The Architecture Portal
Architecture is the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. It is both the process and the product of sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures. The term comes from Latin architectura; from Ancient Greek ἀρχιτέκτων (arkhitéktōn) 'architect'; from ἀρχι- (arkhi-) 'chief', and τέκτων (téktōn) 'creator'. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Architecture began as rural, oral vernacular architecture that developed from trial and error to successful replication. Ancient urban architecture was preoccupied with building religious structures and buildings symbolizing the political power of rulers until Greek and Roman architecture shifted focus to civic virtues. Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia and Buddhist architecture in particular took diverse local flavors. In fact, During the European Middle Ages, pan-European styles of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals and abbeys emerged while the Renaissance favored Classical forms implemented by architects known by name. Later, the roles of architects and engineers became separated. Modern architecture began after World War I as an avant-garde movement that sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. Emphasis was put on modern techniques, materials, and simplified geometric forms, paving the way for high-rise superstructures. Many architects became disillusioned with modernism which they perceived as ahistorical and anti-aesthetic, and postmodern and contemporary architecture developed.
Over the years, the field of architectural construction has branched out to include everything from ship design to interior decorating. (Full article...)
The New York Stock Exchange Building (also the NYSE Building), in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City, serves as the headquarters of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). It is composed of two connected structures occupying part of the city block bounded by Wall Street, Broad Street, New Street, and Exchange Place. The central section of the block contains the original structure at 18 Broad Street, designed in the Classical Revival style by George B. Post. The northern section contains a 23-story office annex at 11 Wall Street, designed by Trowbridge & Livingston in a similar style.
The marble facade of 18 Broad Street contains colonnades facing east toward Broad Street and west toward New Street, both atop two-story podiums. The Broad Street colonnade, an icon of the NYSE, contains a pediment designed by John Quincy Adams Ward and Paul Wayland Bartlett, depicting commerce and industry. The facade of 11 Wall Street is simpler in design but contains architectural details similar to those at 18 Broad Street. Behind the colonnades at 18 Broad Street is the main trading floor, a 72-foot-tall (22 m) rectangular space. An additional trading floor, nicknamed the Garage, is at 11 Wall Street. There are offices and meeting rooms in the upper stories of 18 Broad Street and 11 Wall Street. (Full article...)
Sanssouci (German pronunciation: [ˈsãːsusi]) is a historical building in Potsdam, near Berlin. Built by Prussian King Frederick the Great as his summer palace, it is often counted among the German rivals of Versailles. While Sanssouci is in the more intimate Rococo style and is far smaller than its French Baroque counterpart, it, too, is notable for the numerous temples and follies in the surrounding park. The palace was designed and built by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff between 1745 and 1747 to meet Frederick's need for a private residence where he could escape the pomp and ceremony of the royal court. The palace's name is a French phrase (sans souci) that translates as "without concerns", meaning "without worries" or "carefree", emphasising that the palace was meant as a place of relaxation, rather than a seat of power.
Sanssouci is little more than a large, single-story villa—more like the Château de Marly than Versailles. Containing just ten principal rooms, it was built on the brow of a terraced hill at the centre of the park. The influence of King Frederick's personal taste in the design and decoration of the palace was so great that its style is characterised as "Frederician Rococo", and his feelings for the palace were so strong that he conceived it as "a place that would die with him". Because of a disagreement about the site of the palace in the park, Knobelsdorff was fired in 1746. Jan Bouman, a Dutch architect, finished the project. (Full article...)
Hoysala architecture is the building style in Hindu temple architecture developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire between the 11th and 14th centuries, in the region known today as Karnataka, a state of India. Hoysala influence was at its peak in the 13th century, when it dominated the Southern Deccan Plateau region. Large and small temples built during this era remain as examples of the Hoysala architectural style, including the Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. Other examples of Hoysala craftsmanship are the temples at Belavadi, Amruthapura, Hosaholalu, Mosale, Arasikere, Basaralu, Kikkeri and Nuggehalli. Study of the Hoysala architectural style has revealed a negligible Indo-Aryan influence while the impact of Southern Indian style is more distinct.
Temples built prior to Hoysala independence in the mid-12th century reflect significant Western Chalukya influences, while later temples retain some features salient to Western Chalukya architecture but have additional inventive decoration and ornamentation, features unique to Hoysala artisans. Some three hundred temples are known to survive in present-day Karnataka state and many more are mentioned in inscriptions, though only about seventy have been documented. The greatest concentration of these are in the Malnad (hill) districts, the native home of the Hoysala kings. (Full article...)
The Michigan State Capitol is the building that houses the legislative branch of the government of the U.S. state of Michigan. It is in the portion of the state capital of Lansing which lies in Ingham County. The present structure, at the intersection of Capitol and Michigan Avenues, is a National Historic Landmark that houses the chambers and offices of the Michigan Legislature as well as the ceremonial offices of the Governor of Michigan and Lieutenant Governor. Historically, this is the third building to house the Michigan government.
The first state capitol was in Detroit, the original capital of Michigan, and was relocated to Lansing in 1847, due to the need to develop the state's western portion and for better defense from British troops stationed in Windsor, Ontario. (Full article...)
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (/ʃpɛər/; German: [ˈʃpeːɐ̯] (listen); 19 March 1905 – 1 September 1981) was a German architect who served as the Minister of Armaments and War Production in Nazi Germany during most of World War II. A close ally of Adolf Hitler, he was convicted at the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to 20 years in prison.
An architect by training, Speer joined the Nazi Party in 1931. His architectural skills made him increasingly prominent within the Party, and he became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Hitler commissioned him to design and construct structures including the Reich Chancellery and the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg. In 1937, Hitler appointed Speer as General Building Inspector for Berlin. In this capacity he was responsible for the Central Department for Resettlement that evicted Jewish tenants from their homes in Berlin. In February 1942, Speer was appointed as Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production. Using misleading statistics, he promoted himself as having performed an armaments miracle that was widely credited with keeping Germany in the war. In 1944, Speer established a task force to increase production of fighter aircraft. It became instrumental in exploiting slave labor for the benefit of the German war effort. (Full article...)
The BP Pedestrian Bridge, or simply BP Bridge, is a girder footbridge in the Loop community area of Chicago, United States. It spans Columbus Drive to connect Maggie Daley Park (formerly, Daley Bicentennial Plaza) with Millennium Park, both parts of the larger Grant Park. Designed by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Frank Gehry and structurally engineered by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, it opened along with the rest of Millennium Park on July 16, 2004. Gehry had been courted by the city to design the bridge and the neighboring Jay Pritzker Pavilion, and eventually agreed to do so after the Pritzker family funded the Pavilion.
Named for energy firm BP, which donated $5 million toward its construction, it is the first Gehry-designed bridge to have been completed. BP Bridge is described as snakelike because of its curving form. Designed to bear a heavy load without structural problems caused by its own weight, it has won awards for its use of sheet metal. The bridge is known for its aesthetics, and Gehry's style is seen in its biomorphic allusions and extensive sculptural use of stainless steel plates to express abstraction. (Full article...)
Bristol, the largest city in South West England, has an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from the medieval to 20th century brutalism and beyond. During the mid-19th century, Bristol Byzantine, an architectural style unique to the city, was developed, and several examples have survived.
Buildings from most of the architectural periods of the United Kingdom can be seen throughout Bristol. Parts of the fortified city and castle date back to the medieval era, as do some churches dating from the 12th century onwards. Outside the historical city centre there are several large Tudor mansions built for wealthy merchants. Almshouses and public houses of the same period survive, intermingled with areas of more recent development. Several Georgian-era squares were laid out for the enjoyment of the middle class. As the city grew, it merged with its surrounding villages, each with its own character and centre, often clustered around a parish church. (Full article...)
The Pennsylvania State Capitol is the seat of government for the U.S. state of Pennsylvania located in downtown Harrisburg which was designed by architect Joseph Miller Huston in 1902 and completed in 1906 in a Beaux-Arts style with decorative Renaissance themes throughout. The capitol houses the legislative chambers for the Pennsylvania General Assembly, made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate, and the Harrisburg chambers for the Supreme and Superior Courts of Pennsylvania, as well as the offices of the Governor and the Lieutenant Governor. It is also the main building of the Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex.
The seat of government for the state was initially in Philadelphia, then was relocated to Lancaster in 1799 and finally to Harrisburg in 1812. The current capitol, known as the Huston Capitol, is the third state capitol building built in Harrisburg. The first, the Hills Capitol, was destroyed in 1897 by a fire. The second, the Cobb Capitol, was left unfinished when funding was discontinued in 1899. (Full article...)
The Round Church (Bulgarian: Кръгла църква, Kragla tsarkva), also known as the Golden Church (Златна църква, Zlatna tsarkva) or the Church of St John (църква "Свети Йоан", tsarkva "Sveti Yoan"), is a large partially preserved early medieval Eastern Orthodox church. It lies in Preslav, the former capital of the First Bulgarian Empire, today a town in northeastern Bulgaria. The church dates to the early 10th century, the time of Tsar Simeon I's rule, and was unearthed and first archaeologically examined in 1927–1928.
Considered to be one of the most impressive examples of medieval Bulgarian architecture, the Round Church takes its name from the distinctive shape of one of its three sections, the cella (naos), which is a rotunda that serves as a place of liturgy. The church's design also includes a wide atrium and a rectangular entrance area, or narthex, marked by two circular turrets. (Full article...)
Monnow Bridge (Welsh: Pont Trefynwy Welsh pronunciation: [pɔnt tre:vənʊɨ]), in Monmouth, Wales, is the only remaining fortified river bridge in Great Britain with its gate tower standing on the bridge. Such bridge towers were common across Europe from medieval times, but many were destroyed due to urban expansion, diminishing defensive requirements and the increasing demands of traffic and trade. The historical and architectural importance of the bridge and its rarity are reflected in its status as a scheduled monument and a Grade I listed building. The bridge crosses the River Monnow (Afon Mynwy) 500 metres (1,600 ft) above its confluence with the River Wye.
Monmouth had been a significant border settlement since the Roman occupation of Britain, when it was the site of the fort of Blestium. The River Wye may have been bridged at this time but the Monnow, being easily fordable, appears not to have had a crossing until after the Norman Conquest. According to the local tradition, construction of Monnow Bridge began in 1272 to replace a 12th-century Norman timber bridge. Through the medieval era, the English Civil War, and the Chartist uprising, the bridge played a significant, if ineffectual, role in defending Monmouth. It also served as a gaol, a munitions store, a lodge, an advertising hoarding, a focus for celebrations and, most significantly, as a toll gate. Much of the medieval development of Monmouth was funded by the taxes and tolls the borough was entitled to raise through royal charter. The tolls were collected through control of the points of entry to the town, including the gatehouse on Monnow Bridge. (Full article...)
Buckingham Palace (UK: /ˈbʌkɪŋəm/) is a London royal residence and the administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning.
Originally known as Buckingham House, the building at the core of today's palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 on a site that had been in private ownership for at least 150 years. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte and became known as The Queen's House. During the 19th century it was enlarged by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. (Full article...)
7 World Trade Center (7 WTC, WTC-7, or Tower 7) refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current structure opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
The original 7 World Trade Center was 47 stories tall, clad in red granite masonry, and occupied a trapezoidal footprint. An elevated walkway spanning Vesey Street connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza. The building was situated above a Consolidated Edison power substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints. When the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. Salomon Brothers signed a long-term lease in 1988 and became the anchor tenant of 7 WTC. (Full article...)
Catherine de' Medici's building projects included the Valois chapel at Saint-Denis, the Tuileries Palace, and the Hôtel de la Reine in Paris, and extensions to the château of Chenonceau, near Blois. Born in 1519 in Florence to an Italian father and a French mother, Catherine de' Medici was a daughter of both the Italian and the French Renaissance. She grew up in Florence and Rome under the wing of the Medici popes, Leo X and Clement VII. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, she left Italy and married Henry, the second son of Francis I and Queen Claude of France. On doing so, she entered the greatest Renaissance court in northern Europe.
King Francis set his daughter-in-law an example of kingship and artistic patronage that she never forgot. She witnessed his huge architectural schemes at Chambord and Fontainebleau. She saw Italian and French craftsmen at work together, forging the style that became known as the first School of Fontainebleau. Francis died in 1547, and Catherine became queen consort of France. But it wasn't until her husband King Henry's death in 1559, when she found herself at forty the effective ruler of France, that Catherine came into her own as a patron of architecture. Over the next three decades, she launched a series of costly building projects aimed at enhancing the grandeur of the monarchy. During the same period, however, religious civil war gripped the country and brought the prestige of the monarchy to a dangerously low ebb. (Full article...)
Palladian architecture is a European architectural style derived from the work of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580). What is today recognised as Palladian architecture evolved from his concepts of symmetry, perspective and the principles of formal classical architecture from ancient Greek and Roman traditions. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture developed into the style known as Palladianism.
Palladianism emerged in England in the early 17th century, led by Inigo Jones, whose Queen's House at Greenwich has been described as the first English Palladian building. Its development faltered at the onset of the English Civil War. After the Stuart Restoration, the architectural landscape was dominated by the more flamboyant English Baroque. Palladianism returned to fashion after a reaction against the Baroque in the early 18th century, fuelled by the publication of a number of architectural books, including Palladio's own I quattro libri dell'architettura (The Four Books of Architecture) and Colen Campbell's Vitruvius Britannicus. Campbell's book included illustrations of Wanstead House, a building he designed on the outskirts of London and one of the largest and most influential of the early neo-Palladian houses. The movement's resurgence was championed by Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, whose buildings for himself, such as Chiswick House and Burlington House, became celebrated. Burlington sponsored the career of the artist, architect and landscaper William Kent, and their joint creation, Holkham Hall in Norfolk, has been described as "the most splendid Palladian house in England". By the middle of the century Palladianism had become almost the national architectural style, epitomised by Kent's Horse Guards at the centre of the nation's capital. (Full article...)
William Burges ARA (/ˈbɜːdʒɛs/; 2 December 1827 – 20 April 1881) was an English architect and designer. Among the greatest of the Victorian art-architects, he sought in his work to escape from both nineteenth-century industrialisation and the Neoclassical architectural style and re-establish the architectural and social values of a utopian medieval England. Burges stands within the tradition of the Gothic Revival, his works echoing those of the Pre-Raphaelites and heralding those of the Arts and Crafts movement.
Burges's career was short but illustrious; he won his first major commission for Saint Fin Barre's Cathedral in Cork in 1863 when he was 35. He died in 1881 at his Kensington home, The Tower House aged only 53. His architectural output was small but varied. Working with a long-standing team of craftsmen, he built churches, a cathedral, a warehouse, a university, a school, houses and castles. (Full article...)
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The Walt Disney Concert Hall at 111 South Grand Avenue in downtown Los Angeles, California, is the fourth hall of the Los Angeles Music Center and was designed by Frank Gehry. It was opened on October 24, 2003. Bounded by Hope Street, Grand Avenue, and 1st and 2nd Streets, it seats 2,265 people and serves, among other purposes, as the home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master Chorale. The hall is a compromise between a vineyard-style seating configuration, like the Berliner Philharmonie by Hans Scharoun, and a classical shoebox design like the Vienna Musikverein or the Boston Symphony Hall.Lillian Disney made an initial gift of $50 million in 1987 to build a performance venue as a gift to the people of Los Angeles and a tribute to Walt Disney's devotion to the arts and to the city. Both Gehry's architecture and the acoustics of the concert hall, designed by Minoru Nagata, the final completion supervised by Nagata's assistant and protege Yasuhisa Toyota, have been praised, in contrast to its predecessor, the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. (Full article...)
This list of tallest buildings in Detroit ranks skyscrapers and high rises in the U.S. city of Detroit, Michigan by height. The tallest skyscraper in Detroit is the 73-story Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center, which rises 727 feet (222 m) along Detroit's International Riverfront.[A] It is the tallest building in the state of Michigan, the 97th-tallest building in the United States, and the second tallest hotel building in the Western Hemisphere. Another famous skyscraper is One Detroit Center, which stands as the 2nd-tallest building in the city and the state.
Detroit's history of skyscrapers began in 1889, with completion of the historic 10-story Hammond Building—considered the city's first steel-framed skyscraper.It was followed by the Savings Bank Building in 1895, the Majestic Building in 1896, and the Union Trust Building in 1896. Detroit witnessed a massive building boom during the Roaring Twenties, resulting in the construction of many of the city's ornate skyscrapers, including the Penobscot, Guardian, Fisher, Buhl, Stott, and Broderick. (Full article...)
Minneapolis, the largest city in the U.S. state of Minnesota, is home to 190 completed high-rises, 41 of which stand taller than 300 feet (91 m). The tallest building in Minneapolis is the 57-story IDS Center, which rises 792 feet (241 m) and was designed by architect Philip Johnson. The tower has been the tallest building in the state of Minnesota since its completion in 1973, and is the 66th-tallest building in the United States. The second-tallest skyscraper in the city and the state is Capella Tower, which rises 775 feet (236 m) and was completed in 1992. Overall, seventeen of the twenty tallest buildings in Minnesota are located in Minneapolis. Additionally, most of the tallest buildings in Downtown Minneapolis are linked via the Minneapolis Skyway System, the largest pedestrian skywalk system in the world.
The history of skyscrapers in the city began with the construction of the Lumber Exchange Building, now also known as the Edison Building, in 1886; this structure, rising 165 feet (50 m) and 12 floors, is often regarded as the first skyscraper in Minnesota and one of the first fire-proof buildings in the country. The Lumber Exchange Building also stands as the oldest structure outside of New York City with at least 12 floors. Minneapolis went through a small building boom in the early 1920s, and then experienced a much larger boom lasting from 1960 to the early 1990s. During this time, 24 of the city's 36 tallest buildings were constructed, including the IDS Center, Capella Tower and Wells Fargo Center. The city is the site of twelve skyscrapers at least 492 feet (150 m) in height, including three which rank among the tallest in the United States. , the skyline of Minneapolis is ranked 2nd in the Midwest (after Chicago), 11th in the United States, and 82nd in the world with 32 buildings rising at least 328 feet (100 m). (Full article...)
Charles Holden (12 May 1875 – 1 May 1960) was an English architect best known for designing many London Underground stations during the 1920s and 1930s. Other notable designs were Bristol Central Library, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's headquarters at 55 Broadway and the University of London's Senate House. Many of his buildings have been granted listed building status, indicating that they are considered to be of architectural or historical interest and protecting them from unapproved alteration. He also designed over 60 war cemeteries and two memorials in Belgium and northern France for the Imperial War Graves Commission from 1920 to 1928.
Holden's early architectural training was in Bolton and Manchester where he worked for architects Everard W. Leeson and Jonathan Simpson before moving to London. After a short period with Arts and Crafts designer Charles Robert Ashbee, he went to work for Henry Percy Adams in 1899. He became Adams' partner in the firm in 1907 and remained with it for the rest of his career. (Full article...)
Dallas, the third-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas, is the site of 36 completed high-rise buildings over 350 feet (107 m), 20 of which stand taller than 492 feet (150 m). The tallest building in the city is the Bank of America Plaza, which rises 921 feet (281 m) in Downtown Dallas and was completed in 1985. It also stands as the 3rd-tallest building in Texas and the 40th-tallest building in the United States. The second-tallest skyscraper in the city is the Renaissance Tower, which rises 886 feet (270 m) and was completed in 1974. The Comerica Bank Tower, completed in 1987 and rising 787 feet (240 m), is the third-tallest building in Dallas. Three of the ten tallest buildings in Texas are located in Dallas. (Full article...)
John Douglas (1830–1911) was an English architect based in Chester, Cheshire. His designs included new churches, alterations to and restoration of existing churches, church furnishings, new houses and alterations to existing houses, and a variety of other buildings, including shops, banks, offices, schools, memorials and public buildings. His architectural styles were eclectic, but as he worked during the period of the Gothic Revival, much of his work incorporates elements of the English Gothic style. Douglas is probably best remembered for his incorporation of vernacular elements in his buildings, especially half-timbering. Of particular importance is Douglas' use of joinery and highly detailed wood carving.
Douglas was born in the Cheshire village of Sandiway and was articled to the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley, later becoming his chief assistant. He established an office in Chester in either 1855 or 1860, from where he practised throughout his career. Initially he ran the office himself but in 1884 he appointed his assistant, Daniel Porter Fordham, as a partner. When Fordham retired in 1897, he was succeeded by Charles Howard Minshull. In 1909 this partnership was dissolved and Douglas ran the office alone until his death in 1911. As his office was in Chester, most of his work on houses was in Cheshire and North Wales, although some was further afield, in Lancashire, Merseyside, Greater Manchester, Warwickshire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Derbyshire, Surrey, and Scotland. (Full article...)
John Douglas (1830–1911) was an English architect based in Chester, Cheshire. His designs included new churches, alterations to and restoration of existing churches, church furnishings, new houses and alterations to existing houses. He also designed a variety of other buildings, including shops, banks, offices, schools, memorials and public buildings. His architectural styles were eclectic, but as he worked during the period of the Gothic Revival, much of his work incorporates elements of the English Gothic style. Douglas is probably best remembered for his incorporation of vernacular elements in his buildings, especially half-timbering. Of particular importance is Douglas' use of joinery and highly detailed wood carving.
Douglas was born in the Cheshire village of Sandiway and was articled to the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley, later becoming his chief assistant. He established an office in Chester in either 1855 or 1860, from where he practised throughout his career. Initially he ran the office himself but in 1884 he appointed a former assistant, Daniel Porter Fordham, as a partner. When Fordham retired in 1897, he was succeeded by Charles Howard Minshull. In 1909 this partnership was dissolved and Douglas ran the office alone until his death in 1911. As his office was in Chester, most of his work was carried out in Cheshire and North Wales, although some was further afield in regions including Merseyside, Greater Manchester, and Shropshire. (Full article...)
The number of Shinto shrines in Japan today has been estimated at more than 150,000. Single structure shrines are the most common. Shrine buildings might also include oratories (in front of main sanctuary), purification halls, offering halls called heiden (between honden and haiden), dance halls, stone or metal lanterns, fences or walls, torii and other structures. The term "National Treasure" has been used in Japan to denote cultural properties since 1897.
The definition and the criteria have changed since the inception of the term. The shrine structures in this list were designated national treasures when the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties was implemented on June 9, 1951. As such they are eligible for government grants for repairs, maintenance and the installation of fire-prevention facilities and other disaster prevention systems. Owners are required to announce any changes to the National Treasures such as damage or loss and need to obtain a permit for transfer of ownership or intended repairs. The items are selected by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology based on their "especially high historical or artistic value". This list presents 42 entries of national treasure shrine structures from 12th-century Classical Heian period to the early modern 19th-century Edo period. The number of structures listed is actually more than 42, because in some cases groups of related structures are combined to form a single entry. The structures include main halls (honden), oratories (haiden), gates, offering halls (heiden), purification halls (haraedono) and other structures associated with shrines. (Full article...)
Cleveland, the second-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio, is home to 142 completed high-rises, 36 of which stand taller than 250 feet (76 m). The tallest building in Cleveland is the 57-story Key Tower, which rises 947 feet (289 m) on Public Square. The tower has been the tallest building in the state of Ohio since its completion in 1991, and it also stood as the tallest building in the United States between Chicago and New York City prior to the 2007 completion of the Comcast Center in Philadelphia. The Terminal Tower, which at 771 feet (235 m) is the second-tallest building in the city and the state; at the time of its completion in 1927, the building was the tallest in the world outside New York City.
The history of skyscrapers in Cleveland began in 1889 with the construction of the Society for Savings Building, often regarded as the first skyscraper in the city. Cleveland went through an early building boom in the late 1920s and early 1930s, during which several high-rise buildings, including the Terminal Tower, were constructed. The city experienced a second, much larger building boom that lasted from the early 1970s to early 1990s, during which time it saw the construction of over 15 skyscrapers, including the Key Tower and 200 Public Square. Overall, the city is the site of three of the four Ohio skyscrapers that rise at least 656 feet (200 m) in height; Cincinnati contains the other. , the skyline of Cleveland is 27th in the United States and 96th in the world with 18 buildings rising at least 330 feet (100 m) in height. (Full article...)
- Taunton Deane is a local government district with borough status in the English county of Somerset. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance; Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest". Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, severe restrictions are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or its fittings. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 rests with Historic England, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport; local authorities have a responsibility to regulate and enforce the planning regulations.
The district of Taunton Deane Area covers a population of approximately 100,000 in an area of 462 square kilometres (178 sq mi). It is centred on the town of Taunton, where around 60,000 of the population live and the council are based, and includes surrounding suburbs and villages. (Full article...)
- There are 42 Grade I listed buildings in Maidstone. The Borough of Maidstone is a local government district in the English county of Kent. The district covers a largely rural area of 152 square miles (394 km2) between the North Downs and the Weald with the town of Maidstone, the county town of Kent, in the north-west. The district has a population of approximately 166,400 in 2016.
In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance; Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest". Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, severe restrictions are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or its fittings. In England, buildings are given listed building status by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, acting on the recommendation of English Heritage. (Full article...)
The U.S. city of Miami, Florida has the country's third-tallest skyline (after New York City and Chicago) with 439 high-rises, over 100 of which stand taller than 400 feet (120 m) and 65 which are taller than 491 feet (150 m). The tallest building in the city is the 85-story Panorama Tower, which rises 868 feet (265 m) in Miami's Brickell district and surpassed all other buildings in height when it topped out in 2017. Nine of the ten tallest buildings in Florida are located in Miami. Overall, the skyline of Miami ranks as the fourth largest in North America and the 28th largest in the world. (Full article...)
Chicago, the third-largest city in the United States, is home to 1,397 completed high-rises, 56 of which stand taller than 600 feet (183 m). The tallest building in the city is the 110-story Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower), which rises 1,451 feet (442 m) in the Chicago Loop and was completed in 1974. Sears Tower was the tallest building in the world upon its completion, and remained the tallest building in the United States until May 10, 2013. The second, third, and fourth-tallest buildings in Chicago are the Trump International Hotel & Tower, St Regis Chicago, and the Aon Center, respectively. Of the ten tallest buildings in the United States, two are located in Chicago. Of the fifteen tallest buildings in the United States, five are in Chicago. Chicago has the second tallest skyline in the United States after New York City. Chicago leads the nation in the twenty tallest women-designed towers in the world, thanks to contributions by Jeanne Gang and Natalie de Blois. , Chicago had 125 buildings at least 500 feet (152 m) tall.
Chicago is the birthplace of the skyscraper. The Home Insurance Building, completed in 1885, is regarded as the world's first skyscraper. This building used the steel-frame method, innovated in Chicago. It was originally built with 10 stories, an enormous height in the 1800s, to a height of 138 feet (42 m). It was later expanded to 12 stories with a height of 180 feet (55 m). The building was demolished in 1931. New York City then began building skyscrapers as Chicago had done, and the two cities were virtually the only cities in the world with huge skylines for many decades. Chicago has always played a prominent role in the development of skyscrapers and three past buildings have been the tallest building in the United States. Being the inventor of the skyscraper, Chicago went through a very early high-rise construction boom that lasted from the early 1920s to the late 1930s, during which 9 of the city's 100 tallest buildings were constructed. The city then went through an even larger building boom that has lasted from the early 1960s. The tallest buildings are concentrated in various downtown districts such as the Loop, Streeterville, River North, the South Loop, and the West Loop. Other high-rises extend north along the waterfront into North Side districts such as the Gold Coast, Lincoln Park, Lakeview, Uptown and Edgewater. Some high-rises also extend south from downtown along the waterfront to South Side districts such as Kenwood, Hyde Park, and South Shore. (Full article...)
- There are 27 scheduled monuments in Maidstone, Kent, England. In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is an archaeological site or historic building of "national importance" that has been given protection against unauthorised change by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport; Historic England takes the leading role in identifying such sites. Scheduled monuments are defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 and the National Heritage Act 1983. They are also referred to as scheduled ancient monuments. There are about 20,000 scheduled monument entries on the list and more than one site can be included in a single entry. While a scheduled monument can also be recognised as a listed building, Historic England considers listed building status as a better way of protecting buildings than scheduled monument status. If a monument is considered by Historic England to "no longer merit scheduling" it can be removed from the schedule.
The borough of Maidstone is a local government district in the English county of Kent. The Maidstone district covers a largely rural area of 152 square miles (394 km2) between the North Downs and the Weald with the town of Maidstone, the county town of Kent, in the north-west. The district had a population of approximately 166,400 in 2016. The monuments range in date from a neolithic standing stone to a tiny 18th-century mortuary, but the majority are medieval. (Full article...)
Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES or B&NES) is a unitary authority created on 1 April 1996, following the abolition of the County of Avon, which had existed since 1974. Part of the ceremonial county of Somerset, Bath and North East Somerset occupies an area of 220 square miles (570 km2), two-thirds of which is green belt. It stretches from the outskirts of Bristol, south into the Mendip Hills and east to the southern Cotswold Hills and Wiltshire border. The city of Bath is the principal settlement in the district, but BANES also covers Keynsham, Midsomer Norton, Radstock and the Chew Valley. The area has a population of 170,000, about half of whom live in Bath, making it 12 times more densely populated than the rest of the area.
In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance; Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest". Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 rests with Historic England, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport; local authorities have a responsibility to regulate and enforce the planning regulations. (Full article...)
Many of the tallest buildings in Toronto are also the tallest in all of Canada. The tallest structure in Toronto is the CN Tower, which rises 553.3 metres (1,815 ft). The CN Tower was the tallest free-standing structure on land from 1975 until 2007. However, it is not generally considered a high-rise building as it does not have successive floors that can be occupied. The tallest habitable building in the city is First Canadian Place, which rises 298 metres (978 ft) tall in Toronto's Financial District and was completed in 1975. It also stands as the tallest building in Canada.
The history of skyscrapers in Toronto began in 1894 with the construction of the Beard Building, which is often regarded as the first skyscraper in the city. Toronto went through its first building boom in the late 1920s and early 1930s, during which the number of high-rise buildings in the city vastly increased. After this period, there was a great lull in construction between 1932 and 1964 with only a single building above 91.5 metres (300 ft) tall being built. (Full article...)
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London, England. Founded in 1824, in Trafalgar Square since 1838, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi.
The National Gallery is an exempt charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Its collection belongs to the government on behalf of the British public, and entry to the main collection is free of charge. (Full article...)
Al-Aqsa Mosque, properly Jāmiʿ al-Aqṣā (Arabic: جامع الأقصى, lit. 'congregational mosque of Al-Aqsa [compound]'), also known as the Qibli Mosque or Qibli Chapel (Arabic: المصلى القبلي, romanized: al-muṣallā al-qiblī, lit. 'prayer hall of the qibla (south)'), is a congregational mosque or prayer hall in the Old City of Jerusalem. In some sources the building is also named al-Masjid al-Aqṣā, but this name and its English translation "Al Aqsa Mosque" itself, is disputed as it can instead apply to the whole compound in which the building sits. The wider compound is also known as the Haram al-Sharif, the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound (or simply Al-Aqsa), and the Temple Mount.
During the rule of the Rashidun caliph Umar (r. 634–644) or the Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680), a small prayer house on the compound was erected near the mosque's site. The present-day mosque, located on the south wall of the compound, was originally built by the fifth Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705) or his successor al-Walid I (r. 705–715) (or both) as a congregational mosque on the same axis as the Dome of the Rock, a commemorative Islamic monument. After being destroyed in an earthquake in 746, the mosque was rebuilt in 758 by the Abbasid caliph al-Mansur. It was further expanded upon in 780 by the Abbasid caliph al-Mahdi, after which it consisted of fifteen aisles and a central dome. However, it was again destroyed during the 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake. The mosque was rebuilt by the Fatimid caliph al-Zahir, who reduced it to seven aisles but adorned its interior with an elaborate central archway covered in vegetal mosaics; the current structure preserves the 11th-century outline. (Full article...)
- The Grade I listed buildings in Somerset, England, demonstrate the history and diversity of its architecture. The ceremonial county of Somerset consists of a non-metropolitan county, administered by Somerset County Council, which is divided into five districts, and two unitary authorities. The districts of Somerset are West Somerset, South Somerset, Taunton Deane, Mendip and Sedgemoor. The two administratively independent unitary authorities, which were established on 1 April 1996 following the breakup of the county of Avon, are North Somerset and Bath and North East Somerset. These unitary authorities include areas that were once part of Somerset before the creation of Avon in 1974.
In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance, Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest". Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport; local authorities have a responsibility to regulate and enforce the planning regulations. (Full article...)
The Louvre (English: /ˈluːv(rə)/ LOOV(-rə)), or the Louvre Museum (French: Musée du Louvre [myze dy luvʁ] (listen)), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris, France. It is the home of some of the best-known works of art, including the Mona Lisa and the Venus de Milo. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement (district or ward). At any given point in time, approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are being exhibited over an area of 72,735 square meters (782,910 square feet). Attendance in 2022 was 7.8 million visitors, up 170 percent from 2021, but still below the 10.8 million visitors in 2018 before the COVID-19 pandemic.
The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the Medieval Louvre fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to urban expansion, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function, and in 1546 Francis I converted it into the primary residence of the French Kings. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces. (Full article...)
Zhenguo Temple (Chinese: 镇国寺) is a Buddhist temple located 10 km from Pingyao in the village of Hadongcun, in Shanxi Province, China. The temple's oldest hall, the Wanfo Hall, was built in 963 during the Northern Han dynasty, and is notable for featuring very large brackets that hold up the roof and flying eaves. The sculptures inside the hall are among the only examples of 10th century Buddhist sculpture in China. (Full article...)
St. Mary's Church is a Roman Catholic house of worship on Lodge Street in downtown Albany, New York, United States. It is a brick structure with an Italian Romanesque Revival exterior. Built in the 1860s, it is the third church to house the oldest Catholic congregation not only in the city, but in all of upstate New York. In 1977, St. Mary's Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; it is also a contributing property to the Downtown Albany Historic District, listed several years later.
The congregation of St. Mary's was established in the late 18th century. Early in the next century, the first church was built on the present location when the city donated the land, supposedly on the property where St. Isaac Jogues took shelter after escaping from captivity in the early 17th century. The current building, designed by local architects Nichols & Brown, is the third on the site; its tower was added in 1895. In the late 20th century, the interior and exterior were extensively renovated. (Full article...)
Hylton Castle (/ˈhɪltən/ HIL-tən) is a stone castle in the North Hylton area of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, England. Originally built from wood by the Hilton (later Hylton) family shortly after the Norman Conquest in 1066, it was later rebuilt in stone in the late 14th to early 15th century. The castle underwent major changes to its interior and exterior in the 18th century and it remained the principal seat of the Hylton family until the death of the last Baron in 1746. It was then Gothicised but neglected until 1812, when it was revitalised by a new owner. Standing empty again until the 1840s, it was briefly used as a school until it was purchased again in 1862. The site passed to a local coal company in the early 20th century and was taken over by the state in 1950.
One of the castle's main features is the range of heraldic devices found mainly on the west façade, which have been retained from the castle's original construction. They depict the coats of arms belonging to local gentry and peers of the late 14th to early 15th centuries and provide an approximate date of the castle's reconstruction from wood to stone. (Full article...)
The Joseph F. Glidden House is located in the United States in the DeKalb County, Illinois city of DeKalb. It was the home to the famed inventor of barbed wire Joseph Glidden. The barn, still located on the property near several commercial buildings, is said to be where Glidden perfected his improved version of barbed wire which would eventually transform him into a successful entrepreneur. The Glidden House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The home was designed by another barbed wire patent holder in DeKalb, Jacob Haish.
The property contains the house and two outbuildings; the barn and the remains of an old windmill foundation. Constructed in 1861, the Glidden House adheres mostly to a French Colonial style of architecture. The raised basement and full-length porch are two of the architectural elements found on the Glidden House that are consistently found in French Colonial homes. The barn, a building of high historical significance, was not included as part of the National Register listing for the property until 2002, nearly 30 years after the original nomination was approved. (Full article...)
The Joffrey Tower is a high-rise commercial real estate development on the northeast corner of North State Street and East Randolph Street in the Loop community area of Chicago in Cook County, Illinois, United States that is the permanent home of the Joffrey Ballet. It is located immediately south of the Chicago Theatre and directly across the street from Macy's largest Chicago (and its second largest overall) department store on State Street, within the Loop Retail Historic District. Its address had once been the site of the Chicago Masonic Temple. The placement of the Joffrey Ballet in this building appears to have involved political dealings with the Mayor of Chicago, Richard M. Daley and his brother, William M. Daley, a co-chairman of the Joffrey board of trustees. The building was scheduled for completion in December 2007, but was not finished until September 12, 2008. (Full article...)
Lochleven Castle is a ruined castle on an island in Loch Leven, in the Perth and Kinross local authority area of Scotland. Possibly built around 1300, the castle was the site of military action during the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296–1357). In the latter part of the 14th century, the castle was granted to William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas, by his uncle. It remained in the Douglases' hands for the next 300 years. Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned there in 1567–68, and forced to abdicate as queen, before escaping with the help of her gaoler's family. In 1588, the queen's gaoler inherited the title of Earl of Morton, and moved away from the castle. In 1675, Sir William Bruce, an architect, bought the castle and used it as a focal point for his garden; it was never again used as a residence.
Today, the remains of the castle are protected as a scheduled monument in the care of Historic Environment Scotland. Lochleven Castle is open to the public in summer, and access is available by ferry. (Full article...)
Okehampton Castle is a medieval motte and bailey castle in Devon, England. It was built between 1068 and 1086 by Baldwin FitzGilbert following a revolt in Devon against Norman rule, and formed the centre of the Honour of Okehampton, guarding a crossing point across the West Okement River. It continued in use as a fortification until the late 13th century, when its owners, the de Courtenays, became the Earls of Devon. With their new wealth, they redeveloped the castle as a luxurious hunting lodge, building a new deer park that stretched out south from the castle, and constructing fashionable lodgings that exploited the views across the landscape. The de Courtenays prospered and the castle was further expanded to accommodate their growing household.
The de Courtenays were heavily involved in the 15th century Wars of the Roses and Okehampton Castle was frequently confiscated. By the early 16th century the castle was still in good condition, but after Henry Courtenay was executed by Henry VIII the property was abandoned and left to decay, while the park was rented out by the Crown. Parts of the castle were reused as a bakery in the 17th century, but by the 19th century it was completely ruined and became popular with Picturesque painters, including J. M. W. Turner. Renovation work began properly in the 20th century, first under private ownership and then, more extensively, after the castle was acquired by the state. In the 21st century it is controlled by English Heritage and operated as a tourist attraction. (Full article...)
The McDonald's Chicago Flagship is a flagship McDonald's restaurant located in Chicago.
The McDonald's restaurant on the site first opened in 1983. It had a Rock and roll theme, and was first called the Original Rock 'N Roll McDonald's, and later the Rock N Roll McDonald's. It was one of the most famous McDonald's locations in the world and was once the busiest in the United States. The building had long been a local tourist attraction. The original building was demolished in 2004, a new structure opened in 2005 with a maximum occupancy of 300, which is about three times the standard McDonald's patron seating capacity. The original 1983 building and the first design of the rebuilt 2005 structure site held a rock and roll exhibit in a building adjacent to the restaurant and a small upstairs McDonald's museum display. The building featured the first two-lane McDonald's drive-through, relatively luxurious decor, a café, flat panel televisions and a green roof. (Full article...)
Antonin Raymond (or Czech: Antonín Raymond), born as Antonín Reimann (10 May 1888 – 25 October 1976) was a Czech American architect. Raymond was born and studied in Bohemia (now part of the Czech Republic), working later in the United States and Japan. Raymond was also the Consul of Czechoslovakia to Japan from 1926 to 1939, in which year the Czech diplomacy was closed down after the occupation of the European country by Nazi Germany.
Raymond's initial work with American architects Cass Gilbert and Frank Lloyd Wright gave him an insight into the use of concrete for texture and structure that he would refine throughout his six-decade career. At studio practices in New Hope, Pennsylvania and Tokyo, he explored traditional Japanese building techniques combined with the latest In American building innovations. Raymond applied these principles to a wide range of residential, commercial, religious, and institutional projects in Japan, America, India, and the Philippines. (Full article...)
The Midnight Sun Mosque, also known as the Inuvik Mosque or Little Mosque on the Tundra, is a non-denominational Islamic house of worship located in Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. The mosque was built in 2010 for the town's small Muslim community. It is the northernmost mosque in the Western Hemisphere and the only one in North America above the Arctic Circle.
Inuvik's Muslim community outgrew its original worship centre, a truck trailer, by the late 2000s. They had bought land for a mosque, but construction costs were too great. A Winnipeg-based Islamic charity funded a prefabricated mosque that was taken by truck to Hay River, twice nearly falling into a creek. From Hay River, it was floated via barge across Great Slave Lake and down the Mackenzie River to Inuvik, where it was moved to its permanent location on the northern edge of the town. (Full article...)
Roslin Castle (sometimes spelt Rosslyn) is a partially ruined castle near the village of Roslin in Midlothian, Scotland. It is located around 9 mi (14 km) south of Edinburgh, on the north bank of the North Esk, only a few hundred metres from the famous Rosslyn Chapel.
There has been a castle on the site since the early 14th century, when the Sinclair family, Earls of Caithness and Barons of Roslin, fortified the site, although the present ruins are of slightly later date. Following destruction during the War of the Rough Wooing of 1544, the castle was rebuilt. This structure, built into the cliffs of Roslin Glen, has remained at least partially habitable ever since. The castle is accessed via a high bridge, which replaced an earlier drawbridge. Roslin was renovated in the 1980s and now serves as holiday accommodation. (Full article...)
General images –
Church of the Gesù Rome (consecrated 1584) (from Baroque architecture)Facade of the
Church of the Gesù by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, and Giacomo della Porta (from Baroque architecture)Interior view of Dome of the
National Congress of Brazil, designed by Oscar Niemeyer (from Architecture)The
Finland) (from Functionalism (architecture))Typical railing, flat roof, stucco and colour detail in Nordic funkis (SOK warehouse and offices, 1938,
Norway: wood and elevated-level (from Architecture)In
Basilica of Bom Jesus. A World Heritage Site built in Baroque style and completed in 1604 AD. It has the body of St Francis Xavier. (from Baroque architecture)
Helsinki Olympic Stadium (Y. Lindegren & T. Jäntti, built in 1934–38) (from Functionalism (architecture))The tower of the
Chapel of the Holy Shroud, Turin (from Baroque architecture)
Belvedere Palace in Vienna (1721–23) (from Baroque architecture)Upper
Luxembourg Palace by Salomon de Brosse (1615–1624) (from Baroque architecture)The
Saints Peter and Paul Church, Kraków, Poland by Giovanni Maria Bernardoni (1605–1619) (from Baroque architecture)
Basilica and Convent of Nossa Senhora do Carmo in Recife, Brazil, built between 1665 and 1767 (from Baroque architecture)Interior of the
Wilanów Palace, Warsaw (1677–1696) (from Baroque architecture)
Les Invalides, Paris (from Baroque architecture)The Dome of
Greenwich Hospital by Sir Christopher Wren (1694) (from Baroque architecture)
Stourhead in Wiltshire, England, designed by Henry Hoare (1705–1785) (from Architecture)
Troja Palace, Prague (1679–1691) (from Baroque architecture)
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral built from 1573 to 1813. (from Baroque architecture)The
Ireland: Yola hut (from Architecture)In
Florence Cathedral (Italy) in the early 15th century, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi not only transformed the building and the city, but also the role and status of the architect. (from Architecture)In adding the dome to the
Church of Santa Engrácia, Lisbon (now National Pantheon of Portugal; begun 1681) (from Baroque architecture)
Corpus Christi Church, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (today Nyasvizh, Belarus), 1586 and 1593 (from Baroque architecture)
St-Gervais-et-St-Protais, the first Paris church with a façade in the new Baroque style (1616–20) (from Baroque architecture)The Church of
Beurs van Berlage in Amsterdam, 1903 (Hendrik Petrus Berlage) (from Traditionalist School (architecture))
Brandevoort housing estate in Helmond, 2005 (Rob Krier) (from Traditionalist School (architecture))
Södra Ängby, 1938 (from Functionalism (architecture))
Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. (from Architecture)
Zwinger in Dresden by Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (1697–1716) (from Baroque architecture)The
Znamenskaya Church (Dubrovitsy) 1690-1698 Podolsk, Moscow (from Baroque architecture)
Church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen (1682–1747) (from Baroque architecture)
Lesotho: rondavel stones (from Architecture)In
Santa Susanna, Rome by Carlo Maderno (1603) (from Baroque architecture)Facade of
Did you know (auto-generated) -
- ... that Leon Stynen has been called one of Belgium's greatest architects of the 20th century?
- ... that Indian philanthropist and business executive T. Mohandas Pai has been called the "architect of modern Manipal"?
- ... that Colin Powell was regarded as the "architect of Jersey's finance industry"?
- ... that T. E. Lawrence travelled 1,000 miles (1,600 km) on foot alone during a three-month tour of crusader castles while writing his thesis about the Crusades and European military architecture?
- ... that the base of 712 Fifth Avenue contains the historic Coty Building, which has the only documented architectural work by René Lalique in the United States?
- ... that British architect Chris Wilkinson redeveloped Victorian-era industrial gasholders in Kings Cross, London into modern residential apartments?
Radome by Preston Keres, United States Navy (from Portal:Architecture/Industrial images)Geodesic Radomes at
Waterford, Ireland (c.1890-1900) (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)Quays
British Columbia Parliament Buildings, Victoria, Canada (from Portal:Architecture/Civic building images)
Beirut, Lebanon, last third of the 19th century (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Diliff (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)L'Hemisfèric — Imax Cinema, Planetarium and Laserium at the
Belfast, Ireland (c.1890-1900) (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)Royal Avenue,
Prinsengracht (2006) in Amsterdam (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
British Museum Reading Room, London (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Roman Baths in Bath, Somerset, England (from Portal:Architecture/Ancient images)
Dunrobin Castle, Sutherland, Scotland (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)
Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)
Bronx Community College Library, by Detroit Publishing Company (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Royal College of Music, London (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)The
Taj Mahal, India (from Portal:Architecture/Monument images)
Ksiaz, Silesia, Poland (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)
Stockholm Central Station, Sweden (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
Manhattan from Staten Island Ferry (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
De Zoeker windmill, Netherlands. (from Portal:Architecture/Industrial images)
Chicago skyline (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
White House, Washington DC (from Portal:Architecture/Civic building images)Site and principle storey plan of the
Arc de Triomphe, Paris (from Portal:Architecture/Monument images)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)Skyline of
Library of Congress, Washington DC (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Singel (c. 1895) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Melbourne, Australia from Waterfront City, Docklands (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Grauman's Chinese Theatre, by Carol M. Highsmith (edited by Diliff) (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)
Saint Isaac's Square, Saint Petersburg, Russia (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
State Library of Victoria's La Trobe Reading Room, Melbourne, Australia (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)The
Vaduz, by Michael Gredenberg (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)Schloss Vaduz at
United States Capitol, Washington DC (from Portal:Architecture/Civic building images)
Curve, Leicester, UK (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)
Ivan Vazov National Theatre in Sofia, Bulgaria (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)
Sparrenburg Castle, Bielefeld, Germany (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)
Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain (from Portal:Architecture/Ancient images)
Alatskivi Castle, Estonia (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)
Radcliffe Camera, Oxford, England (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Sydney Opera House, Australia (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)
Library of Congress Main Reading Room, Washington DC (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Smithsonian Institution Building, Washington DC (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Amsterdam Centraal railway station (c. 1895) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
Keizersgracht (2008) in Amsterdam (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Melbourne Skyline from Rialto tower, Australia (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Albert Memorial, London (from Portal:Architecture/Monument images)
Egeskov Castle, Denmark (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)
Princeton University (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)Cleveland Tower at
Bodie, California, Ghost town (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
John F. Kennedy Library, Boston (from Portal:Architecture/Academia images)
Cuzco, Peru (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Neuschwanstein, Germany (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)Castle
Statue of Liberty, New York (from Portal:Architecture/Monument images)
Flinders Street Station (1927), by Victoria State Transport Authority (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
Eilean Donan Castle, Scotland, by Diliff (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)
St. Louis, Missouri (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)Panorama of
London King's Cross railway station departures concourse (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
Dam Square (c. 1895) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
New York panorama (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Queen's House, Greenwich (from Portal:Architecture/Palace images)The Tulip Stair from the
Melbourne Docklands panorama (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Battenberg Mausoleum, Sofia (from Portal:Architecture/Monument images)
Tartini Square in Piran, Slovenia (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Canberra, Australia (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Milwaukee 1890-1900 (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)Panoramic view of
Centre Block, Ottawa, Canada (from Portal:Architecture/Civic building images)
Montana State Capitol by George R. Mann 1896 (from Portal:Architecture/Civic building images)Competition design for the
Stockwell Bus Garage, London (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
Centennial Hall, Poland (from Portal:Architecture/Monument images)
InterContinental Amstel Amsterdam (2009) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
St. Patrick's Street, Cork, Ireland (c.1890-1900) (from Portal:Architecture/Townscape images)
Maintenon. France (from Portal:Architecture/Castle images)The castle of
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía, Valencia, Spain. by Diliff (from Portal:Architecture/Theatres and Concert hall images)
Waldorf Astoria New York by Joseph Pennell (1860–1926) (from Portal:Architecture/Travel images)
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