Ancestral home

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An ancestral home is the place of origin of one's extended family, particularly the home owned and preserved by the same family for several generations.[citation needed] The term can refer to an individual house or estate, or to a broader geographic area such as a town, a region, or an entire country. An ancestral home may be a physical place, part of a series of places that one associates with state, nation or region.[1] In the latter cases, the phrase ancestral homeland might be used.[2] In particular, the concept of a diaspora requires the concept of an ancestral home from which the diaspora emanates.[3]

One author has said of the phrase, ancestral home, that it "tends to conjure up images of European barons dining in chilly halls while dark portraits and empty suits of armor peer down silently".[4] However, it is also possible that "[t]he family living in an ancestral home is surrounded by visible, physical symbols of family continuity and solidarity".[5]

Ancestral homes and diaspora[edit]

Ancestral homes are considered by some social scientists to be central to humans' need to acquire a sense of rootedness and smoothly transition to and from different stages of life.[6] People maintain their connections to their ancestral homes at a physical, cultural, symbolic and spiritual level, and these connections are explored differently by members of different generations of migrants.[7]

Expatriation to ancestral homelands[edit]

The process of returning or finding a sense of engagement with one’s ancestral home or homeland plays a role in the search for belonging and the creation of a sense of personal and cultural identity. Many people return home due to home ownership, strong nationalism or the desire to reconnect with old social relationships.[8]

However, not all expatriates or those who return to their ancestral homelands are motivated by these sentiments. An individual’s distance or closeness to their cultural roots can range from indifference to strong commitment.[9]

People who return to ancestral homes often have to shift from one cultural frame to another or negotiate multiple identities including those from their host country or countries, as a result of their coming from the diasporic movement. Diasporas occur in both Western and Eastern countries and direct ‘flows’ of movement across the globe – for example flows of migration within the East, from East to West, from West to East, and from one Western nation to another.[10]

The flows of migration between nations are also determined by the fact that economic opportunities are condensed within the world’s largest cities, both in the East and West.[11] Other social and political factors such as discrimination and the lack of opportunities for minority groups in foreign countries also drive the flows of expatriates returning to one’s ancestral homeland.[12] Thus, a return to one’s ancestral homeland may be associated with the feeling of being included within a larger majority cultural group.[13]

Research has found that the phenomena of relocating to one’s ancestral homeland is motivated by a number of factors, which can include the desire to explore and to experience more of the world’s cultures, the desire to flee from war or social and political difficulty in one’s home country, the desire to build one’s career in an ancestral homeland, or the desire to participate in the economy or find greater economic opportunities.[14]

Ancestral homes and wellbeing[edit]

The need that the ancestral home fills in an individual’s life is considered by some researchers to be a fundamental human need, that of having an attachment to a place and the meanings, experiences, practices and culture associated with it.[15]

The benefit that attachment to one’s ancestral home offers an individual is, according to some researchers, the ability to integrate one’s life experiences and attachments into a coherent life story or sense of one’s personal self.[16]

Ancestral homes and tourism[edit]

Ancestral homes have played a key part in driving tourism internationally, particularly between host countries and countries of origin and/or birth in multiple diasporas. Tourism to ancestral homes is prevalent across the globe, especially in countries such as Scotland, the Philippines and China amongst others. Part of what drives the flow of tourism to towns, landmarks and cities with ancestral homes are migrants visiting or returning to their home cities, or later generations of migrants visiting their home cities. This may be part of attempts to connect to their cultural heritage or driven by other factors.[17]

Ancestral homes and ancestral homelands are a key part of tourism marketing, with nostalgia, the search for personal identity, the desire to connect with one’s roots and the experience of one’s ancestral heritage one key part of the narrative that social scientists have observed within tourists. Social scientists have found that these factors encourage repeat visitation especially among migrant tourists.[18]

The motivations that draw other tourists to ancestral homes and ancestral homelands also include the desire to enjoy the aesthetics or the architecture of ancestral homes and the desire to experience the traditions of a culture that is not their own.[19]

Ancestral homes in Chinese culture[edit]

Ancestral homes are important in Chinese culture and society. There are sources that specifically describe these as the home of the patriline.[20] Research showed that these home-place identities are crucial in identity negotiations and identity processes in the country.[21]

Aside from speaking the Chinese language and "acting" Chinese (e.g. the worship and veneration of one's ancestors), having an ancestral home in China is part of being Chinese for those who live overseas.[22]

A factor that influences the return of Chinese migrants to their ancestral homes is the economic growth that occurs in one’s ancestral homeland over time since migration, producing new economic opportunities that would otherwise not have existed. This leads Chinese migrants to look for employment in China itself, causing a phenomenon called self-initiated expatriation. [23]

The experience of self-initiated expatriates is an experience that is often accompanied by difficult emotional and identity-related adjustments. Self-initiated expatriates often undergo a form of cultural adjustment and assimilation that differs widely according to individual circumstance and upbringing, or even familiarity with the language and local way of life.[24] This experience can also often lead to the individual feeling either in an ethnic minority or majority, or be fraught with issues from a language barrier, discrimination, and a general difficulty integrating after living overseas.[25]

Ancestral homes in Filipino culture[edit]

Ancestral homes in the Philippines are kept by generations of the same family. They remain an important part of the Austronesian Philippine culture as they tie large clans and families, which sometimes spread over vast areas and abroad with the wider Philippine diaspora, to a single home and origin. Ancestral houses are linked to the concept of ancestral hometowns, common throughout Asia.

Ancestral homes are a symbol of a family or clan's longevity and continuity, and serve as central meeting places for family reunions, and for specific events, rituals, ceremonies, and functions. The matriarch or patriarch of the family usually lives in this home, who manages it's affairs; allowing for other family members in peril safe sanctuary. The most established of the Principalia and noble clans have well

They can either be of the bahay na bato architectural style (the colonial era architectural style popular between the 17th and 19th centuries: a mix of native-Austronesian, colonial Spanish and Chinese architecture concepts and sensibilities), the native Philippine-Austronesian wooden torogan or traditional bahay kubo and Cordilleran bale/fale styles which stretches back centuries before colonial rule; or a mix of a native base, with modern elements and extensions.

Some Ancestral houses are listed as national shrines such as the Aguinaldo Shrine, the Marcelo H. del Pilar Shrine, and Rizal Shrines of Calamba, Laguna, Intramuros (old Manila) and Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte. Many ancestral houses that have been well or pristinely preserved for centuries are designated as heritage houses by the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property.

A wider international community of Filipinos from the diaspora associate themselves with a pan-national Filipino identity, but the differences in language, architectural styles and sub-cultures from island to island contribute to great variability among the styles and cultures around different groups’ ancestral homes and ancestral homelands.

Architectural styles vary greatly from province to province, or region to region. ‘Bahay na bato’ styles of Filipino ancestral houses have become a central part of the movement called ‘heritage consciousness’ by organisations such as Tuklas Pilipinas, which encourage greater understanding of, appreciation for and agency in the tourism and protection of ancestral homes by locals.[26]

Ancestral homes in Hungarian culture[edit]

The Hungarians view their ancestral home as the Urals during the early medieval periods of the world. This is due in part to a Julian monk who found a Hungarian in the capital of the Volga Bulgar, and then took him to a Hungarian community living in the Urals. This interaction between the two was significant in Hungarian culture, and led to the establishment of the Urals being their eastern ancestral home. This territory was later known as Magna Hungaria (Great Hungary). This designation has been further used by modern historians and Hungarians living in recent times.[27]

Ancestral homes in German culture[edit]

Ancestral homes in Thai culture[edit]

The traditional Thai house has acquired its own unique style after hundreds of years of evolution, made from wood and raised over pillars, it is adapted perfectly to its environment. Different architectural styles are displayed depending on the region of the country, differing mostly in the kind of decoration and finishes that are used locally. Thai houses have in common, no matter in which area of the country are built, the manner in which their platform is raised over poles offering a shield against rough weather, wildlife and dirt.

Ancestral homes in the United Kingdom[edit]

It has been noted that "[t]he term "ancestral home"—usually applied to manor-house and halls of the county—is far more applicable to [small] cottages", because wealthy families may die out or otherwise relinquish their land while poorer families continue to occupy the same homes for generations.[28]

A UK based study took advantage of different drawings and imaginations of children of their "ancestral home" to get a better idea of where exactly they came from. There are many different African communities living in the United Kingdom that have family knowledge of their ancestral home, and this study allowed for researchers to evaluate what effect the ancestral home has on young humans. For these members of the UK community, it was a part of their identity and view it as their country of heritage.[29]

Ancestral homes in art and contemporary culture[edit]

In contemporary Filipino culture, artists and entrepreneurs explore different uses of their local ancestral homes as part of the process of making art, promoting a family business, or tourism.[30]

The Pablo S. Antonio Residence in Pasay City, the Syquia Mansion in Vigan and Casa Gorordo in Cebu are examples of ancestral homes that have used art as a promotional tool for the tourism and reception of their family’s legacy.[31]

Some ancestral homes, particularly in the bahay na bato style, are converted into bed-and-breakfasts, such as Casa Feliz in Sorsogon.[32]

The existence of modern technology, globalisation and increased access to the internet through social media allows individuals to access art, websites and depictions of their ancestral homes and homeland with greater ease.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (November 2018). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147.
  2. ^ Russell King, Anastasia Christou, Peggy Levitt, Links to the Diasporic Homeland: Second Generation and Ancestral 'Return' Mobilities (2015), p. 1.
  3. ^ Aaron Yankholmes, "The Articulation of Collective Slave Memories and 'Home' among Expatriate Diasporan Africans in Ghana", in Sabine Marschall, Tourism and Memories of Home: Migrants, Displaced People, Exiles and Diasporic Communities (2017), Ch. 11.
  4. ^ Julia Lichtblau, The Old-House Journal (1984), Vol. 12, p. 167.
  5. ^ Ernest Watson Burgess, Harvey James Locke, Mary Margaret Thomes, The Family: From Traditional to Companionship (1971), p. 450.
  6. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (2018-04-15). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147. ISSN 1544-8444.
  7. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (2018-04-15). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147. ISSN 1544-8444.
  8. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (November 2018). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147.
  9. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (2019-09-10). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  10. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  11. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  12. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  13. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (November 2018). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147.
  14. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  15. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (November 2018). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147.
  16. ^ Li, Tingting Elle; Chan, Eric Tak Hin (November 2018). "Connotations of ancestral home: An exploration of place attachment by multiple generations of Chinese diaspora". Population, Space and Place. 24 (8): e2147. doi:10.1002/psp.2147.
  17. ^ Murdy, Samantha; Alexander, Matthew; Bryce, Derek (2018-02-01). "What pulls ancestral tourists 'home'? An analysis of ancestral tourist motivations". Tourism Management. 64: 13–19. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.07.011. ISSN 0261-5177.
  18. ^ Murdy, Samantha; Alexander, Matthew; Bryce, Derek (2018-02-01). "What pulls ancestral tourists 'home'? An analysis of ancestral tourist motivations". Tourism Management. 64: 13–19. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.07.011. ISSN 0261-5177.
  19. ^ Murdy, Samantha; Alexander, Matthew; Bryce, Derek (2018-02-01). "What pulls ancestral tourists 'home'? An analysis of ancestral tourist motivations". Tourism Management. 64: 13–19. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2017.07.011. ISSN 0261-5177.
  20. ^ Lew, Alan A. (2004). Seductions of Place: Geographical Perspectives on Globalization and Touristed Landscapes. Oxon: Routledge. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-134-65187-0.
  21. ^ Dillon, Michael (2018). Chinese Minorities at home and abroad. Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-84603-5.
  22. ^ Gunde, Richard (2002). Culture and Customs of China. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 35. ISBN 978-0-313-30876-5.
  23. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  24. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  25. ^ Richardson, Christopher; Ng, Kim Hwa (July 2021). "No place like home? Self‐initiated expatriates in their ancestral homeland". Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 59 (3): 506–528. doi:10.1111/1744-7941.12242. ISSN 1038-4111.
  26. ^ Kintanar, Andrea Natasha; Barretto-Tesoro, Grace (2020-03-03). "Raising heritage consciousness in Pinagbayanan, San Juan, Batangas, Philippines | Ang pagtaguyod ng kaalaman tungkol sa pamanang lahi sa bayan ng San Juan, Batangas". SPAFA Journal. 4. doi:10.26721/spafajournal.v4i0.612. ISSN 2586-8721.
  27. ^ Belavin, A. M., Krylasova, N. B., & Ivanov, V. A. (2015). Urals and the problem of ‘eastern ancestral home’of hungarians. European Journal of Science and Theology, 11(3), 201-207.
  28. ^ Country Life (1898), Vol. 3, p. 196.
  29. ^ Ademolu, E. (2021). A pictured Africa: drawing as a visual qualitative research methodology for examining British African Diaspora imaginings of their ancestral ‘home’. Visual Studies, 1-15.
  30. ^ "Philippine National Artist ancestral home explored by student-artist". Manila Bulletin. 2022-01-26. Retrieved 2022-05-17.
  31. ^ "Philippine National Artist ancestral home explored by student-artist". Manila Bulletin. 2022-01-26. Retrieved 2022-05-17.
  32. ^ "My own Sorsogon 'teleserye'". Inquirer Lifestyle. 2022-03-25. Retrieved 2022-05-17.
  33. ^ Tyner, James A.; Kuhlke, Olaf (December 2000). "Pan-national identities: representations of the Philippine diaspora on the world wide web". Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 41 (3): 231–252. doi:10.1111/1467-8373.00120. ISSN 1360-7456.