised this in the form of his account of world historicality, yet in the end suppressed that fact. Stiegler understands the existential analytic of Being and Time as an account of psychic individuation, and his later "history of being" as an account of collective individuation. He understands many of the problems of Heidegger's philosophy and politics as the consequence of Heidegger's inability to integrate the two.

Giorgio Agamben[edit]

Heidegger has been very influential in the work of the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben. Agamben attended seminars in France led by Heidegger in the late 1960s.[189]


Early criticisms[edit]

According to Husserl, Being and Time claimed to deal with ontology but only did so in the first few pages of the book. Having nothing further to contribute to an ontology independent of human existence, Heidegger changed the topic to Dasein. Whereas Heidegger argued that the question of human existence is central to the pursuit of the question of being, Husserl criticised this as reducing phenomenology to "philosophical anthropology" and offering an abstract and incorrect portrait of the human being.[190]

In 1929 the Neo-Kantian Ernst Cassirer and Heidegger engaged in an influential debate, during the Second Davos Hochschulkurs in Davos, concerning the significance of Kantian notions of freedom and rationality (see Cassirer–Heidegger debate). Whereas Cassirer defended the role of rationality in Kant, Heidegger argued for the priority of the imagination.[191]

Dilthey's student Georg Misch wrote the first extended critical appropriation of Heidegger in Lebensphilosophie und Phänomenologie. Eine Auseinandersetzung der Diltheyschen Richtung mit Heidegger und Husserl, Leipzig 1930 (3rd ed. Stuttgart 1964).

The Young Hegelians and critical theory[edit]

Hegel-influenced Marxist thinkers, especially György Lukács and the Frankfurt School, associated the style and content of Heidegger's thought with German irrationalism and criticised its political implications.[192]

Initially, members of the Frankfurt School were positively disposed to Heidegger, becoming more critical at the beginning of the 1930s. Heidegger's student Herbert Marcuse (1928-1932) became associated with the Frankfurt School. Initially striving for a synthesis between Hegelian Marxism and Heidegger's phenomenology, Marcuse later rejected Heidegger's thought for its "false concreteness" and "revolutionary conservatism". Theodor Adorno wrote an extended critique of the ideological character of Heidegger's early and later use of language in the Jargon of Authenticity. Contemporary social theorists associated with the Frankfurt School have remained largely critical of Heidegger's works and influence. In particular, Jürgen Habermas admonishes the influence of Heidegger on recent French philosophy in his polemic against "postmodernism" in The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1985). However, work by philosopher and critical theorist Nikolas Kompridis tries to show that Heidegger's insights into world disclosure are badly misunderstood and mishandled by Habermas, and are of vital importance for critical theory, offering an important way of renewing that tradition.[193][194]

Reception by analytic and Anglo-American philosophy[edit]

Criticism of Heidegger's philosophy has also come from analytic philosophy (whose value upon clarity he seemingly did not share)[195] beginning with logical positivism.

In "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" (1932), Rudolf Carnap accused Heidegger of offering an "illusory" ontology, criticising him for committing the fallacy of reification and for wrongly dismissing the logical treatment of language which, according to Carnap, can only lead to writing "nonsensical pseudo-propositions".[196]

The British logical positivist A. J. Ayer was strongly critical of Heidegger's philosophy. In Ayer's view, Heidegger proposed vast, overarching theories regarding existence, which are completely unverifiable through empirical demonstration and logical analysis. For Ayer, this sort of philosophy was a poisonous strain on modern thought. He considered Heidegger to be the worst example of such philosophy, which Ayer believed to be entirely useless.[197]: 90  In his Philosophy in the Twentieth Century (1982) Ayer accuses Heidegger of "surprising ignorance" or "unscrupulous distortion" and "what can fairly be described as charlatanism."[198]

Bertrand Russell considered Heidegger an obscurantist, writing,

Highly eccentric in its terminology, his philosophy is extremely obscure. One cannot help suspecting that language is here running riot. An interesting point in his speculations is the insistence that nothingness is something positive. As with much else in Existentialism, this is a psychological observation made to pass for logic.[199]

This quote expresses the sentiments of many 20th-century analytic philosophers concerning Heidegger.[200]

Roger Scruton stated that: "His major work Being and Time is formidably difficult—unless it is utter nonsense, in which case it is laughably easy. I am not sure how to judge it, and have read no commentator who even begins to make sense of it".[201]

Apart from the charge of obscurantism, other analytic philosophers[who?] considered the actual content of Heidegger's work to be either faulty and meaningless, vapid or uninteresting. Positive evaluations include Gilbert Ryle's a critical yet sympathetic review of Being and Time.[202] And a remark attributed to Ludwig Wittgenstein by Friedrich Waismann: "To be sure, I can imagine what Heidegger means by being and anxiety"[203] has been construed by some commentators[204] as sympathetic to Heidegger's philosophical approach. Positive and negative analytic evaluations have been collected in, for example, Michael Murray's Heidegger and Modern Philosophy: Critical Essays (1978).[205] Heidegger's reputation within English-language philosophy has slightly improved in philosophical terms in some part through the efforts of Hubert Dreyfus, Richard Rorty, and a recent generation of analytically oriented phenomenology scholars. Pragmatist Rorty claimed that Heidegger's approach to philosophy in the first half of his career has much in common with that of the latter-day Ludwig Wittgenstein. Nevertheless, Rorty asserted that what Heidegger had constructed in his writings was a myth of being rather than an account of it.[206]

Contemporary European reception[edit]

Although Heidegger is considered by many observers to be one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century,[207] aspects of his work have been criticised by those who nevertheless acknowledge this influence, such as Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jacques Derrida. Some questions raised about Heidegger's philosophy include the priority of ontology, the status of animals,[208]: 139–143  the nature of the religious, Heidegger's supposed neglect of ethics (Levinas), the body (Maurice Merleau-Ponty), the sexual difference (Luce Irigaray), or space (Peter Sloterdijk).[209]: 85–88 

Levinas was deeply influenced by Heidegger, and yet became one of his fiercest critics, contrasting the infinity of the good beyond being with the immanence and totality of ontology. Levinas also condemned Heidegger's involvement with Nazism, stating: "One can forgive many Germans, but there are some Germans it is difficult to forgive. It is difficult to forgive Heidegger."[210]

Heidegger's defenders, notably Arendt, see his support for Nazism as arguably a personal " 'error' " (a word which Arendt placed in quotation marks when referring to Heidegger's Nazi-era politics).[211] Defenders think this error was irrelevant to Heidegger's philosophy. Critics such as Levinas,[212] Karl Löwith,[213] and Theodor Adorno claim that Heidegger's support for Nazism revealed flaws inherent in his thought.[214]

W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz states in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy that Heidegger's writing is "notoriously difficult", possibly because his thinking was "original" and focused on obscure and innovative topics. He concludes that Being and Time "remains his most influential work".[215]

In film[edit]



Heidegger's collected writings are published by Vittorio Klostermann.[222][223]: ix–xiii  The Gesamtausgabe was begun during Heidegger's lifetime. He defined the order of publication and dictated that the principle of editing should be "ways not works". Publication has not yet been completed. The current executor of Martin Heidegger’s Literary Estate is his grandson and a lawyer, Arnulf Heidegger (1969- ).[224]

The contents are listed here: Heidegger Gesamtausgabe.

Selected works[edit]

Year Original German English Translation
1927 Sein und Zeit, Gesamtausgabe Volume 2 Being and Time, trans. by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson (London: SCM Press, 1962); re-translated by Joan Stambaugh (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996)
1929 Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik, Gesamtausgabe Volume 3 Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, trans. by Richard Taft (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990)
1935 Einführung in die Metaphysik (1935, published 1953), Gesamtausgabe Volume 40 Introduction to Metaphysics, trans. by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000)
1936–8 Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) (1936–1938, published 1989), Gesamtausgabe Volume 65 Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning), trans. by Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999); re-translated as Contributions to Philosophy (Of the Event), trans. by Richard Rojcewicz and Daniela Vallega-Neu (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012)
1942 Hölderlins Hymne »Der Ister« (1942, published 1984), Gesamtausgabe Volume 53 Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister", trans. by William McNeill and Julia Davis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996)
1949 "Die Frage nach der Technik", in Gesamtausgabe Volume 7 "The Question Concerning Technology", in Heidegger, Martin, Basic Writings: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, ed. David Farrell Krell (New York: Harper Collins, 1993)
1950 Holzwege, Gesamtausgabe Volume 5. This collection includes "Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes" (1935–1936) Off the Beaten Track. This collection includes "The Origin of the Work of Art"
1955–56 Der Satz vom Grund, Gesamtausgabe Volume 10 The Principle of Reason, trans. Reginald Lilly (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1991)
1955–57 Identität und Differenz, Gesamtausgabe Volume 11 Identity and Difference, trans. by Joan Stambaugh (New York: Harper & Row, 1969)
1959 Gelassenheit, in Gesamtausgabe Volume 16 Discourse On Thinking
1959 Unterwegs zur Sprache, Gesamtausgabe Volume 12 On the Way To Language, published without the essay "Die Sprache" ("Language") by arrangement with Heidegger
1961 Nietzsche, Erster Band, Verlag Gunther Neske, Pfullingen, 1961 Nietzsche. Volume I: The Will to Power as Art. Copyright © 1979 by Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.
Nietzsche, Volume II: The Eternal Recurrence of the Same. Copyright © 1984 by Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.
Nietzsche, Volumes Three and Four: III: The will to power as knowledge and as metaphysics. IV: Nihilism.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Martin Heidegger, a Roman Catholic, had married Elfride Petri on 21 March 1917. They had two sons, Jorg and Hermann[69]


  1. ^ Martin Heidegger, Ontology: The Hermeneutics of Facticity, Indiana University Press, 2008, p. 92.
  2. ^ Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, Phenomenology World-Wide: Foundations — Expanding Dynamics — Life-Engagements A Guide for Research and Study, Springer, 2014, p. 246.
  3. ^ a b c Wheeler, Michael (12 October 2011). "Martin Heidegger – 3.1 The Turn and the Contributions to Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 22 May 2013. In a 1947 piece, in which Heidegger distances his views from Sartre's existentialism, he links the turn to his own failure to produce the missing divisions of Being and Time [i.e., "Time and Being"]. ... At root Heidegger's later philosophy shares the deep concerns of Being and Time, in that it is driven by the same preoccupation with Being and our relationship with it that propelled the earlier work. ... [T]he later Heidegger does seem to think that his earlier focus on Dasein bears the stain of a subjectivity that ultimately blocks the path to an understanding of Being. This is not to say that the later thinking turns away altogether from the project of transcendental hermeneutic phenomenology. The project of illuminating the a priori conditions on the basis of which entities show up as intelligible to us is still at the heart of things.
  4. ^ Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1998): "Phenomenological movement: 4. Existential phenomenology.
  5. ^ a b c d Włodzimierz Julian Korab-Karpowicz. "Heidegger, Martin – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy".
  6. ^ "The opposition of world and earth is a strife." (Heidegger (1971), Poetry, Language, Thought, translation and introduction by Albert Hofstadter, p. 47: translation corrected by Hubert Dreyfus; original German: "Das Gegeneinander von Welt und Erde ist ein Streit.") The two interconnected dimensions of intelligibility (revealing and concealing) are called "world" and "earth" by Heidegger, the latter informing and sustaining the former (Heidegger's Aesthetics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)).
  7. ^ "Bonaventure - on the Necessity of Being - Introduction".
  8. ^ Zupko, Jack (28 December 2017). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  9. ^ Brian Elliott, Phenomenology and Imagination in Husserl and Heidegger, Routledge, 2004, p. 132.
  10. ^ Giorgio Agamben, The Open: Man and Animal, trans. Kevin Attell (Stanford University Press, 2004), p. 39.
  11. ^ Conor Cunningham, Peter M. Candler (eds.), Belief and Metaphysics, SCM Press, p. 267.
  12. ^ a b Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
  13. ^ "Heidegger". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  14. ^ "Martin – Französisch-Übersetzung – Langenscheidt Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch" (in German and French). Langenscheidt. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  15. ^ Millerman, Michael (2020). Beginning with Heidegger : Strauss, Rorty, Derrida, Dugin & the philosophical constitution of the political. London. ISBN 978-1912975808.
  16. ^ a b Sharpe, Matthew (2 October 2018). "On Reading Heidegger—After the "Heidegger Case"?". Critical Horizons. 19 (4): 334–360. doi:10.1080/14409917.2018.1520514. ISSN 1440-9917. S2CID 149832726.
  17. ^ Fried, Gregory, ed. (2020). Confronting Heidegger: a Critical Dialogue on Politics and Philosophy. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 9781786611918.
  18. ^ Velasquez, M., Philosophy: A Text with Readings (Boston: Cengage Learning, 2012), p. 193.
  19. ^ Wheeler, Michael (2020). "Martin Heidegger: 2.2.1 The Question". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  20. ^ Sheehan, Thomas (31 December 2011). Heidegger: The Man and the Thinker. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781412815376 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Hermann Philipse, Heidegger's Philosophy of Being p. 173, Notes to Chapter One, Martin Heidegger, Supplements, trans. John Van Buren p. 183.
  22. ^ Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus. Ein kritisch-theoretischer Beitrag zur Logik [The Doctrine of Judgment in Psychologism: A Critical-theoretical Contribution to Logic] (1914). Source: Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert, "Martin Heidegger", Theologische Realenzyklopädie, XIV, 1982, p. 562. Now his thesis is included in: M. Heidegger, Frühe Schriften, Frankfurt-am-Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1993.
  23. ^ Joseph J. Kockelmans, Phenomenology and the Natural Sciences: Essays and Translations, Northwestern University Press, 1970, p. 145.
  24. ^ Note, however, that it was discovered later that one of the two main sources used by Heidegger was not by Scotus, but by Thomas of Erfurt. Thus Heidegger's 1916 habilitation thesis, Die Kategorien- und Bedeutungslehre des Duns Scotus [Duns Scotus's Doctrine of Categories and Meaning], should have been titled, Die Kategorienlehre des Duns Scotus und die Bedeutungslehre des Thomas von Erfurt. Source: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "Thomas Erfurt".
  25. ^ Sebastian Luft (ed.), The Neo-Kantian Reader, Routledge 2015, p. 461.
  26. ^ Francesco Alfieri, The Presence of Duns Scotus in the Thought of Edith Stein: The Question of Individuality, Springer, 2015, p. 6.
  27. ^ Martin Heidegger and the First World War, William H. F. Altman, p 79
  28. ^ Wheeler, Michael (9 December 2018). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Martin Heidegger. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  29. ^ Woodson, 2018, p. 60
  30. ^ Woodson, 2018, p. 94-95
  31. ^ Michalski, M., trans. J. Findling, "Hermeneutic Phenomenology as Philology", in Gross, D. M., & Kemmann, A., eds., Heidegger and Rhetoric (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2005), p. 65.
  32. ^ Gethmann-Siefert, 1982, p. 563
  33. ^ Michael Wheeler (12 October 2011). "Martin Heidegger". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
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  35. ^ Fleischacker, Samuel, ed. (August 2008). Heidegger's Jewish Followers: Essays on Hannah Arendt, Leo Strauss, Hans Jonas, and Emmanuel Levinas. Duquesne University Press. ISBN 978-0820704128.
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  41. ^ Hemming, Laurence (2013). "7". Heidegger and Marx : a productive dialogue over the language of humanism. Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 978-0810128750.
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  43. ^ Reading Heidegger's Black Notebooks 1931–1941. MIT Press. 19 February 2016. ISBN 9780262034012.. Collection of essays by Heidegger scholars, edited by Ingo Farin and Jeff Malpas.
  44. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin Books. pp. 419–422. ISBN 978-0143034698.
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  47. ^ Heidegger, Martin (1991). Nietzsche. David Farrell Krell, Joan Stambaugh (First ed.). [San Francisco]. ISBN 0-06-063841-9. OCLC 22492313.
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  51. ^ di Cesare, Donatella (2018). Heidegger and the Jews : the Black notebooks. Cambridge, UK Medford, MA: Polity. ISBN 9781509503834.
  52. ^ Provisional ruling October 5, 1946; final ruling December 28, 1946; Hugo Ott, Martin Heidegger: A Political Life, (Harper Collins, 1993, page 348)
  53. ^ a b Rüdiger Safranski, Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil (Harvard University Press, 1998, page 373)
  54. ^ Fiske, Edward B. (27 May 1976). "Martin Heidegger, a Philosopher Who Affected Many Fields, Dies". The New York Times. p. 1.
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  57. ^ Schalow, F. (2019), Historical Dictionary of Heidegger's Philosophy (3rd ed.), Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 159, ISBN 9781538124369
  58. ^ "Letters to his Wife: 1915 – 1970". 11 December 2009.
  59. ^ a b "Es ist wieder da". Die Zeit. 30 January 2014.
  60. ^ Schulte, Bettina (20 January 2020), Der Nachlassverwalter des Philosophen: Hermann Heidegger ist tot, Badische Zeitung
  61. ^ Sharr, A., Heidegger's Hut (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 2006.
  62. ^ Being There, a Spring 2007 article on Heidegger's vacation home for Cabinet magazine.
  63. ^ Emad, Parvis. (2006) "Martin Heidegger – Bernhard Welte Correspondence Seen in the Context of Heidegger's Thought". Heidegger Studies. 22: 197–207. Philosophy Documentation Center website
  64. ^ Lambert, Cesar (2007). "Some considerations about the correspondence between Martin Heidegger and Bernhard Welte". Revista de Filosofía. 63: 157–169. doi:10.4067/S0718-43602007000100012.
  65. ^ McGrath, S. J., Heidegger; A (Very) Critical Introduction (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2008), p. 10.
  66. ^ Inwood, M. J., "Was Heidegger a Semitic Nomad?", The Marginalia Review, February 17, 2015.
  67. ^ Grunenberg 2017.
  68. ^ The Love Letters of Hannah Arendt and Martin Heidegger Open Culture 10 May 2017
  69. ^ a b Young-Bruehl 2004, p. 47.
  70. ^ Young-Bruehl 2004, p. 50.
  71. ^ Kohler 1996.
  72. ^ Joachim W. Storck, ed. Marbach am Neckar: Deutsches Literatur-Archiv, 1989, 2nd edn. 1990.
  73. ^ Martin Heidegger / Elisabeth Blochmann. Briefwechsel 1918–1969.
  74. ^ a b Horrigan-Kelly, Marcella; Millar, Michelle; Dowling, Maura (2016), "Understanding the Key Tenets of Heidegger's Philosophy for Interpretive Phenomenological Research", International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 15 (January–December 2016: 1–8), doi:10.1177/1609406916680634, S2CID 152252826
  75. ^ Wheeler, Michael (2011), "Martin Heidegger", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Archive
  76. ^ Caws, Peter; Fettner, Peter (1999), "Philosophy of Existence and Philosophical Anthropology: Sartre and Heidegger", in Glendinning, Simon (ed.), The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, p. 154, ISBN 9781579581527
  77. ^ "aus dem her etwas als etwas verständlich wird," Sein und Zeit, p. 151.
  78. ^ Sein und Zeit, p. 12.
  79. ^ a b Grippe, Edward, "Richard Rorty (1931—2007)", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ISSN 2161-0002.
  80. ^ Critchley, Simon (27 July 2009). "Heidegger's Being and Time, part 8: Temporality". The Guardian.
  81. ^ "...das Sein, das, was Seiendes als Seiendes bestimmt, das, woraufhin Seiendes, mag es wie immer erörtert werden, je schon verstanden ist,"Sein und Zeit, p. 6.
  82. ^ Wrathall, Mark: Heidegger and Unconcealment: Truth, Language, and History, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  83. ^ See also Sheehan, "Making sense of Heidegger. A paradigm shift." New Heidegger Research. London (England) 2015.
  84. ^ Heidegger and ‘the concept of time’ 2002 LILIAN ALWEISS, HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SCIENCES Vol. 15 No. 3
  85. ^ Phenomenology and Time-Consciousness, Michael Kelley, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  86. ^ Fernandez, Anthony V. (2018). "Beyond the Ontological Difference: Heidegger, Binswanger, and the Future of Existential Analysis" (PDF). CORE. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2023. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  87. ^ Carman (2003). Heidegger's Analytic Interpretation, Discourse and Authenticity in Being and Time. pp. 8–52. ISBN 9781139441995.
  88. ^ a b c Wheeler, Michael (2020). "Martin Heidegger". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  89. ^ Schalow, Frank (2010). "Ontological difference". Historical Dictionary of Heidegger's Philosophy. Scarecrow Press.
  90. ^ Contributions to Philosophy (of the event), 2012 trans. page 369
  91. ^ Dahlstrom, D. O. (2004). "Ontology". New Catholic Encyclopedia. Gale.
  92. ^ a b Korab-Karpowicz, W. J. "Heidegger, Martin". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  93. ^ Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, §3.
  94. ^ Sandkühler, Hans Jörg (2010). "Ontologie". Enzyklopädie Philosophie. Meiner. Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  95. ^ Grondin, Jean (1 October 2010). "1. Die Wiedererweckung der Seinsfrage auf dem Weg einer phänomenologisch-hermeneutischen Destruktion (§§ 1–8)". Martin Heidegger: Sein und Zeit. Akademie Verlag. pp. 1–27. doi:10.1524/9783050050171.1. ISBN 978-3-05-005017-1. «Aus der Helle des Begriffs» (6) sollen schließlich, verkündet Heidegger, die Weisen des durchschnittlichen Seinsverständnisses und die seiner Verdunkelung (womit angedeutet ist, daß das Versäumnis der Seinsfrage alles andere als ein zu berichtigendes Versehen ist) erklärt werden. Damit scheint das Ziel der Fragestellung Heideggers deutlich abgesteckt zu sein: die Aufhellung des Sinnes von 'Sein'" and later "Die phänomenologische Hermeneutik der Seinsvergessenheit ist in die Hermeneutik des Daseins zurückzuverfolgen. Die Verschüttung der Seinsfrage ist eigentlich die Tat des von sich selbst fallenden Daseins. Die Hermeneutik will somit das Dasein aus seiner eigenen Verfallstendenz erschüttern.
  96. ^ Whittingham, Matthew (29 June 2018). The Self and Social Relations. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-77246-2. Taylor describes this connection between a certain form of understanding and practical knowhow as an implicit constant between the two theories, or in Heideggerian terms, a pre-understanding, because it is a form of understanding we have prior to any articulation within a paradigm. It is the arrival of the successor paradigm which forces us to recognise this implicit pre-understanding, or 'empirics' as the Aristotelians understood it, and to afford it a place in our conception of explanation which it did not formerly have.
  97. ^ a b Inwood, Michael (1999). "Ontology and fundamental ontology". A Heidegger Dictionary. Wiley-Blackwell. Fundamental ontology 1. analyses the being of Dasein, as 2. a preparation for the 'fundamental question' about (the sense or meaning of) being ... Fundamental ontology is meta-ontology.
  98. ^ Inwagen, Peter Van (1998). "Meta-Ontology". Erkenntnis. 48 (2–3): 233–50. doi:10.1023/A:1005323618026.
  99. ^ Inwagen, Peter (2014). "Being, existence, and ontological commitment". Existence: Essays in Ontology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–86. ISBN 978-1-107-62526-6. We may say that if 'ontology' is the study that attempts to answer the question 'What is there?', the subject of the present essay is 'meta-ontology'. (The distinction I draw between meta-ontological and properly ontological questions corresponds roughly to Heidegger's distinction between ontological and ontic questions.
  100. ^ Richardson, William J. (1963). Heidegger. Through Phenomenology to Thought. Preface by Martin Heidegger. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 4th Edition (2003). The Bronx: Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-823-22255-1; ISBN 978-08-2322-255-1.
  101. ^ Korab-Karpowicz, W. J. (21 December 2009). "Martin Heidegger (1889—1976) – 1. Life and Works". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  102. ^ Brian Bard, 1993, essay, see sections one and three
  103. ^ Lyon, James K. Paul Celan and Martin Heidegger: an unresolved conversation, 1951–1970, pp. 128–9
  104. ^ Philipse, Herman (1998) Heidegger's philosophy of being: a critical interpretation, p. 205
  105. ^ Heidegger (1971) Poetry, Language, Thought, translation and introduction by Albert Hofstadter, pp. xxv and 187ff
  106. ^ Heidegger, Martin (2002). "Time and Being". On Time and Being. Translated by Joan Stambaugh. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-32375-7.
  107. ^ Naess, Arne D. Jr. "Martin Heidegger's Later philosophy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 28 June 2013.
  108. ^ Refer to a recent study on Heidegger's conception of "dwelling" as set in: Nader El-Bizri, 'On Dwelling: Heideggerian Allusions to Architectural Phenomenology', Studia UBB Philosophia 60 (2015): 5–30. See also the related article on Heidegger's reflections on Plato's khôra in: Nader El-Bizri, "On kai khôra: Situating Heidegger between the Sophist and the Timaeus", Studia Phaenomenologica, Vol. IV, Issue 1–2 (2004), pp. 73–98.
  109. ^ "Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)". 11 April 2017.
  110. ^ a b Thomas Sheehan, "Kehre and Ereignis, a proglenoma to Introduction to Metaphysics" in "A companion to Heidegger's Introduction to Metaphysics" page 15, 2001,
  111. ^ see also, Sheehan, "Making sense of Heidegger. A paradigm shift." New Heidegger Research. London (England) 2015.
  112. ^ Wrathall, Mark: Heidegger and Unconcealment: Truth, Language, and History, Cambridge University Press, 2011
  113. ^ Inwood, Michael (1999). "History of being". A Heidegger Dictionary. Wiley-Blackwell.
  114. ^ Gillespie, M. A. (1984). Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-226-29377-7.
  115. ^ Gillespie, M. A. (1984). Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. The University of Chicago Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-226-29377-7.
  116. ^ Gillespie, M. A. (1984). Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History. The University of Chicago Press. p. 151. ISBN 0-226-29377-7.
  117. ^ Heidegger and Aquinas (Fordham University Press)
  118. ^ See The Influence of Augustine on Heidegger: The Emergence of an Augustinian Phenomenology, ed. Craig J. N. de Paulo (Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.) and also Martin Heidegger's Interpretations of Augustine: Sein und Zeit und Ewigkeit, ed. Frederick Van Fleteren (Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2005.)
  119. ^ Luther's influence on Heidegger. Encyclopedia of Martin Luther and the Reformation, ed. Mark A. Lamport and George Thomas Kurian, London: Rowman & Littlefield 2017
  120. ^ Augustine of Hippo (2008). Confessions. Chadwick, Henry transl. New York: Oxford University Press, Book XI
  121. ^ Introduction to Metaphysics, trans. by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), p. 89.
  122. ^ Krell, David Farrell. "On the manifold meaning of aletheia: Brentano, Aristotle, Heidegger." Research in Phenomenology 5 (1975): 77–94.
  123. ^ Moran, Dermot. "Heidegger? s Critique of Husserl's and Brentano's Accounts of Intentionality." Inquiry 43, no. 1 (2000): 39–65.
  124. ^ Heidegger, What is Called Thinking? (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), p. 73.
  125. ^ Kelvin Knight, Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics and Politics from Aristotle to MacIntyre (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007).[pages needed]
  126. ^ Sonya Sikka (1997). Forms of Transcendence: Heidegger and Medieval Mystical Theology. SUNY Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-7914-3345-4.
  127. ^ "The Ode on Man in Sophocles' Antigone" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2012.
  128. ^ W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz, The Presocratics in the Thought of Martin Heidegger (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2016), page 58.
  129. ^ Heidegger, Martin (2014). Introduction to Metaphysics, Second Edition. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18612-3.
  130. ^ Guignon "Being as Appearing" in "A companion to Heidegger's Introduction to Metaphysics," page 36
  131. ^ Rockmore, Tom (2003). "Dilthey and Historical Reason". Revue Internationale de Philosophie. 57 (226 (4)): 477–494. JSTOR 23955847.
  132. ^ Hans-Georg Gadamer, "Martin Heidegger's One Path", in Theodore Kisiel & John van Buren (eds.), Reading Heidegger from the Start: Essays in His Earliest Thought (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), pp. 22–4.
  133. ^ In The Genesis of Heidegger's Being and Time (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), Theodor Kisiel designates the first version of the project that culminates in Being and Time, "the Dilthey draft" (p. 313). David Farrell Krell comments in Daimon Life: Heidegger and Life-Philosophy (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1992) that "Heidegger's project sprouts (in part, but in good part) from the soil of Dilthey's philosophy of factical-historical life" (p. 35).
  134. ^ Ormiston, G. L., & Schrift, A. D., eds., Transforming the Hermeneutic Context: From Nietzsche to Nancy (Albany: SUNY Press, 1990), pp. 32–33.
  135. ^ Nelson, Eric S. (2014). "Heidegger and Dilthey: Language, History, and Hermeneutics", in Horizons of Authenticity in Phenomenology, Existentialism, and Moral Psychology, edited by Hans Pedersen and Megan Altman. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 109–28. ISBN 978-9401794411.
  136. ^ Hans-Georg Gadamer, "Martin Heidegger—75 Years", Heidegger's Ways (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), p. 18.
  137. ^ Robert J. Dostal, "Time and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger", in Charles Guignon (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 142.
  138. ^ Daniel O. Dahlstrom, "Heidegger's Critique of Husserl", in Theodore Kisiel & John van Buren (eds.), Reading Heidegger from the Start: Essays in His Earliest Thought (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), p. 244.
  139. ^ Dreyfus, Hubert. Being-in-the-world: A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division I. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991), Sec. Appendix.
  140. ^ A recent study touches specifically on the ontological aspects of angst from a Heideggerian standpoint and the nuances that distinguish it in a radical way from the take on anguish in Kierkegaard's thought, see: Nader El-Bizri, ‘Variations ontologiques autour du concept d’angoisse chez Kierkegaard’, in Kierkegaard notre contemporain paradoxal (Beirut, 2013), pp. 83–95
  141. ^ Martin Joseph Matuštík, Martin Beck, Kierkegaard in Post/modernity, p. 43
  142. ^ Martin Joseph Matuštík, Martin Beck, Kierkegaard in Post/modernity, pp. 44–45
  143. ^ Historical Dictionary of Heidegger's Philosophy, By Frank Schalow, Alfred Denker
  144. ^ Ma, L., Heidegger on East-West Dialogue: Anticipating the Event (New York / London: Routledge, 2008).
  145. ^ Oldmeadow, H., Journeys East: 20th Century Western Encounters with Eastern Religious Traditions (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2004), pp. 351–354.
  146. ^ Heidegger, "A Dialogue on Language between a Japanese and an Inquirer", in On the Way to Language (New York: Harper & Row, 1971).
  147. ^ Tao – A New Way Of Thinking: A Translation of the Tao Tê Ching with an Introduction and Commentaries by Chung-yuan Chang, p. 8. 1977. London and Philadelphia: Harper & Row
  148. ^ Heidegger's hidden sources: East Asian influences on his work by Reinhard May, p. XV. Translated, with a complementary essay, by Graham Parkes. 1996. London and New York.
  149. ^ "Heidegger in the Islamicate World". H-Soz-Kult. Kommunikation und Fachinformation für die Geschichtswissenschaften. 20 January 2020.
  150. ^ See for instance: Nader El-Bizri, The Phenomenological Quest between Avicenna and Heidegger (Binghamton, N.Y.: Global Publications SUNY, 2000); Nader El-Bizri, 'Avicenna and Essentialism', Review of Metaphysics 2001; 54, 753–778; Nader El-Bizri, 'Being and Necessity: A Phenomenological Investigation of Avicenna's Metaphysics and Cosmology', in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm, ed. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2006), 243–261; Nader El-Bizri, 'The Labyrinth of Philosophy in Islam', Comparative Philosophy 1.2 (2010), 3–23; Nader El-Bizri, 'Al-Sīnawiyya wa-naqd Hāydighir li-tārīkh al-mītāfīzīqā', al-Maĥajja 21 (2010), 119–140
  151. ^ Refer for example to Nader El-Bizri's recent research on Heidegger's conception of "dwelling" :- El-Bizri, Nader (2015). "On Dwelling: Heideggerian Allusions to Architectural Phenomenology" (PDF). Studia UBB Philosophia. 60: 5–30.
  152. ^ "Nader El-Bizri, 'A Levantine Reception of Heidegger', Night of Philosophy UNESCO Paris 16 November 2018". 27 October 2018.
  153. ^ Nikpour, Golnar (2014). "Revolutionary Journeys, Revolutionary Practice: The Hajj Writings of Jalal Al-e Ahmad and Malcolm X". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. 34 (1): 67–85. doi:10.1215/1089201X-2648578.
  154. ^ "Political Islam, Iran, and the Enlightenment: Philosophies of Hope and Despair", Ali Mirsepassi. Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 0-521-74590-X, 9780521745901. p. 90
  155. ^ "Iran's Islamists Influenced By Western Philosophers, NYU's Mirsepassi Concludes in New Book", New York University. January 11, 2011. Accessed 2011-02-15
  156. ^ "On the impact of Heidegger in the Arab and Muslim world, in "BULLETIN HEIDEGGÉRIEN" 7 (2017), pp. 8–16 ISSN 2034-7189" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  157. ^ Sharpe, Matthew. "Rhetorical Action in Rektoratsrede: Calling Heidegger's Gefolgschaft." Philosophy & Rhetoric 51, no. 2 (2018): 176–201. doi:10.5325/philrhet.51.2.0176
  158. ^ a b c Thomas Sheehan, "Heidegger and the Nazis" (Archived 2011-11-07 at the Wayback Machine), a review of Victor Farias' Heidegger et le nazisme. Original article: "Heidegger and the Nazis". The New York Review of Books. Vol. 35, no. 10. 16 June 1988. pp. 38–47. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  159. ^ Hans Sluga, Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge, Massachusetts, & London: Harvard University Press, 1993), p. 149.
  160. ^ Heidegger, "The Rectorate 1933/34: Facts and Thoughts", in Günther Neske & Emil Kettering (eds.), Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers (New York: Paragon House, 1990), p. 29.
  161. ^ Seyla Benhabib, The Reluctant Modernism Of Hannah Arendt (Rowman and Littlefield, 2003, p. 120.)
  162. ^ Seyla Benhabib, The Personal is not the Political Archived 4 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine (October/November 1999 issue of Boston Review.)
  163. ^ Martin Heidegger, "Der Spiegel Interview", in Günther Neske & Emil Kettering (eds.), Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers (New York: Paragon House, 1990), p. 48.
  164. ^ Rüdiger Safranski, Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil (Cambridge, Mass., & London: Harvard University Press, 1998), pp. 253–8.
  165. ^ Elzbieta Ettinger,Hannah Arendt – Martin Heidegger, (New Haven, Conn., & London: Yale University Press, 1995), p. 37.
  166. ^ GA 96: 46–47 (from Überlegungen XII, 24) (1939?)
  167. ^ a b Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger. Die Einführung des Nationalsozialismus in die Philosophie, Berlin 2009, S. 275–278
  168. ^ Habermas, Jürgen (1989). "Work and Weltanschauung: the Heidegger Controversy from a German Perspective". Critical Inquiry. 15 (2): 452–54. doi:10.1086/448492. S2CID 143394757. See also J. Habermas, "Martin Heidegger: on the publication of the lectures of 1935", in Richard Wolin, ed., The Heidegger Controversy (MIT Press, 1993). The controversial page of the 1935 manuscript is missing from the Heidegger Archives in Marbach; however, Habermas's scholarship leaves little doubt about the original wording.
  169. ^ Martin Heidegger, Mindfulness (Continuum, 2006), section 47.
  170. ^ Heidegger, Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister" (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996), pp. 79–80.
  171. ^ Karl Löwith, "My last meeting with Heidegger in Rome", in R. Wolin, The Heidegger Controversy (MIT Press, 1993).
  172. ^ Wheeler, Michael (12 October 2011). "Martin Heidegger – 3.5 Only a God can Save Us". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
  173. ^ Maier-Katkin, D., Stranger from Abroad: Hannah Arendt, Martin Heidegger, Friendship and Forgiveness (New York & London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010), p. 249.
  174. ^ Dominique Janicaud, Heidegger en France vol. 1 (Paris: Albin Michel, 2001).
  175. ^ Lyon, J. K., Paul Celan and Martin Heidegger: An Unresolved Conversation, 1951–1970 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), p. 66.
  176. ^ Anderson, Mark M. (1 April 1991). "The 'Impossibility of Poetry': Celan and Heidegger in France". New German Critique (53): 3–18. doi:10.2307/488241. ISSN 0094-033X. JSTOR 488241.
  177. ^ Augstein, Rudolf; Wolff, Georg; Heidegger, Martin (31 May 1976). "Nur noch ein Gott kann uns retten". Der Spiegel: 193–219. Retrieved 14 June 2013. English translation by William J. Richardson in Sheehan, Thomas, ed. (1981). Heidegger. The Man and the Thinker. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. pp. 45–67. ISBN 978-1-412-81537-6.
  178. ^ McGrath, S. J., Heidegger: A (Very) Critical Introduction (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2008), p. 92.
  179. ^ The 1966 interview published in 1976 after Heidegger's death as "Only a God Can Save Us". Der Spiegel. Translated by William J. Richardson. 31 May 1976. pp. 193–219.. For critical readings, see the "Special Feature on Heidegger and Nazism", Critical Inquiry (Winter 1989 ed.), 15 (2), 1989, doi:10.1086/ci.15.2.1343581, particularly the contributions by Jürgen Habermas and Blanchot. The issue includes partial translations of Jacques Derrida's Of Spirit and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe's Heidegger, Art, and Politics: the Fiction of the Political.
  180. ^ Janich, O., Die Vereinigten Staaten von Europa: Geheimdokumente enthüllen: Die dunklen Pläne der Elite (Munich: FinanzBuch, 2014), p. 178.
  181. ^ Janicaud, Dominique (2015). Heidegger in France (Studies in Continental Thought). Translated by Raffoul, François; Pettigrew, David. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-01977-6.
  182. ^ Rockmore, T., Heidegger and French Philosophy: Humanism, Antihumanism and Being (London / New York: Routledge, 1995), p. 166.
  183. ^ On the history of the French translation of Heidegger's "What is Metaphysics?", and on its importance to the French intellectual scene, cf. Denis Hollier, "Plenty of Nothing", in Hollier (ed.), A New History of French Literature (Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 894–900.
  184. ^ Heidegger, "Letter on Humanism". Pathmarks (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 250–251.
  185. ^ Ott, Hugo (1993). Martin Heidegger : a political life. Hammersmith, London New York, N.Y: HarperCollinsPublishers BasicBooks. p. 214ff. ISBN 0465028985.
  186. ^ Krell, David Farrell. "Troubled Brows: Heidegger's Black Notebooks, 1942–1948." Research in Phenomenology 46, no. 2 (2016): 309–335.
  187. ^ "Richard Rorty, review of Heidegger and Nazism in the New Republic, quoted on the Temple University Press promotional page for Heidegger and Nazism".
  188. ^ Bernard Stiegler, Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), part 2.
  189. ^ Durantaye, Leland de la. (2009). Giorgio Agamben. A Critical Introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  190. ^ See Edmund Husserl, Psychological and transcendental phenomenology and the confrontation with Heidegger (1927–1931) (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997).
  191. ^ Nirenberg, D., "When Philosophy Mattered", The New Republic, January 13, 2011.
  192. ^ Rockmore, T., On Heidegger's Nazism and Philosophy (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 57, 75, 149, 258.
  193. ^ Nikolas Kompridis, Critique and Disclosure: Critical Theory between Past and Future MIT Press, 2006.[page needed]
  194. ^ Kompridis, Nikolas (2005). "Disclosing Possibility: The Past and Future of Critical Theory1". International Journal of Philosophical Studies. 13 (3): 325–51. doi:10.1080/09672550500169125. S2CID 145403575.
  195. ^ Heidegger, Martin (1999). Contributions to Philosophy: From Enowning. tr. by Parvis Emad, Kenneth Maly. Indiana University Press. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-253-33606-4. those in the crossing must in the end know what is mistaken by all urging for intelligibility: that every thinking of being, all philosophy, can never be confirmed by "facts," i.e., by beings. Making itself intelligible is suicide for philosophy. Those who idolise "facts" never notice that their idols only shine in a borrowed light. They are also meant not to notice this; for thereupon they would have to be at a loss and therefore useless. But idolizers and idols are used wherever gods are in flight and so announce their nearness
  196. ^ Rudolf Carnap (1931). "Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache" (PDF). Erkenntnis. 2: 219–241. doi:10.1007/BF02028153. S2CID 144658746. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.English translation: Rudolf Carnap (1966). "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" (PDF). In A.J. Ayer (ed.). Logical Positivism. The Library of Philosophical Movements. New York: The Free Press. pp. 60–81. ISBN 978-0029011300. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022.
  197. ^ Gorner, P., Twentieth Century German Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 90.
  198. ^ Ayer, A. J. (Alfred Jules) (1984). Philosophy in the Twentieth Century. New York: Vintage Books. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-394-71655-8.
  199. ^ Russell, Bertrand (1959). Wisdom of the West; a historical survey of Western philosophy in its social and political setting. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-517-69041-3.
  200. ^ Polt, Richard (1999). Heidegger: An Introduction. Cornell University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0801485640. That is the entirety of Russell's entry on Heidegger. And it expresses everything that most English-speaking philosophers felt they need to know about Heidegger until relatively recent times.
  201. ^ Collins, Jeff (1999). Introducing Heidegger. Illustrated by Howard Selina. Cambridge : Icon Books UK ; New York, NY : Totem Books USA. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84046-088-9.
  202. ^ Ryle's (critical) positive evaluation of Heidegger was however apparently short-lived. Ryle's one-time student G. A. Cohen reports that he 'once asked Ryle whether he had continued to study Heidegger after he had written a long review of Being and Time in Mind. Ryle's reply: "No, because when the Nazis came to power, Heidegger showed that he was a shit, from the heels up, and a shit from the heels up can't do good philosophy.'" Cohen continues that "Experience has, alas, induced me to disagree with the stated Rylean generalization" (having already conceded that he is himself "too ignorant of the work of Heidegger to say whether or not he was a bullshitter.") Cohen, G. A. (2013). Finding Oneself in the Other. p.104 ISBN 978-0-691-14881-6
  203. ^ Waismann, Friedrich (1979). Wittgenstein and the Vienna circle : conversations. edited by Brian McGuinness, tr. by Joachim Schulte and McGuinness. New York : Barnes & Noble Books. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-06-497310-6.
  204. ^ Luchte, James (1 February 2009). "Under the Aspect of Time "Sub Specie Temporis": Heidegger, Wittgenstein, and the Place of the Nothing". Philosophy Today. 53 (1): 70–84. doi:10.5840/philtoday200953168.
  205. ^ Sherover, Charles M. (1979). "Review of Heidegger and Modern Philosophy: Critical Essays". Human Studies. 2 (2): 187–190. doi:10.1007/BF02127224. ISSN 0163-8548. JSTOR 20008721. S2CID 189873709.
  206. ^ Collins, Jeff Introducing Heidegger Illustrated by Howard Selina. Cambridge : Icon Books UK ; New York, NY : Totem Books USA (1998), p. 170.
  207. ^ Honderich, Ted (1995). Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Second ed.). Oxford. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-926479-7.
  208. ^ Holland, N. J., Heidegger and the Problem of Consciousness (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2018), pp. 139–143.
  209. ^ Elden, S., Sloterdijk Now (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012), pp. 85–88.
  210. ^ Emmanuel Levinas, Nine Talmudic Readings (Indiana University Press, 1990), p. xxv, translated by Annette Aronowicz
  211. ^ Hannah Arendt, "Martin Heidegger at 80", New York Review of Books, 17/6, (Oct. 21, 1971), pp. 50–54; repr. in Heidegger and Modern Philosophy ed. M. Murray (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1978), pp. 293–303
  212. ^ Gauthier, D. J., "Martin Heidegger, Emmanuel Levinas, and the Politics of Dwelling", Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 2004, p. 156.
  213. ^ Löwith, Karl. "Mein Leben in Deutschland vor und nach 1933: ein Bericht (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1986), p. 57, translated by Paula Wissing as cited by Maurice Blanchot in "Thinking the Apocalypse: a Letter from Maurice Blanchot to Catherine David"". Critical Inquiry. 15 (2): 476–477.
  214. ^ "Emmanuel Faye [in his "Heidegger: The Introduction of Nazism Into Philosophy"] argues fascist and racist ideas are so woven into the fabric of Heidegger's theories that they no longer deserve to be called philosophy. . . . Richard Wolin, the author of several books on Heidegger and a close reader of the Faye book, said he is not convinced Heidegger's thought is as thoroughly tainted by Nazism as Mr. Faye argues. Nonetheless, he recognizes how far Heidegger's ideas have spilt into the larger culture." An Ethical Question: Does a Nazi Deserve a Place Among Philosophers? by Patricia Cohen. New York Times. Published: November 8, 2009. (Online)
  215. ^ Korab-Karpowicz, Włodzimierz Julian. "Martin Heidegger (1889—1976)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  216. ^ "The Ister: Credits". The Ister. Black Box Sound and Image. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  217. ^ "The Ister: Introduction". The Ister. Black Box Sound and Image. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  218. ^ Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1969, bilingual edition
  219. ^ Marc Furstenau and Leslie MacAvoy, "Terrence Malick's Heideggerian Cinema: War and the Question of Being in The Thin Red Line" In The cinema of Terrence Malick: Poetic visions of America, 2nd ed. Edited by Hanna Patterson (London: Wallflower Press 2007): 179–91.
  220. ^ Stanley Cavell, The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film (Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1979): XV.
  222. ^ "Quick reference guide to the English translations of Heidegger".
  223. ^ Georgakis, T., & Ennis, P. J., eds., Heidegger in the Twenty-First Century (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, 2015), pp. ix–xiii.
  224. ^ Herrmann, F.-W. von, & Alfieri, F., Martin Heidegger and the Truth About the Black Notebooks (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, 2021), p. xv.

Further reading[edit]

On Being and Time[edit]


  • Víctor Farías, Heidegger and Nazism, ed. by Joseph Margolis and Tom Rockmore
  • Hugo Ott, Martin Heidegger: A Political Life
  • Otto Pöggeler, Martin Heidegger's Path of Thinking, trans. by D. Magurshak and S. Barber, Humanities Press, 1987.
  • Rüdiger Safranski, Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil
  • John van Buren, The Young Heidegger: Rumor of the Hidden King

Politics and Nazism[edit]

  • Pierre Bourdieu, The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger
  • Miguel de Beistegui, Heidegger and the Political: Dystopias
  • Jacques Derrida, Of Spirit: Heidegger and the Question
  • Víctor Farías, Heidegger and Nazism, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1989.
  • Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger, l'introduction du nazisme dans la philosophie : autour des séminaires inédits de 1933–1935, Paris, Albin Michel, 2005. ISBN 2-226-14252-5 in French language
  • Emmanuel Faye, Heidegger. The Introduction of Nazism into Philosophy in Light of the Unpublished Seminars of 1933–1935, Translated by Michael B. Smith, foreword by Tom Rockmore, Yale University Press, 2009, 436 p. Foreword Award: Book of the year 2009 for Philosophy.
  • Annemarie Gethmann-Siefert & Otto Pöggeler (eds.), Heidegger und die praktische Philosophie, Frankfurt a. M., Suhrkamp, 1989. in German language
  • Dominique Janicaud, The Shadow of That Thought
  • W.J. Korab-Karpowicz, "Heidegger's Hidden Path: From Philosophy to Politics", Review of Metaphysics, 61 (2007)
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, "Transcendence Ends in Politics", in Typography: Mimesis, Philosophy, Politics
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger, Art, and Politics: The Fiction of the Political
  • George Leaman, Heidegger im Kontext: Gesamtüberblick zum NS-Engagement der Universitätsphilosophen, Argument Verlag, Hamburg, 1993. ISBN 9783886192052
  • Karl Löwith, Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism
  • Karl Löwith, Heidegger's Existentialism
  • Jean-François Lyotard, Heidegger and "the Jews"
  • Hugo Ott, Heidegger. A Political Life.
  • Günther Neske & Emil Kettering (eds.), Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers
  • Political Texts – Rectoral Addresses
  • Guillaume Payen, Martin Heidegger's Changing Destinies: Catholicism, Revolution, Nazism. Translated by Jane Marie Todd and Steven Rendall, Yale University Press, 2023.
  • Tom Rockmore and Joseph Margolis (ed.), The Heidegger Case
  • Daniel Ross, Heidegger and the Question of the Political
  • Hans Sluga, Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany
  • Iain Thomson, Heidegger on Ontotheology: Technology and the Politics of Education
  • Dana Villa, Arendt and Heidegger: the Fate of the Political
  • Richard Wolin (ed.), The Heidegger Controversy ISBN 0-262-23166-2.
  • Julian Young, Heidegger, Philosophy, Nazism

Other secondary literature[edit]

  • Renate Maas, Diaphan und gedichtet. Der künstlerische Raum bei Martin Heidegger und Hans Jantzen, Kassel 2015, 432 pages, 978-3-86219-854-2.
  • Jeffrey Andrew Barash, Martin Heidegger and the Problem of Historical Meaning (New York: Fordham, 2003)
  • Robert Bernasconi, Heidegger in Question: The Art of Existing
  • Babette Babich, Words in Blood, Like Flowers. Philosophy and Poetry, Music and Eros in Hoelderlin, Nietzsche and Heidegger (2006). ISBN 978-0791468364
  • Walter A. Brogan, Heidegger and Aristotle: The Twofoldness of Being
  • Scott M. Campbell: The Early Heidegger's Philosophy of Life: Facticity, Being, and Language. Fordham University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0823242207
  • Richard M. Capobianco, Engaging Heidegger with a foreword by William J. Richardson. University of Toronto Press, 2010.
  • Richard M. Capobianco, Heidegger's Way of Being. University of Toronto Press, 2014.
  • Maxence Caron, Heidegger – Pensée de l'être et origine de la subjectivité, 1760 pages, first and only book on Heidegger awarded by the Académie française.
  • Gabriel Cercel and Cristian Ciocan (eds.), The Early Heidegger (Studia Phaenomenologica I, 3–4), Bucharest: Humanitas, 2001, 506 p., including letters by Heidegger and Pöggeler, and articles by Walter Biemel, Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann, Theodore Kisiel, Marion Heinz, Alfred Denker
  • Steven Galt Crowell, Husserl, Heidegger, and the Space of Meaning: Paths toward Transcendental Phenomenology
  • Walter A. Davis. Inwardness and Existence: Subjectivity in/and Hegel, Heidegger, Marx, and Freud. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.
  • Jacques Derrida, "Ousia and Gramme: Note on a Note from Being and Time", in Margins of Philosophy
  • Hubert L. Dreyfus & Mark A. Wrathall, A Companion to Heidegger (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007)
  • Paul Edwards, Heidegger's Confusions
  • Nader El-Bizri The Phenomenological Quest Between Avicenna and Heidegger (New York, 2000); reprinted by SUNY Press in 2014
  • Christopher Fynsk, Heidegger: Thought and Historicity
  • Michael Allen Gillespie, Hegel, Heidegger, and the Ground of History (University of Chicago Press, 1984)
  • Glazebrook, Trish (2000), Heidegger's Philosophy of Science, Fordham University Press.
  • Patricia Altenbernd Johnson, On Heidegger (Wadsworth Philosophers Series), Wadsworth Publishing, 1999
  • Alan Kim, Plato in Germany: Kant-Natorp-Heidegger (Academia, 2010)
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Poetry as Experience
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger and the Politics of Poetry
  • S. J. McGrath, Heidegger. A (Very) Critical Introduction
  • William McNeill, The Glance of the Eye: Heidegger, Aristotle, and the Ends of Theory
  • William McNeill, The Time of Life: Heidegger and Ethos
  • Jean-Luc Nancy, "The Decision of Existence", in The Birth to Presence
  • Herman Philipse, Heidegger's Philosophy of Being: A Critical Interpretation
  • Richard Polt, Heidegger: An Introduction
  • François Raffoul, Heidegger and the Subject
  • François Raffoul & David Pettigrew (ed), Heidegger and Practical Philosophy
  • François Raffoul & Eric S. Nelson (ed), The Bloomsbury Companion to Heidegger (Bloomsbury, 2013)
  • William J. Richardson, Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought.
  • John Sallis, Echoes: After Heidegger
  • John Sallis (ed), Reading Heidegger: Commemorations, including articles by Robert Bernasconi, Jacques Derrida, Rodolphe Gasché, and John Sallis, among others.
  • Stefan W. Schmidt: Grund und Freiheit. Eine phänomenologische Untersuchung des Freiheitsbegriffs Heideggers. Springer, Dordrecht 2016 (= Phaenomenologica, Bd. 217), ISBN 978-3-319-20573-1
  • Reiner Schürmann, Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy
  • Tony See, Community without Identity: The Ontology and Politics of Heidegger
  • Adam Sharr, Heidegger's Hut
  • Bernard Stiegler, Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus
  • Leo Strauss, "An Introduction to Heideggerian Existentialism", in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism (University of Chicago: 1989).
  • Andrzej Warminski, Readings in Interpretation: Hölderlin, Hegel, Heidegger
  • Hue Woodson, Heideggerian Theologies: The Pathmarks of John Macquarrie, Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich, and Karl Rahner (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2018)
  • Foster, Stephen (2019) "Theology as Repetition: John Macquarrie in Conversation" (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2019)
  • Julian Young, Heidegger's Philosophy of Art
  • Julian Young, Heidegger's Later Philosophy
  • Bastian Zimmermann, Die Offenbarung des Unverfügbaren und die Würde des Fragens. Ethische Dimensionen der Philosophie Martin Heideggers (London: 2010) ISBN 978-1-84790-037-1
  • Sean J. McGrath and Andrzej Wierciński, ed., A Companion to Heidegger's "Phenomenology of Religious Life" (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2010).
  • Gino Zaccaria, The Enigma of Art (Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2021) ISBN 978-90-04-44870-4

Reception in France[edit]

Reception in Italy[edit]

  • Gino Zaccaria, L'etica originaria. Hölderlin, Heidegger e il linguaggio, Milano: Egea, 1992.
  • Gino Zaccaria, L'inizio greco del pensiero. Heidegger e l'essenza futura della filosofia, Milano: Marinotti Edizioni, 1999.
  • Ivo De Gennaro and Gino Zaccaria, Dasein : Da-sein. Tradurre la parola del pensiero, Milano: Marinotti Edizioni, 2007.
  • Gino Zaccaria, Pensare il nulla. Leopardi, Heidegger, Pavia: Ibis, 2015.
  • Gino Zaccaria, La provenienza dell'arte. Atena e l'enigma (with the it. translation of a Heidegger's conference on Art), Pavia: Ibis, 2015.
  • Gino Zaccaria, The Enigma of Art, Leiden-Boston: Brill, 2021.
  • Gino Zaccaria, Meditazioni scismatiche. Il nulla e il tempo, l'infinito e l'arte, Firenze: Olschki, 2022.

Influence on Japanese philosophy[edit]

  • Mayeda, Graham. 2006. Time, space and ethics in the philosophy of Watsuji Tetsurō, Kuki Shūzō, and Martin Heidegger (New York: Routledge, 2006). ISBN 0-415-97673-1 (alk. paper).

Heidegger and Asian philosophy[edit]

External links[edit]

Archival collections[edit]

General information[edit]

Works by Heidegger[edit]