List of countries by thorium resources

Thorium resources are a potential source for low-carbon energy.[1] Thorium has been demonstrated to perform as a nuclear fuel in several reactor designs.[2][3] It is present with a higher abundance than uranium in the crust of the earth. Thorium resources have not been estimated and assessed with a higher level of confidence, as in the case of uranium. Approximately 6 million tonnes of thorium have been estimated globally based on currently limited exploration and mainly on historical data.[4][5]

Thorium resources are found widely in over 35 countries all over the world. As there is currently negligible commercial use of thorium, the resources should be considered potentially viable according to the United Nations Framework Classification for Resources. Figures are given in metric tonnes of thorium metal.

Country Total thorium resources,
tonnes Th (rounded)
Remarks
 Angola 10,000 Historical data[6]
 Argentina 35,910 Recent reassessment[7]
 Australia 595,000 [8]
 Brazil 632,000 [9]
 Canada 172,000 [10]
 China 100,000 Possibly many hundred thousand tonnes.[11]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of 2,500 [6]
 Egypt 380,000 Historical data[12]
 Finland 60,000 Historical data[13]
 France 1,000 Historical data. Estimated to be from several hundred to a thousand tonnes.[14]
 Greenland (Denmark) 86,000 Current active exploration. Possibly up to 684,000 t.[15]
 India 846,477 [16]
 Iran 30,000 Historical data[17]
 Kenya 8,000 Historical data[12]
 Kazakhstan 50,000 [18]
 Korea, Republic of 6,000 [19]
 Madagascar 22,000 Historical data[20]
 Malawi 9,000 Historical data[21]
 Malaysia 18,000 [22]
 Morocco 30,000 Historical data[21]
 Mozambique 10,000 [23]
 Nigeria 29,000 [23]
 Norway 87,000 Historical data[24]
 Peru 20,000 [25]
 Russia 155,000 [26][27]
 South Africa 148,000 [28]
 Sri Lanka 4,000 [27]
 Sweden 50,000 Historical data[29]
 Taiwan 9,000 [18]
 Thailand 10,000 Historical data[30]
 Turkey 381,000 Historical data[31]
 United States of America 595,000 [32]
 Uruguay 3,000 Historical data[25]
 Uzbekistan 5,000 [33]
 Venezuela 300,000 Historical data[25]
 Vietnam 5,000 [33]
Others (Africa) 1,000 Historical data[18]
Others (CIS) (excluding Russia,
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan)
1,340,000 [18]
Total 6,245,887

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Role of Thorium to Supplement Fuel Cycles of Future Nuclear Energy Systems". www.iaea.org. 2016-09-16. Retrieved 2020-08-22.
  2. ^ "Thorium Fuel Cycle - Potential Benefits and Challenges". www.iaea.org. 2019-02-28. Retrieved 2020-08-22.
  3. ^ "Introduction of Thorium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle | en | OECD". www.oecd.org. Retrieved 2020-08-22.
  4. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 112.
  5. ^ "Thorium - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 2020-08-23.
  6. ^ a b International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 49.
  7. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 38.
  8. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 99.
  9. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 39.
  10. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 29.
  11. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 63.
  12. ^ a b International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 50.
  13. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 14.
  14. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 15.
  15. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 17.
  16. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 68.
  17. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 75.
  18. ^ a b c d International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 105.
  19. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 76.
  20. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 51.
  21. ^ a b International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 53.
  22. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 78.
  23. ^ a b International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 54.
  24. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 20.
  25. ^ a b c International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 47.
  26. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, pp. 21–22.
  27. ^ a b International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 83.
  28. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 57.
  29. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 23.
  30. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 85.
  31. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 26.
  32. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 106.
  33. ^ a b International Atomic Energy Agency 2019, p. 86.

Sources[edit]