The Parliament of Quillín (Killen) was a diplomatic meeting held in 1641 between various Mapuche groups and Spanish authorities held in the fields of Quillín. With the ensuing treaty the Spanish sought an end to the hostilities of the Arauco War in order to concentrate the empire's resources in fighting the Catalans in Europe. This way the Mapuche obtained a peace treaty and a recognition on behalf of the crown in a case unique for any indigenous group in the Americas. Another contributing factor for parties to wanting to end warfare may have been the 1640 eruption of Llaima volcano in the middle of the conflict zone. Possibly Mapuches interpreted the eruption as a signal sent from the pillanes.
The parliament served as starting point for the return of many Spanish women held captive by the Mapuche –often in conditions of slavery. However not all Spanish women wanted to go back to life among the Spanish.
- Bengoa, José (October 4, 2017). "Columna de José Bengoa: Catalanes, Autonomías y Mapuche (s)". The Clinic (in Spanish). Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Petit-Breuilh Sepúlveda, María Eugenia (2004). "Los volcanes y la evolución del poblamiento". La historia eruptiva de los volcanes hispanoamericanos (Siglos XVI al XX): El modelo chileno (in Spanish). Huelva, Spain: Casa de los volcanes. p. 53. ISBN 84-95938-32-4.
- Guzmán, Carmen Luz (2013). "Las cautivas de las Siete Ciudades: El cautiverio de mujeres hispanocriollas durante la Guerra de Arauco, en la perspectiva de cuatro cronistas (s. XVII)" [The captives of the Seven Cities: The captivity of hispanic-creole women during the Arauco's War, from the insight of four chroniclers (17th century)]. Intus-Legere Historia (in Spanish). 7 (1): 77–97. doi:10.15691/07176864.2014.0.94.