|Founded at||Kennedy Road, Clare Estate, Durban|
|Purpose||Poor people's movement|
Abahlali baseMjondolo (AbM, Zulu pronunciation: [aɓaˈɬali ɓasɛm̩dʒɔˈndɔːlo], in English: "the people of the shacks") is a socialist shack dwellers' movement in South Africa which campaigns both against evictions and for public housing. The movement grew out of a road blockade organised from the Kennedy Road shack settlement in the city of Durban in early 2005 and expanded to the cities of Pietermaritzburg and Cape Town. It is the largest shack dwellers' organisation in South Africa, campaigning to improve the living conditions of poor people and to democratise society from below.
Abahlali baseMjondolo has held demonstrations, engaged in direct action such as land occupations, self-organised water and electricity connections and used the courts tactically. It defeated the KwaZulu-Natal Slums Act of 2007 and protested against the effects of the 2010 FIFA World Cup such as evictions and xenophobic attacks. AbM has historically refused party politics, and has boycotted elections in the past under the banner of No Land! No House! No Vote!. It has a history of conflict with the ruling African National Congress (ANC). It has tactically supported the Democratic Alliance and later in the 2019 South African general election, the group endorsed the Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party.
According to president S'bu Zikode the group aspires to an "ethics of living communism", as it campaigns on land and housing issues. A key slogan of the group is 'Don't Talk About Us, Talk To Us'. AbM has received support from church leaders and participates in the Poor People's Alliance, a network of radical grassroots movements in South Africa. It has also made solidarity links with other groups worldwide. At the same time, the group has faced sustained, and at times violent, repression. As of October 2022 it claims to have more than 115,000 members in good standing. More than twenty of its leaders have been murdered, something it blames on the ANC. The assassinations of Abahlali baseMjondolo members and leaders was discussed at the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2022.
In 2001, the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which governs the city of Durban and surrounding places including Pinetown, embarked on a slum clearance program. Shack settlements were demolished and there was a refusal to provide basic services (for example electricity and sanitation) to existing settlements on the grounds that all shack settlements were now temporary. Following these demolitions, some shack dwellers were simply left homeless and others were subjected to unlawful forced evictions then moved to the rural periphery of the city.
Abahlali baseMjondolo (AbM) formed out of a series of housing protests in 2005.  Firstly, 750 people from the Kennedy Road shack settlement in Durban blockaded the N2 freeway for four hours with a burning barricade. There were 14 arrests. The group's original work from 2005 onwards was primarily committed to opposing demolitions and forced removals and to struggling for good land and quality housing in the cities. In most instances, this involved a demand for shack settlements to be upgraded or for new houses to be built close to where the existing settlements were. AbM argued that basic services such as water, electricity and toilets should be immediately provided to shack settlements while land and housing are negotiated and also engaged in mass actions providing access to water and electricity. AbM quickly had a considerable degree of success in stopping evictions and forced removals, winning the right for new shacks to be built and gaining access to basic services.
The United Nations expressed serious concerns in early 2008 about the treatment of shack dwellers in Durban. In late 2008, the AbM President S'bu Zikode announced a deal with the eThekwini Municipality which would see services being provided to 14 settlements and tenure security and formal housing to three. The municipality confirmed this deal in February 2009. AbM has been involved in considerable conflict with the eThekwini Municipality and has undertaken numerous protests and legal actions. Its members have been beaten and its leaders arrested by the South African Police Service in Sydenham, Durban. AbM has often made claims of severe police harassment, including torture. On a number of occasions, these claims have been supported by church leaders and human rights organisations. AbM has successfully sued the police for unlawful assaults on its members. In October 2009, it won a court case on appeal which declared the KZN Slums Act unconstitutional. There was acute conflict between AbM and the Cape Town City Council in 2009. This centred on the Macassar Village Land Occupation. There was similar conflict in 2013 around the Marikana Land Occupation. There was also concern about the possibility of evictions linked to the 2010 FIFA World Cup.
Academic work on Abahlali baseMjondolo stresses that it is non-professionalised (i.e. its leaders are nonsalaried), independent of NGO control, autonomous from political organisations and party politics and democratic. Sarah Cooper-Knock[who?] describes the movement as "neurotically democratic, impressively diverse and steadfastly self-critical". Ercument Celik[who?] writes that "I experienced how democratically the movement ran its meetings." A 2006 article in The Times stated that the movement "has shaken the political landscape of South Africa." Academic Peter Vale writes that Abahlali baseMjondolo is "along with the Treatment Action Campaign the most effective grouping in South African civil society." Khadija Patel has written that the movement "is at the forefront of a new wave of mass political mobilisation".
Abahlali baseMjondolo is the largest shack dweller's organisation in South Africa and campaigns to improve the living conditions of poor people and to democratise society from below. AbM makes considerable use of cellphones to organise, generates its own media where possible and has made use of films too. The award-winning documentary feature film Dear Mandela tells the story of three young activists in Abahlali baseMjondolo.
AbM also runs formal education courses and issues certificates. The University of Abahlali baseMjondolo teaches through song and discussions, and archives the knowledge production process. It also hosts regular seminars. It runs the Frantz Fanon School, a political school, in the eKhenana Commune, one of its affiliated occupations..
As of October 2022 it claims to have more than 115 00 members in good standing. More than twenty of its leaders have been murdered, something it blames on the ANC. The assassination of Abahlali baseMjondolo members and leaders was discussed at the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2022.
Since 2005, the movement has carried out a series of large scale marches, engaged in direct action such as land occupations, self organised water and electricity connections and made tactical use of the courts. The movement has often made anti-capitalist statements, has called for "a living communism", and has demanded the expropriation of private land for public housing.
During the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa, AbM called a halt to all its planned events, including the annual UnFreedom Day rally. It also warned that most precautions against the virus assumed that people had access to sanitation and running water, a situation that was not the case for many of its members living in shacks. Ronald Lamola, Minister of Justice and Correctional Services, introduced a moratorium on evictions during lockdown (which began 27 March 2020) yet the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality carried out evictions in Durban affecting around 900 people. Three of the settlements were Azania, eKhenana Commune and Ekuphumeleleni, all affiliated with AbM. Azania was squatted on 26 February 2019 and it was completely evicted, affecting around 300 people, two of whom were shot with live ammunition.
Land and housing
Abahlali baseMjondolo campaigns for well-situated urban land for public housing and has occupied unused government land. A primary demand of the movement has been for decent, public housing and much of its work takes the form of opposing evictions. The movement has often used the phrase 'The Right to the City' to insist that the location of housing is critically important and demands that shack settlements are upgraded where they are and that people are not relocated to out of town developments. The movement rejects technocratic approaches to the housing crisis and stresses the need for dignity to be central to the resolution of the housing crisis. It is opposed to shack dwellers being moved into 'transit camps'. The movement opposes all evictions and forced removals and has campaigned vigorously on this score via public protest and, also, legal action.
Land occupations organised by Abahlali baseMjondolo include Macassar Village (2009), Marikana (Cape Town) (2013) and Marikana (Durban) (2013). AbM activists set up the eKhanana Land Occupation in 2018, in Cato Crest, Durban. The Anti-Land-Invasion Unit demolished and burnt 50 shacks, but the occupation continued. In 2019 the occupiers won the right to remain on the land.
Abahlali baseMjondolo has also campaigned for the provision of basic services to shack settlements. Between 2003 and 2008, there was an average of ten shack fires every day and someone perishing every second day. AbM has campaigned on this issue demanding, amongst other things, the electrification of shacks. It has also connected thousands of people to electricity. The movement campaigns for equal access to school education for poor children. AbM has organised a number of mutual aid projects: crèches, kitchens and vegetable gardens.
Fighting the KZN Slums Act
The KwaZulu-Natal Elimination and Prevention of Re-emergence of Slums Act was introduced in 2007 by the Provincial Government of KwaZulu-Natal. It gave landowners and municipalities increased powers to evict tenants and squatters. AbM went to court in an attempt to have the act declared unconstitutional, but lost the case. On 14 May 2009, it took the case on appeal to the Constitutional Court. The judgment was handed down on 14 October 2009 and the movement won the case with costs.
Xenophobia and police brutality
AbM took a strong stand against the xenophobic attacks that swept the country in May 2008. There were attacks in townships against migrants from Mozambique and Zimbabwe, resulting in over fifty deaths. AbM released a statement in Afrikaans, English, isiZulu, German and Portuguese, declaring, "a person cannot be illegal [...] don't turn your suffering neighbours into enemies." Sociologist Michael Neocosmos saw this as the "most important statement on the xenophobic violence" and praised the fact that it was a shack-dweller group addressing the issue.
There were no attacks in any Abahlali settlements. The movement was also able to stop an in-progress attack in the (non-Abahlali affiliated) Kenville settlement and to offer shelter to some people displaced in the attacks.
The movement has organised numerous actions against police racism and brutality and has often demanded fair access to policing services for shack dwellers.
2010 FIFA World Cup
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was hosted by South Africa. In the leadup to the event, with 450,000 people expected to visit, there were concerns that the interests of the poor were being ignored as roads were rebuilt and new stadiums built. Thousands of people were evicted and in October 2009, armed men attacked a shanty town in Durban, killing two people and demolishing thirty homes. S'bu Zikode commented in The Guardian "The government is focusing on the international visitors rather than poor communities. The role of the poor is seemingly to work hard in hotels, soccer stadiums and other facilities for the world's benefit, but then be kicked out of the cities and not share in the profits."
A security plan costing 1.3 billion rand (£98 million) involved sites being protected by 41,000 police officers equipped with water cannons, drones and helicopters. Whilst the cup cost an estimated £4 billion in total to put on, 43% of South African adults remained unemployed. The Western Cape branch of AbM threatened to build shacks outside of the Cape Town stadium to draw attention to their situation. However, they were not able to make good on this threat.
Abahlali baseMjondolo describes itself as "a homemade politics that everyone can understand and find a home in" and stresses that it moves from the lived experience of the poor to create a politics that is both intellectual and actional. A slogan of the group is 'Don't Talk About Us, Talk To Us'. Its key demand is that the social value of urban land should take priority over its commercial value and it campaigns for the public expropriation of large privately owned landholdings. The key organising strategy is to try "to recreate Commons" from below by trying to create a series of linked communes.
Its philosophy has been sketched out in a number of articles and interviews. The key ideas are those of a politics of the poor, a living politics and a people's politics. A politics of the poor is understood to mean a politics that is conducted by the poor and for the poor in a manner that enables the poor to be active participants in the struggles conducted in their name. Practically, it means that such a politics must be conducted where poor people live or in places that they can easily access, at the times when they are free, in the languages that they speak. It does not mean that middle-class people and organisations are excluded but that they are expected to come to these spaces and to undertake their politics there in a dialogical and democratic manner. There are two key aspects to the idea of a living politics. The first is that it is understood as a politics that begins not from external theory but from the experience of the people that shape it. It is argued that political education usually operates to create new elites who mediate relationships of patronage upwards and who impose ideas on others and to exclude ordinary people from thinking politically. This politics is not anti-theory – it just asserts the need to begin from lived experience and to move on from there rather than to begin from theory (usually imported from the Global North) and to impose theory on the lived experience of suffering and resistance in the shacks. The second key aspect, of a living politics, is that political thinking is always undertaken democratically and in common. People's politics is opposed to party politics or politicians' politics (as well as to top down undemocratic forms of NGO politics) and it is argued that the former is a popular democratic project undertaken without financial reward and with an explicit refusal of representative roles and personal power while the latter is a top down, professionalised representative project driven by personal power.
While the movement is clear that its key immediate goals are 'land and housing' it is equally clear that it sees its politics as going beyond this. S'bu Zikode has commented that: "We have seen in certain cases in South Africa where governments have handed out houses simply to silence the poor. This is not acceptable to us. Abahalali's struggle is beyond housing. We fight for respect and dignity. If houses are given to silence the poor then those houses are not acceptable to us."
'Abahlalism' has on occasion been described as anarchist or autonomist in practice. This is primarily because its praxis correlates closely with central tenets of anarchism, including decentralisation, opposition to imposed hierarchy, direct democracy and recognition of the connection between means and ends. However, the movement has never described itself as either anarchist or autonomist. Zikode has said that the movement aspires to "an ethics of living communism".
Abahlali baseMjondolo, together with similar grassroots movements in Johannesburg and Cape Town, has traditionally taken a critical stance towards state elections in South Africa. It boycotted the local government elections in 2006, the national government elections in 2009 and the 2011 local government elections under the banner of No Land! No House! No Vote!. It has a history of conflict with both the African National Congress and the Democratic Alliance. Academic work contends that in this way the movement has protected its autonomy from political parties and NGOs. The Mail & Guardian reported that "Nearly 75% of South Africans aged 20–29 did not vote in the 2011 [local government] elections" and that "South Africans in that age group were more likely to have taken part in violent street protests against the local ANC than to have voted for the ruling party".
S'bu Zikode commented "The government and academics speak about the poor all the time, but so few want to speak to the poor...It becomes clear that our job is just to vote and then watch the rich speak about us as we get poorer" and Abahlali baseMjondolo's Deputy President, Lindela Figlan, has argued that "voting someone into government just gives them power to oppress and exploit us." Despite this sentiment, at the AbM "Unfreedom Day" rally held in Kwa-Mashu on 27 April 2014, the movement's President Sbu Zikode announced that they "would abandon their No Land, No House, No Vote campaign and cast a "strategic vote" in the May 7 elections". A few days later Zikode signed a pact with the centrist Democratic Alliance (DA), stating that "We encourage our comrades and our membership to vote for the Democratic Alliance so that we can get rid of corruption". Zikode clarified that "Abahlali are not joining DA or any political party. We will remain independent from all kinds of mainstream political parties. But this time around it's a tactical partnership where the aim is to really get rid of the party that has become a threat to the society". The DA welcomed Abahali's endorsement, stating that this had come after two years of engagement.
The group announced in 2019 that the only political party which had its support in the general election was the Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party (SRWP). which performed poorly, A spokesperson said "We still maintain that we are a movement that fights for people's rights and dignity. SRWP is the only party which speaks the same language as us, and although our vote is for them, we remain an independent civic organisation". The party did not win any seats in the election.
In the early years of Abahlali baseMjondolo, individuals in the ruling party often accused it of being criminals manipulated by a malevolent white man, a third force, or a foreign intelligence agency. The movement, like others in South Africa, suffered sustained illegal harassment from the state. There were more Than 200 arrests of Abahlali members in the first last three years of the movement's existence and repeated police brutality in people's homes, in the streets and in detention. On a number of occasions, the police used live ammunition, armoured vehicles and helicopters in their attacks on unarmed shack dwellers. In 2006 the local city manager, Mike Sutcliffe, unlawfully implemented a complete ban on Abahlali's right to march which was eventually overturned in court. Abahlali were violently prevented from accepting invitations to appear on television and radio debates by the local police. The Freedom of Expression Institute has issued a number of statements in strong support of Abahlali's right to speak out and to organise protests. The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions and a group of prominent church leaders have also issued public statements against police violence, as has Bishop Rubin Philip in his individual capacity, and in support of the right of the movement to publicly express dissent. In March 2008, The Mercury newspaper reported that both Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International were investigating human rights abuses against shack dwellers by the city government.
Repression began to take a new from in 2009 when a youth meeting was attacked in the Kennedy Road settlement on 26 September 2009. A mob of 40 people entered the settlement wielding guns and knives and attacked an Abahlali baseMjondolo youth meeting. Two people were killed in the resulting conflict. following which twelve members of a dance group affiliated to the movement were arrested and charged with murder. The Mail & Guardian newspaper described the arrests as Kennedy Road as a "hatchet job." On 18 July 2011, the case against the twelve accused was eventually thrown out of court. The Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa issued a statement saying that the "charges were based on evidence which now appears almost certainly to have been manufactured" and that the Magistrate had described the state witnesses as ""belligerent", "unreliable" and "dishonest". Amnesty International noted that the court had found that "police had directed some witnesses to point out members of Abahlali-linked organisations at the identification parade".
IRIN, the newsletter of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, reported in April 2010 that "The rise of an organised poor people's movement [Abahlali baseMjondolo] in South Africa's most populous province, KwaZulu-Natal, is being met with increasing hostility by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) government" and in April 2013 the movement successfully sued the Minister of Police for violence against three of its members.
On 26 June 2013, Nkululeko Gwala, an AbM leader in Cato Crest, was the first member of the movement to be assassinated.  Hours before the murder, an ANC politician had said he was a trouble-maker. In the same year Nqobile Nzuza was shot dead by police at the Durban Marikana land occupation in September 2013, at the age of 17. The following year Thuli Ndlovu, the chairperson of the movement's branch in KwaNdengezi was assassinated in her home on 29 September 2014.  AbM accused the councillor of having a hand in the assassination. On 27 February 2015, the local councillor, Mduduzi Ngcobo, was arrested on suspicion of being behind the murder. Ngcobo and Velile Lutsheko (another ANC councillor) were sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder. Mlungisi Ndlovu, the gunman they had hired, was handed a sentence of 12 years in jail. Following these three killings numerous murders of AbM members were reported.
After a call was made for eThekwini Mayor Zandile Gumede to step down to face charges of racketeering and fraud, the Durban offices of AbM were burgled in May 2019. No money was taken but two computer hard drives were stolen. When Zikode said he was concerned by the timing of the burglary, the mayor's representative replied: "This is an old, repeated, fabricated allegation by Abahlali ... they must approach relevant security agencies if they have evidence instead of the media".
As of 2022 the movement claims that 24 of its members have been killed. According to Nomzamo Zondi, director of a pro-bono law firm, "From the 24 Abahlali activists who have been killed; 14 of them were assassinated by izinkabi (hired assassins), six of them were killed by security forces and one child who was two weeks old was killed while sleeping from teargas fumes during a violent eviction in Foreman Road."
The assassination of Abahlali baseMjondolo activists was discussed at the 51st sessions of the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2022.
Abahlali baseMjondolo has received strong support from some key church leaders such as Bishop of Natal, Rubin Phillip. In a speech at the AbM UnFreedom Day event on 27 April 2008 Phillip said:
The courage, dignity and gentle determination of Abahlali baseMjodolo has been a light that has shone ever more brightly over the last three years. You have faced fires, sickness, evictions, arrest, beatings, slander, and still you stand bravely for what is true. Your principle that everyone matters, that every life is precious, is very simple but it is also utterly profound. Many of us who hold dear the most noble traditions of our country take hope from your courage and your dignity.
The Italian theologian Brother Filippo Mondini has attempted to develop a theology based on the political thought and practices developed in Abahlali baseMjondolo.
The Poor People's Alliance
In September 2008, Abahlali baseMjondolo, the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, the Landless People's Movement and the Rural Network (Abahlali baseplasini) formed The Poor People's Alliance. The Anti-Eviction Campaign's chairman said "We are calling it the Poor People's Alliance so our people can identify with it". The coalition has repeatedly clashed with the ANC. The Poor People's Alliance refuses electoral politics under the slogan "No Land! No House! No Vote!". Abahlali baseMjondolo has also organised in solidarity with the Unemployed Peoples' Movement.
Worldwide, Abahlali baseMjondolo has solidarity links with many other groups, such as Sendika in Istanbul and the Combined Harare Residents' Association in Harare. In the US, it is connected to Domestic Workers United, The Poverty Initiative, Picture the Homeless and the Movement for Justice in el Barrio in New York. It is also supported by the Movement Alliance Project in Philadelphia and Take Back the Land in Miami
There is an AbM Solidarity Group in England and the movement has links with the London Coalition Against Poverty and War on Want. In Italy, AbM is connected to Clandestino and the Comboni Missionaries.
According to eThekwini city manager Dr. Michael Sutcliffe, the essence of the tensions between Abahlali baseMjondolo and the city lie in the movement's "rejection of the authority of the city." When the Durban High Court ruled that his attempts to ban marches by AbM were unlawful he stated that: "We will be asking serious questions of the court because we cannot allow anarchy having anyone marching at any time and any place." According to Lennox Mabaso, spokesperson for the Provincial Department of Housing, the movement is "under the sway of an agent provocateur" who is "engaged in clandestine operations" and who has been "assigned to provoke unrest". City Officials continue to argue that the movement is a Third Force seeking to undermine the ruling African National Congress for nefarious purposes.
In December 2006, AbM and the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign, disrupted a meeting of the Social Movements Indaba (SMI) at the University of KwaZulu Natal. A member of the SMI collective said to the Mail & Guardian "they insulted us, using abusive language and all that macho lingo" whilst S'bu Zikode asserted denied any verbal violence. Since then, AbM has refused to work with SMI. AbM has also criticised the Centre for Civil Society at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and from 2006 onwards has refused to work with it.
AbM of the Western Cape called for a month of direct action in October 2010. Mzonke Poni, the chairperson of the Cape Town structure at the time, publicly endorsed road blockades as a legitimate tactic during this strike. The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) and the South African Communist Party, the latter a major ally of the ruling ANC, issued strong statements condemning the campaign and labelling it 'violent' and, 'anarchist' and reactionary'. AbM responded by saying that their support for road blockades was not violent and that "We have never called for violence. Violence is harm to human beings. Blockading a road is not violence." They also said that the SACP's attack was really due to the movement's insistence on organising autonomously from the African National Congress. After the strike by AbM Western Cape, there were some protests in TR section of Khayelitsha in which vehicles were damaged. AbM WC ascribed these protests to the ANC Youth League as did Helen Zille and the Youth League itself. According to Leadership Magazine "The ANC Youth League in the province has hijacked the peaceful service-delivery protests organised by the social movement Abahlali baseMjondolo in Khayelitsha in a violent, destructive and desperate attempt to mobilise support for the ANC against the province's Democratic Alliance provincial and municipal governments."
List of notable current and former Abahlali baseMjondolo activists
|Nkululeko Gwala||Durban||Cato Crest housing activist, assassinated in 2013|||
|Nokuthula Mabaso||Durban||eKhenena, assassinated in 2022|||
|Louisa Motha||Durban||Former co-ordinator in Motala Heights|||
|Lindokuhle Mnguni||Durban||eKhenena, assassinated in 2022|||
|Mnikelo Ndabankulu||Durban||National spokesperson (until 2014)|||
|Ayanda Ngila||Durban||eKhenena, assassinated in 2022|||
|Zodwa Nsibande||Durban||General Secretary of youth league in 2009|||
|Nqobile Nzuza||Marikana Land Occupation, Durban||Murdered by the police in 2013 at anti-eviction protest|||
|Raj Patel||United States, South Africa, Zimbabwe||Website manager|||
|Mzonke Poni||Western Cape||Former chairperson (2010) of the now defunct Cape Town branch|||
|S'bu Zikode||Durban||Current President of AbM|||
- Fanmi Lavalas in Haiti
- The Homeless Workers' Movement in Brazil
- The Landless Workers' Movement in Brazil
- The Landless People's Movement in South Africa
- Movement for Justice in el Barrio in the United States of America
- Take Back the Land in the United States of America
- The Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign in South Africa
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- ^ Ruling in Abahlali case lays solid foundation to build on Archived 27 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Marie Huchzermeyer, Business Day, 4 November 2009
- ^ "Collection of articles on the Macassar Village Land Occupation". Archived from the original on 20 June 2009.
- ^ 'Marikana' UnFreedom Day land occupation ends in violent Workers' Day eviction Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, by Jared Sacks, The Daily Maverick, 2 May 2013
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- ^ a b Steele, Jonathan (2009). "Why 2010 Could Be An Own Goal for the Rainbow Nation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
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- ^ Patel, Raj (2008). "A Short Course in Politics at the University of Abahlali baseMjondolo". Journal of Asian and African Studies. 43: 95–112. doi:10.1177/0021909607085587. S2CID 145211004.
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- ^ 'South Africa's Poor Have Had Enough' Carol Landry, Agence France-Presse, December 2005[permanent dead link]
- ^ What's the Deal with the Toyi-Toyi Archived 20 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine, by Lisa Nevitt,Cape Town Magazine, November 2010
- ^ 'The State of Resistance: Popular struggles in the Global South' edited by Francois Polet pp.139–140, McMillian 2007
- ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo (2008). "iPolitiki ePhilayo: The Abahlali baseMjondolo Manifesto for a Politics of the Poor". Indybay. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- ^ Sean Jacobs, 'Post-Apartheid Social Movements on Film', Popular Media, Democracy and Development in Africa, Herman Wasserman (Ed.)Routledge, London, 2010
- ^ Award-winners at the 32nd Durban International Film Festival Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Blog.docfilmsa.com (1 August 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ DIFF 2011 | The Wrap Up Archived 1 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Mahala.co.za (3 August 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ After Apartheid, More Struggles to Wage Archived 14 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Nicolas Rapold, The New York Times, 20 September 2012
- ^ Transforming the basis of knowledge Archived 19 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Budd Hall, University World News, 25 May 2013
- ^ Nigel Gibson, 'Upright and free: Fanon in South Africa, from Biko to the shackdwellers' movement (Abahlali baseMjondolo)', Social Identities (Volume 14, Issue 6 November 2008 , pages 683 – 715)
- ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo and the fight of the organized poor against a hostile justice system Archived 7 February 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Tanupriya Singh, People's Dispatch, 6 February 2023
- ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo demands justice for its members lost to “the politics of blood” Archived 27 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Peoples' Dispatch, 3 October 2022
- ^ The bloody battle for land and rights in Cato Manor, Greg Arde & Benita Enoch, GroundUp, 11 October 2022
- ^ More than twenty activists killed in eThekwini battle for land, Paddy Harper, Mail & Guardian, 13 October 2022
- ^ a b c d Abahlali BaseMjondolo: Living Politics Archived 13 October 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa, September 2022
- ^ UN member states call for the protection of SA’s human rights defenders and whistle-blowers Archived 23 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Simphiwe Sidu and Bongani Ngwenya, Daily Maverick, 21 November 2022
- ^ Nimmagudda, Neha (17 July 2008). "Resistance from the other South Africa". Pambazuka News. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- ^ Occupy Durban Archived 1 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine, AbM Press Statement, December 2011
- ^ Civic Action and Legal Mobilisation: the Phiri water meters case Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Jackie Dugard, Wits University, 2010
- ^ Victory for the Forgotten Shack Dwellers Archived 18 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa, 19 September 2012
- ^ a b Judgment a victory for 38 families Archived 5 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Daily News, 20 September 2012
- ^ A Durban shack dweller's movement tells of ANC's woes Archived 30 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Khadija Patel, The Daily Maverick, 4 October 2013
- ^ 'Abahlali baseMjondolo – The South African Shack Dwellers Movement' by Suzy Subways, 2008 Archived 3 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Champnetwork.org. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^  Archived 9 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine Text of Speech at Diakonia Economic Justice Forum – Please follow the link to the PDF for the full content of the speech
- ^ Politics of Grieving Archived 26 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, by Drucilla Cornell, Social Text, 2011
- ^ "'The poor need proper homes' – article in the Sowetan by Mary Papayya 1 September 2008". Archived from the original on 11 September 2008.
- ^ Bonono, Mqapheli; Sizani, Nomsa; Majola, O. J. (23 March 2020). "Abahlali baseMjondolo: A call for solidarity in a time of crisis". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
- ^ Hodgson, Tim Fish; Ebrahim, Shaazia (26 March 2020). "Abahlali baseMjondolo: You can't stop the virus while living in the mud". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
- ^ Philpott, Graham; Ntseng, David; Butler, Mark; Draper, Alice (23 June 2020). "Durban shack dwellers illegally evicted". New Frame. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
- ^ South Africa's shack-dwellers fight back Archived 22 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, by Patrick Kingsely, The Guardian, 24 September 2012
- ^ 'Black Boers' clear townships by force Archived 7 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine by Ruth Maclean, The Times, London, 22 November 2013
- ^ Despite the state's violence, our fight to escape the mud and fire of South Africa's slums will continue Archived 25 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, S'bu Zikode, The Guardian, 11 November 2013
- ^ Serving the public interest in Cairo's urban development Archived 16 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, by Jessie McClelland, al Masryalyoum, 12 May 2010
- ^ The Abahlali baseMjondolo Shack Dwellers Movement and the Right to the City in South Africa Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Charlotte Mathivet and Shelley Buckingham, Habitat International Coalition, 2009
- ^ "iPolitiki ePhilayo: Digital Traces of the Political Thinking at the University of Abahlali baseMjondolo". Abahlali baseMjondolo. 11 January 2008. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009.
- ^ There is reference to some of the legal actions against evictions in the 2008 report on housing rights in Durban Centre on Housing Rights & Evictions (Geneva) which is online at "South Africa". Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2008.. The papers from many of the court actions are also archived on the Abahlali site
- ^ Love in the Time of AIDS, Mark Hunter, UKZN Press, 2010, p.224
- ^  Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine For a discussion of a key court victory against evictions see the article 'Chetty Champions the Poor' in 'South African Legal Brief', 24 September 2008
- ^ Xolo, Nomfundo (15 November 2018). "Shacks burnt, residents arrested, man shot in testicles as Durban targets shackdwellers". GroundUp News. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- ^ Dawood, Zainul (15 April 2019). "Gunman opens fire on Cato Crest shack dwellers killing one". iol.co.za. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- ^ Parker, Faranaaz (18 December 2009). "Capitalism the 'real culprit behind climate change'". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2019.
- ^ See http://abahlali.org/search/node/fire Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ South African Social Movement campaigns against School Exclusions Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Teacher Solidarity, 9 January 2011
- ^ Seeds of rebellion Archived 18 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, by Albert Buhr, The Times, 15 August 2010
- ^ "Pooh-slinging Slums Act showdown at Con Court". M&G. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- ^ South Africa shanty town bill row, BBC, 15 May 2009 Archived 16 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News (14 May 2009). Retrieved on 30 April 2019.
- ^ 'From shack to the Constitutional Court': The litigious disruption of governing global cities Archived 7 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, by Anna Selmeczi, Utrecht Law Review, April 2011 http://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.162 Archived 14 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Mukoma Wa Ngugi (24 December 2008). "The Africa that Pushes Back". Foreign Policy in Focus. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
- ^ See http://www.abahlali.org/node/3582 Archived 4 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- ^  Archived 6 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine 'The politics of fear and the fear of politics' by Michael Neocosmos, Pambazuka, 2008
- ^ From 'Foreign Natives' to 'Native Foreigners': Explaining Xenophobia in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Michael Neocosmos, CODESRIA, Dakar, 2010
- ^ "We are Gauteng People" Challenging the politics of xenophobia in Khutsong, South Africa Archived 2 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Seminar Presentation, Joshua Kirshner, 23 February 2011, Rhodes University
- ^ See 'The Politics of Fear and the Fear of Politics: Reflections on Xenophobic Violence in South Africa', an article by Professor Michael Neocosmos from Monash University in Australia in the Journal of Asian & African Studies Vol. 43, No. 6, 586–594 (2008)
- ^ 'The May 2008 Pogroms: xenophobia, evictions, liberalism, and democratic grassroots militancy in South Africa' by Richard Pithouse, in Sanhati, June 2008 Archived 13 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Sanhati.com. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ See, for instance, Against Police Brutality – March On Glen Nayager, 10 April 2007 Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Abahlali.org. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ World Cup Whose Meaning Goes Beyond Soccer Archived 14 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Alan Cowell, 28 December 2009, The New York Times
- ^ "South Africa's Poor Targeted by Evictions, Attacks in Advance of 2010 World Cup". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
- ^ a b Smith, David (4 April 2017). "World Cup 2010: football brings defining moment for South Africa". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2019.
- ^ a b The real winners and losers: of the beautiful game Archived 10 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Sunday Herald 9 August 2009
- ^ a b A Quiet Coup: South Africa's largest social movement under attack as the World Cup Looms Archived 4 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Toussaint Losier, Left Turn Magazine, June 2010
- ^ Shack dwellers threat to Cup Archived 26 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Francis Hweshe, The Sowetan, 1 June 2010
- ^ South Africa: from Polokwane to the World Cup and after Archived 12 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Martin Legassick, World Wide Socialist Network, 9 July 2010
- ^ Richard Pithouse' Thinking Resistance in the Shantytown', Mute Magazine, August 2006 Archived 25 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo, Spatial Agency Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Spatialagency.net. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ a b Gunby, Kate (2007). "You'll Never Silence the Voice of the Voiceless: Critical Voices of Activists in Post-Apartheid South Africa". Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection. 115. Archived from the original on 22 September 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
- ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo March on Jacob Zuma, Durban, South Africa Archived 7 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 22 March 2010, UK IndyMedia
- ^ Joel Kovel, 'The Enemy of Nature', 2007 Zed Books, New York, p. 251
- ^ The gospel according to Abahlali baseMjondolo: Land occupiers' group starts 'socialist' commune in eThekwini, Des Erasmus, Daily Maverick, 18 April 2021
- ^ Abahlali's Vocal Politics of Proximity: Speaking, Suffering and Political Subjectivization Archived 18 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Anna Selmeczi, Journal of Asian and African Studies, October 2012 vol. 47 no. 5 498–515
- ^ The movement's philosophy is clearly articulated in a number of statements on its website – see, especially, the statements at http://abahlali.org/node/3208 Archived 3 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine It is also usefully summarised in the academic work by Nigel Gibson
- ^  Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Also see 'Taking poverty seriously: What the poor are saying and why it matters' by Xin Wei Ngiam in Critical Dialogue, Vol.2, No.1, 2006
- ^ Selmeczi, Anna (May 2010). "Educating resistance". Interface. 2 (1): 309–314. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
- ^ Selmeczi, Anna (October 2009). ""... we are being left to burn because we do not count"∗: Biopolitics, Abandonment, and Resistance". Global Society. 23 (4): 519–538. doi:10.1080/13600820903198933. S2CID 144099719.
- ^ a b Politics of Grieving Archived 26 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, by Drucilla Cornell, Social Text, 2011
- ^ Report on the Attack on Abahlali baseMjonolo in the Kennedy Road settlement by the Development Planning Unit of University College London Archived 16 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, by Malavika Vartak, 2009
- ^ 'Anarchism, the State and the Praxis of Contemporary Antisystemic Social Movements' Archived 28 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine by Morgan Rodgers Gibson, December 2010]
- ^ Modern Anarchist Societies Series – Abahlali baseMjondolo || The Autonomous Exemplars of South Africa Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Shwagr.com. Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ 'The Role of Anarchism in Contemporary Anti-Systemic Social Movements' Archived 12 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Morgan Rodgers Gibson, December 2009]
- ^ South Africa's shack-dwellers fight back Archived 22 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Patrick Kingsley, The Guardian, 24 September 2012
- ^  Archived 28 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine Elections: A Dangerous Time for Poor People's Movements in South Africa
- ^  Archived 28 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine "No Vote" Campaigns are not a Rejection of Democracy, November 2005
- ^ W Cape voters 'not predictable' Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Quinton Mtyala and Babalo Ndenze, The Cape Argus, 18 May 2011
- ^ 'No Land! No House! No Vote!' Archived 22 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Mercury, By SINEGUGU NDLOVU AND BRONWYN FOURIE, 19 May 2011
- ^ Birkinshaw, Matt (2009). Abahlali baseMjondolo: : "A homemade politics". Alternative Futures and Popular Protest. Manchester Metropolitan University. Archived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- ^ The seed of a new opposition? Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Business Day, 7 February 2011
- ^  Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Article by M'du Hlongwa examining the refusal of electoral politics in Abahlali
- ^ Deep Read: 'Born free' voters may not choose ANC Archived 5 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, JON HERSKOVITZ, Mail & Guardian, 29 January 2013
- ^ Be angry with government, not cops Archived 27 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Lee Rondganger, Lyse Comins and Nosipho Mngoma, The Daily News, 2014
- ^ We will vote, but not ANC: Abahali Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Nosipho Mngoma, The Daily News, 29 April 2014
- ^ DA signs pact with KZN landless people Archived 2 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine SAPA, The Daily News, 2 May 2014
- ^ Abahlali throws support behind DA Thrishni Subramoney and SAPA, East Coast Radio, 2 May 2014
- ^ Abahlali Basemjondolo publicly endorse the DA for the elections Archived 3 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine Sizwe Mchunu, DA Leader in KwaZulu-Natal, 2 May 2014
- ^ a b c Grootes, Stephen (20 May 2019). "End of the Road for the Socialist Revolutionary Workers' Party? And What Future for Numsa?". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- ^ Maduna, Lizeka (8 May 2019). "Abahlali BaseMjondolo Endorse The Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party". Daily Vox. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
- ^  Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Article by S'bu Zikode written in response to Third Force allegations
- ^ See a report in illegal police repression in South Africa by the Freedom of Expression Institute[Usurped!]. Fxi.org.za (9 November 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^ a b c Dissent Under Thabo Mbeki[permanent dead link], Jane Duncan, May 2011
- ^ Nigel C. Gibson, Living Fanon: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2011: London, Palgrave Macillan)
- ^ Shack Dwellers on the Move in Durban, Richard Pithouse, Radical Philosophy, 2007
- ^ "Yonk'indawo Umzabalazo Uyasivumela: New work from Durban, Research Report". 2006. Archived from the original on 8 February 2023. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- ^ This is discussed in the Journal of Asian & African Studies Feb 2008; vol. 43: pp. 63 – 94.
- ^ Also see a letter from the Freedom of Expression Institute, 23 February 2008, which gives a detailed chronology of the banning of one march[Usurped!]. (PDF) . Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^  Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Article in the Daily News
- ^ Statement by the Freedom of Expression Institute[Usurped!]. Fxi.org.za (9 November 2011). Retrieved on 4 December 2011.
- ^  Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Will Zuma administration open its ears to the streets?, Jane Duncan, Business Day, 4 August 2009]
- ^  Archived 11 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Richard Pithouse, 'South Africa: Freedom not yet', Pambazuka, 29 April 2010
- ^ BATTLE TO BE HEARD Archived 18 July 2012 at archive.today, by Carol Paton, Financial Mail, 16 February 2006
- ^ 'I was punched, beaten' Archived 21 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 16 September 2006,
- ^ [Usurped!] Freedom of Expression Institute statement
- ^  Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Also see 'Free expression means nothing if it's limited to the media' by Na'eem Jenah, Thought Leader, 18 October 2007
- ^  Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Open Letter to Obed Mlaba & Mike Sutcliffe by COHRE
- ^  Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Testimony by Church Leaders
- ^ "Police Action Incurs Church Wrath". Abahlali baseMjondolo. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
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- ^ Kennedy olive branch a sham Kennedy olive branch a sham Archived 16 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Niren Tolsi, Mail & Guardian, 11 October 2009
- ^ Press statement by the Unemployed Peoples Movement Archived 19 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 18 July 2011
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- ^ "Amnesty International Report 2012: The State of the World's Human Rights" (PDF). Amnesty International. p. 308. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
- ^ SOUTH AFRICA: Poor people's movement draws government wrath Archived 19 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, IRIN,UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 22 April 2010
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- ^ Abahlali baseMjondolo: Living Politics, Socio-Economic Rights Institute of South Africa, September 2022
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- ^ The speech was printed in the May issue of 'Anglican News' and it can be downloaded at 
- ^ Mondini, Filippo (2008). "Abahlali basemjondolo Theology". Korogocho. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011.
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- Abahlali baseMjondolo official website
- A Digital Archive of Abahlali baseMjondolo History from March 2005 to November 2006 (with links to pictures, articles, press releases etc.) at the MetaMute site
- Revolutionary Ubuntu – The shack dwellers and poor people of South Africa (pdf)
Films about Abahlali baseMjondolo
- Amnesty International Film on Abahlali baseMjondolo
- Dear Mandela by Dara Kell & Christopher Nizza, 2011
- Txaboletan bizi direnak by Elkartasun Bideak, 2009 (English dialogue with Basque subtitles)
- Amandla Awethu by Elkartasun Bideak, 2009
- From the Shacks to the Constitutional Court by Dara Kell & Christopher Nizza, 2009
- A Place in the City by Jenny Morgan, 2008
- The Right to Know: The Fight for Open Democracy in South Africa by Ben Cashdan, 2007
- Nayager Falls, Abahlali Rises by Sally Gilles and Fazel Khan, 2007
- Breyani & the Councillor by Sally Gilles and Fazel Khan, 2006
- Kennedy Road and the Councillor by Aoibheann O'Sullivan, 2005
- Affordable housing advocacy organizations
- Anarchism in South Africa
- Civil disobedience
- Communism in South Africa
- Homelessness organizations
- Housing in South Africa
- Land rights movements
- Political organisations based in South Africa
- Politics of South Africa
- Shack dwellers' movements
- Social movements in South Africa
- Squatters' movements
- Zulu words and phrases