Effective altruism is a philosophical and social movement that advocates "using evidence and reason to figure out how to benefit others as much as possible, and taking action on that basis". People who pursue the goals of effective altruism, called effective altruists, often choose careers based on the amount of good that they expect the career to achieve or donate to charities based on the goal of maximising impact. The movement developed during the 2000s, and the name effective altruism was coined in 2011. Prominent philosophers influential to the movement include Peter Singer, Toby Ord, and William MacAskill. Several books and many articles about the movement have since been published, and the Effective Altruism Global conference has been held since 2013. As of 2022, several billion dollars have been committed to effective altruist causes.
Popular cause priorities within effective altruism include global health and development, social inequality, animal welfare, and risks to the survival of humanity over the long-term future. Effective altruism emphasizes impartiality and the global equal consideration of interests when choosing beneficiaries. This has broad applications to the prioritization of scientific projects, entrepreneurial ventures, and policy initiatives estimated to save the most lives or reduce the most suffering.: 179–195
Beginning in the late 2000s, several communities centered around altruist, rationalist, and futurological concerns started to converge, such as:
- The evidence-based charity community centered around GiveWell, including Open Philanthropy, which originally came out of GiveWell Labs but then became independent
- The community around pledging and career selection for effective giving, centered around the Giving What We Can and 80,000 Hours organisations: 16–19
- The Singularity Institute (now MIRI) for studying the safety of artificial intelligence and the LessWrong discussion forum
In 2011, Giving What We Can and 80,000 Hours decided to incorporate into an umbrella organization and held a vote for their new name; the "Centre for Effective Altruism" was selected.: 18  The "Effective Altruists" Facebook group was set-up in November 2012. The Effective Altruism Global conference has been held since 2013. As the movement formed, it attracted individuals who were not part of a specific community, but who had been following the Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer's work on applied ethics, particularly "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" (1972), Animal Liberation (1975), and The Life You Can Save (2009). Singer himself used the term in 2013, in a TED talk titled "The Why and How of Effective Altruism".
Singer published The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically in 2015. In the same year, the Scottish philosopher and ethicist William MacAskill published Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference. In 2018, American news website Vox launched its Future Perfect section, led by journalist Dylan Matthews, which publishes articles and podcasts on "finding the best ways to do good". In 2019, Oxford University Press published the volume Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues, edited by Hilary Greaves and Theron Pummer. In 2020, the Australian moral philosopher Toby Ord published The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity, while MacAskill published What We Owe the Future in 2022.
The movement has come under increased public scrutiny since the bankruptcy of FTX in late 2022. Critiques include the role of FTX founder Sam Bankman-Fried in the movement, particularly his close association with MacAskill, and issues of exclusion and sexual harassment.
Effective altruists focus on the many philosophical questions related to the most effective ways to benefit others. Such philosophical questions shift the starting point of reasoning from "what to do" to "why" and "how". There is little consensus on the answers, and there are differences between effective altruists who believe that they should do the most good they possibly can with all of their resources and those who only try do the most good they can within a defined budget.: 15
The view of effective altruism as doing the most good one can within a defined budget can be compatible with a wide variety of views on morality and meta-ethics, as well as traditional religious teachings on altruism such as in Christianity. Effective altruism can also be in tension with religion where religion emphasizes spending resources on worship and evangelism instead of causes that do the most good.: 4
Other than Peter Singer and William MacAskill, philosophers associated with effective altruism include Nick Bostrom, Toby Ord, Hilary Greaves, and Derek Parfit. Economist Yew-Kwang Ng conducted similar research in welfare economics and moral philosophy.
EA emphasizes impartial reasoning in that everyone's well-being counts equally.: 85–95 : 17–19 Singer, in his 1972 essay "Famine, Affluence, and Morality", wrote:
It makes no moral difference whether the person I can help is a neighbor's child ten yards away from me or a Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away ... The moral point of view requires us to look beyond the interests of our own society.: 231–232
An important consideration for moral impartiality is the question of which beings are deserving of moral consideration. Some effective altruists consider the well-being of non-human animals in addition to humans, and advocate for animal welfare issues such as ending factory farming. Those who subscribe to longtermism include future generations as possible beneficiaries and try to improve the moral value of the long-term future by, for example, reducing existential risks.: 165–178 
William Schambra has criticized the impartial logic of effective altruism, arguing that benevolence arising from reciprocity and face-to-face interactions is stronger and more prevalent than charity based on impartial, detached altruism. Such community-based charitable giving, he writes, is foundational to civil society and, in turn, democracy.
A key component of effective altruism is "cause prioritization". Cause prioritization is based on the principle of cause neutrality, the idea that resources should be distributed to causes based on what will do the most good, irrespective of the identity of the beneficiary and the way in which they are helped. By contrast, many non-profits emphasize effectiveness and evidence with respect to a single cause such as education or climate change.
EA-based organizations prioritize cause areas by following the importance, tractability, and neglectedness framework. Importance is the amount of value that would be created if a problem were solved, tractability is the fraction of a problem that would be solved if additional resources were devoted to it, and neglectedness is the quantity of resources already committed to a cause.
The information required for cause prioritization may involve data analysis, comparing possible outcomes with what would have happened under other conditions (counterfactual reasoning), and identifying uncertainty. The difficulty of these tasks has led to the creation of organizations that specialize in researching the relative prioritization of causes.
This practice of "weighing causes and beneficiaries against one another" was criticized by Ken Berger and Robert Penna of Charity Navigator for being "moralistic, in the worst sense of the word" and "elitist". William MacAskill responded to Berger and Penna, defending the rationale for comparing one beneficiary's interests against another and concluding that such comparison is difficult and sometimes impossible but often necessary. MacAskill argued that the more pernicious form of elitism was that of donating to art galleries (and like institutions) instead of charity. Ian David Moss suggested that the criticism of cause prioritization could be resolved by what he called "domain-specific effective altruism", which would encourage "that principles of effective altruism be followed within an area of philanthropic focus, such as a specific cause or geography" and could resolve the conflict between local and global perspectives for some donors.
Some charities are considered to be far more effective than others, as charities may spend different amounts of money to achieve the same goal, and some charities may not achieve the goal at all. Effective altruists seek to identify interventions that are highly cost-effective in expectation. Many interventions have uncertain benefits, and the expected value of one intervention can be higher than that of another if its benefits are larger, even if it has a smaller chance of succeeding. Non-profits which undertake health interventions are selected based on their impact as measured by lives extended per dollar, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) added per dollar, or disability-adjusted life years (DALY) reduced per dollar.: 34
Some effective altruist organizations prefer randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence, as they are commonly considered the highest level of evidence in healthcare research. Others have argued that requiring this stringent level of evidence unnecessarily narrows the focus to issues where the evidence can be developed. Kelsey Piper argues that uncertainty is not a good reason for effective altruists to avoid acting on their best understanding of the world, because most interventions have mixed evidence regarding their effectiveness. Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry and others have warned about the "measurement problem", with issues such as medical research or government reform worked on "one grinding step at a time", and results being hard to measure with controlled experiments. Gobry also argues that such interventions risk being undervalued by the effective altruism movement.
Counterfactual reasoning involves considering the possible outcomes of alternative choices. It has been employed by effective altruists in a number of contexts, including career choice. Many people assume that the best way to help others is through direct methods, such as working for a charity or providing social services. However, since there is a high supply of candidates for such positions, it makes sense to compare the amount of good one candidate does to how much good the next-best candidate would do. According to this reasoning, the marginal impact of a career is likely to be smaller than the gross impact.
The principles and goals of effective altruism are wide enough to support furthering any cause that allows people to do the most good, while taking into account cause neutrality. Many people in the effective altruism movement have prioritized global health and development, animal welfare, and mitigating risks that threaten the future of humanity.
Global health and development
The alleviation of global poverty and neglected tropical diseases has been a focus of some of the earliest and most prominent organizations associated with effective altruism. Charity evaluator GiveWell was founded by Holden Karnofsky and Elie Hassenfeld in 2007 to address poverty, where they believe additional donations to be the most impactful. GiveWell's leading recommendations include: malaria prevention charities Against Malaria Foundation and Malaria Consortium, deworming charities Schistosomiasis Control Initiative and Deworm the World Initiative, and GiveDirectly for direct cash transfers to beneficiaries. The organization The Life You Can Save, which originated from Singer's book of the same name, works to alleviate global poverty by promoting evidence-backed charities, conducting philanthropy education, and changing the culture of giving in affluent countries.
Improving animal welfare has been a focus of many effective altruists. Singer and Animal Charity Evaluators (ACE) have argued that effective altruists should prioritize changes to factory farming over pet welfare. 60 billion land animals are slaughtered and between 1 and 2.7 trillion individual fish are killed each year for human consumption.
A number of non-profit organizations have been established that adopt an effective altruist approach toward animal welfare. ACE evaluates animal charities based on their cost-effectiveness and transparency, particularly those tackling factory farming.: 139  Other animal initiatives affiliated with effective altruism include Animal Ethics' and Wild Animal Initiative's work on wild animal suffering, addressing farm animal suffering with cultured meat, and expanding the circle of concern so that people care more about all kinds of animals. Faunalytics focuses on animal welfare research. The Sentience Institute is a think tank founded to expand the moral circle to other species.
Long-term future and global catastrophic risks
The ethical stance of longtermism, emphasizing the importance of positively influencing the long-term future, developed closely in relation to effective altruism. Longtermists believe that the welfare of future individuals is just as important as the welfare of currently existing individuals, as the prioritization of the former is coextensive with the wellness of the latter. Toby Ord has stated that "the people of the future may be even more powerless to protect themselves from the risks we impose than the dispossessed of our own time.": 8
In particular, the importance of addressing existential risks such as dangers associated with biotechnology and advanced artificial intelligence is often highlighted and the subject of active research.
Organizations that work actively on research and advocacy for improving the long-term future, and have connections with the effective altruism community, are the Future of Humanity Institute at the University of Oxford, the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at the University of Cambridge, and the Future of Life Institute. In addition, the Machine Intelligence Research Institute is focused on the more narrow mission of managing advanced artificial intelligence.
Effective altruists pursue different approaches to doing good, such as donating to effective charitable organizations, using their career to make more money for donations or directly contributing their labor, and starting new non-profit or for-profit ventures.
Many effective altruists engage in significant charitable donation. Some believe it is a moral duty to alleviate suffering through donations if other possible uses of those funds do not offer comparable benefits to oneself. Some even lead a frugal lifestyle in order to donate more.
Giving What We Can (GWWC) is an organization whose members pledge to donate at least 10% of their future income to the causes that they believe are the most effective. GWWC was founded in 2009 by Toby Ord, who lives on £18,000 ($27,000) per year and donates the balance of his income. In 2020, Ord said that people had donated over $100 million to date through the GWWC pledge.
Founders Pledge is a similar initiative, founded out of the non-profit Founders Forum for Good, whereby entrepreneurs make a legally binding commitment to donate a percentage of their personal proceeds to charity in the event that they sell their business. As of February 2022, roughly 1,700 entrepreneurs had pledged over $7 billion and over $500 million had been donated.
An estimated $416 million was donated to effective charities identified by the movement in 2019, representing a 37% annual growth rate since 2015. Two of the largest donors in the effective altruism community, Dustin Moskovitz, who had become wealthy through co-founding Facebook, and his wife Cari Tuna, hope to donate most of their net worth of over $11 billion for effective altruist causes through the private foundation Good Ventures. Other prominent philanthropists influenced by effective altruism include Sam Bankman-Fried, as well as professional poker players Dan Smith and Liv Boeree.
Effective altruists often consider using their career to do good, both by direct service and indirectly through their consumption, investment, and donation decisions. 80,000 Hours is an organization that conducts research and gives advice on which careers have the largest positive impact.
Earning to give
Founding effective organizations
Some effective altruists start non-profit or for-profit organizations to implement cost-effective ways of doing good. On the non-profit side, for example, Michael Kremer and Rachel Glennerster conducted randomized controlled trials in Kenya to find out the best way to improve students' test scores. They tried new textbooks and flip charts, as well as smaller class sizes, but found that the only intervention that raised school attendance was treating intestinal worms in children. Based on their findings, they started the Deworm the World Initiative. From 2013 to August 2022, GiveWell designated Deworm the World as a top charity based on their assessment that mass deworming is "generally highly cost-effective"; however, there is substantial uncertainty about the benefits of mass deworming programs, with some studies finding long-term effects and others not. The Happier Lives Institute conducts research on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in developing countries; Canopie develops an app that provides cognitive behavioural therapy to women who are expecting or postpartum; Giving Green analyzes and ranks climate interventions for effectiveness; the Fish Welfare Initiative works on improving animal welfare in fishing and aquaculture; and the Lead Exposure Elimination Project works on reducing lead poisoning in developing countries.
Incremental versus systemic change
While much of the initial focus of effective altruism was on direct strategies such as health interventions and cash transfers, more systematic social, economic, and political reforms have also attracted attention. Mathew Snow in Jacobin wrote that effective altruism "implores individuals to use their money to procure necessities for those who desperately need them, but says nothing about the system that determines how those necessities are produced and distributed in the first place". Philosopher Amia Srinivasan criticized William MacAskill's Doing Good Better for a perceived lack of coverage of global inequality and oppression, while noting that effective altruism is in principle open to whichever means of doing good is most effective, including political advocacy aimed at systemic change. Judith Lichtenberg in The New Republic said that effective altruists "neglect the kind of structural and political change that is ultimately necessary". An article in The Ecologist published in 2016 argued that effective altruism is an apolitical attempt to solve political problems, describing the concept as "pseudo-scientific".
Arguments have been made that movements focused on systemic or institutional change are compatible with effective altruism. Philosopher Elizabeth Ashford posits that people are obligated to both donate to effective aid charities and to reform the structures that are responsible for poverty. Open Philanthropy has given grants for progressive advocacy work in areas such as criminal justice, economic stabilization, and housing reform, despite pegging the success of political reform as being "highly uncertain".
Other criticisms of effective altruism have included topics such as a narrow-minded focus on distant problems and disregard for more-local needs, a culture of elitism, and insufficient focus on societal change.
Ross Douthat of The New York Times criticized the movement's "'telescopic philanthropy' aimed at distant populations" and envisioned "effective altruists sitting around in a San Francisco skyscraper calculating how to relieve suffering halfway around the world while the city decays beneath them", while he also praised the movement for providing "useful rebukes to the solipsism and anti-human pessimism that haunts the developed world today".
In response to a version of Singer's drowning child analogy, philosopher Kwame Anthony Appiah in 2006 asked whether the most effective action of a man in an expensive suit, confronted with a drowning child, would not be to save the child and ruin his suit—but rather, sell the suit and donate the proceeds to charity. Appiah believed that he "should save the drowning child and ruin my suit". In a 2015 debate, when presented with a similar scenario of either saving a child from a burning building or saving a Picasso painting to sell and donate the proceeds to charity, MacAskill responded that the effective altruist should save and sell the Picasso. Psychologist Alan Jern called MacAskill's choice "unnatural, even distasteful, to many people", although Jern concluded that effective altruism raises questions "worth asking".
Some have criticized a lack of diversity in effective altruism's proponents. Nitasha Tiku of The Washington Post called the movement a "community of roughly 7,000 adherents—largely young, White men connected to elite schools in the United States and Britain". Philosophers such as Susan Dwyer, Joshua Stein, and Olúfẹ́mi O. Táíwò have criticized effective altruism for furthering the disproportionate influence of wealthy individuals in domains that should be the responsibility of democratic governments and organizations.
Some also have argued that there is a hostile culture for women in the effective altruism movement. In a 2023 Time magazine article, seven women reported various types of misconduct and controversy, accusing men within the movement of using their power to groom younger women for polyamorous sexual relationships. The accusers argued that most of the current members are white males who create an environment where sexual harassment is tolerated, excused or rationalised away. The article also quotes a community liaison from the Centre for Effective Altruism who said that while action has already been taken on some of the reported incidents, the allegations of which they were previously unaware will now be addressed.[tone]
In 2019, investor and entrepreneur Sam Bankman-Fried, founder of the cryptocurrency exchange FTX, became associated with the effective altruism movement, announcing that his goal was to "donate as much as [he] can". Bankman-Fried founded the FTX Future Fund, which brought on MacAskill as one of its advisers, and from which MacAskill's Centre for Effective Altruism received a $13.9 million grant. After the company's collapse in late 2022, Bankman-Fried's relationship with effective altruism has been called into question as a public relations strategy, while the movement's embrace of him proved damaging to its reputation. Some journalists asked whether the effective altruist movement was "complicit" in FTX's collapse. However, several leaders of the effective altruism movement, including William MacAskill and Robert Wiblin, condemned FTX's actions. MacAskill emphasized that bringing about good consequences does not justify violating rights or sacrificing integrity.
- Charity (practice) – Voluntary giving of help to those in need
- Charity evaluator – Analysis of effectiveness of non-profit organization projects
- Evidence-based policy – Protocols or political decisions based on data collection and analysis
- Impact investing – Investing in enterprises aiming at creating social/environmental impact alongside profit
- Prosocial behavior – Intent to benefit others
- Scientific Charity Movement
- Speciesism – Special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership
- Suffering risks – Risks of astronomical suffering
- The Giving Pledge – Charitable organization
- The Gospel of Wealth – Article written by Andrew Carnegie
Notes and references
- ^ a b c MacAskill, William (January 2017). "Effective altruism: introduction". Essays in Philosophy. 18 (1): eP1580:1–5. doi:10.7710/1526-0569.1580. ISSN 1526-0569. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
- ^ The quoted definition is endorsed by a number of organizations at: "CEA's Guiding Principles". Centre For Effective Altruism. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
- ^ The term effective altruists is used to refer to people who embrace effective altruism in many published sources such as Oliver (2014), Singer (2015), and MacAskill (2017), though as Pummer & MacAskill (2020) noted, calling people "effective altruists" minimally means that they are engaged in the project of "using evidence and reason to try to find out how to do the most good, and on this basis trying to do the most good", not that they are perfectly effective nor even that they necessarily participate in the effective altruism community.
- ^ a b c d e f MacAskill, William (March 10, 2014). "The history of the term 'effective altruism'". Effective Altruism Forum. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- ^ Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (August 8, 2022). "The Reluctant Prophet of Effective Altruism". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (August 8, 2022). "How effective altruism went from a niche movement to a billion-dollar force". Vox. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
- ^ a b c MacAskill, William (2016) . Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Help Others, Do Work that Matters, and Make Smarter Choices about Giving Back. New York: Avery. ISBN 9781592409662. OCLC 932001639.
- ^ Anthis, Jayce Reese (May 15, 2022). "Some Early History of Effective Altruism". Jacy Reese Anthis. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
- ^ Strom, Stephanie (December 20, 2007). "2 Young Hedge-Fund Veterans Stir Up the World of Philanthropy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
- ^ a b c d e f Matthews, Dylan (April 24, 2015). "You have $8 billion. You want to do as much good as possible. What do you do? Inside the Open Philanthropy Project". Vox. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
- ^ Cha, Ariana Eunjung (December 26, 2014). "Cari Tuna and Dustin Moskovitz: Young Silicon Valley billionaires pioneer new approach to philanthropy - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- ^ MacAskill, William (May 20, 2013). "Getting inspired by cost-effective giving". The Life You Can Save. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
- ^ a b c d e Singer, Peter (2015). The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. Castle lectures in ethics, politics, and economics. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300180275. OCLC 890614537.
- ^ Chivers, Tom (2019). "The Effective Altruists". The AI Does Not Hate You: The Rationalists and Their Quest to Save the World. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-1-4746-0877-0.
- ^ Ram, Aliya (December 4, 2015). "The power and efficacy of effective altruism". Financial Times. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
- ^ a b On the influence of Singer's essay "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" see, for example: Snow 2015, Singer 2015, pp. 13–20, and Lichtenberg, Judith (November 30, 2015). "Peter Singer's extremely altruistic heirs: Forty years after it was written, 'Famine, Affluence, and Morality' has spawned a radical new movement". The New Republic. Singer's arguments for impartiality were later repeated in other books by him (such as Singer 2009, Singer 2015).
- ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (April 4, 2015). "The Trader Who Donates Half His Pay". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- ^ Shariatmadari, David (August 20, 2015). "Doing Good Better by William MacAskill review – if you read this book, you'll change the charities you donate to". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
- ^ Cowen, Tyler (August 14, 2015). "Effective Altruism: Where Charity and Rationality Meet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
- ^ a b c d Thompson, Derek (June 15, 2015). "The Greatest Good". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- ^ Schmidt, Christine (October 15, 2018). "Will Vox's new section on effective altruism... well, do any good?". Nieman Journalism Lab. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (October 15, 2018). "Future Perfect, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018. Some topics that the Future Perfect series has covered include:
- Effective philanthropy: Matthews, Dylan (December 17, 2019). "These are the charities where your money will do the most good". Vox. Archived from the original on August 29, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- High-impact career choice: Matthews, Dylan (November 28, 2018a). "How to pick a career that counts". Vox. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
- Poverty reduction through women's empowerment: Illing, Sean (March 8, 2019). "Want less poverty in the world? Empower women". Vox. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- Improving children's learning efficiently through improving environmental health: Yglesias, Matthew (January 8, 2020). "Installing air filters in classrooms has surprisingly large educational benefits: $1,000 can raise a class's test scores by as much as cutting class size by a third". Vox. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- Animal welfare improvements: Piper, Kelsey (November 27, 2018a). "Where will your donations do the most for animals?". Vox. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
- Ways to reduce global catastrophic risks: Piper, Kelsey (November 19, 2018). "How technological progress is making it likelier than ever that humans will destroy ourselves". Vox. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- ^ Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron, eds. (November 15, 2019). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging Philosophy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-884136-4.
- ^ Pummer, Theron (August 2, 2020). "The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
- ^ MacAskill, William (2022). What We Owe the Future. Basic Books. ISBN 978-1-5416-1862-6. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
- ^ a b c Tiku, Nitasha (November 17, 2022). "The do-gooder movement that shielded Sam Bankman-Fried from scrutiny". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
- ^ a b c d Alter, Charlotte (February 3, 2023). "Effective Altruism Has a Hostile Culture for Women, Critics Say". Time. Archived from the original on February 3, 2023. Retrieved February 4, 2023.
- ^ Alter, Charlotte (March 15, 2023). "Exclusive: Effective Altruist Leaders Were Repeatedly Warned About Sam Bankman-Fried Years Before FTX Collapsed". Time. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
- ^ a b c d e f Pummer, Theron; MacAskill, William (June 2020). "Effective altruism". In LaFollette, Hugh (ed.). International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1002/9781444367072.wbiee883. ISBN 9781444367072. OCLC 829259960. S2CID 241220220.
- ^ a b c MacAskill, William (2019a). "The definition of effective altruism". In Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron (eds.). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 10–28. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198841364.003.0001. ISBN 9780198841364. OCLC 1101772304.
- ^ a b Crouch, Will (May 30, 2013). "What is effective altruism?". Practical Ethics Blog. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- ^ Singer (2015) expressed a clearly normative view: "Effective altruism is based on a very simple idea: we should do the most good we can. Obeying the usual rules about not stealing, cheating, hurting, and killing is not enough, or at least not enough for those of us who have the great good fortune to live in material comfort, who can feed, house, and clothe ourselves and our families and still have money or time to spare. Living a minimally acceptable ethical life involves using a substantial part of our spare resources to make the world a better place. Living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good we can." (p. vii)
- ^ a b Matthews, Dylan (August 10, 2015). "I spent a weekend at Google talking with nerds about charity. I came away … worried". Vox. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
- ^ Bajekal, Naina (August 22–29, 2022). "How to do the most good: a growing movement argues we should care about people thousands of miles away—and millions of years in the future". Time. Vol. 200, no. 7–8. pp. 69–75.
- ^ "Hilary Greaves". Faculty of Philosophy. University of Oxford. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
- ^ O'Grady, Jane (January 12, 2017). "Derek Parfit obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- ^ Wiblin, Robert; Harris, Keiran (July 26, 2018). "Prof Yew-Kwang Ng on ethics and how to create a much happier world". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
- ^ a b Singer, Peter (Spring 1972). "Famine, Affluence, and Morality". Philosophy and Public Affairs. 1 (3): 229–243. JSTOR 2265052. The essay was republished in book form in 2016 with a new preface and two extra essays by Singer: Singer, Peter (2016). Famine, Affluence, and Morality. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190219208. OCLC 907446001.
- ^ Fisher, Andrew (January 2017). "Theory-neutral arguments for 'effective animal advocacy'". Essays in Philosophy. 18 (1): eP1578:1–14. doi:10.7710/1526-0569.1578. ISSN 1526-0569. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
- ^ Broad, Garrett M. (December 2018). "Effective animal advocacy: effective altruism, the social economy, and the animal protection movement". Agriculture and Human Values. 35 (4): 777–789. doi:10.1007/s10460-018-9873-5. S2CID 158634567.
- ^ Beckstead, Nick (2019). "A brief argument for the overwhelming importance of shaping the far future". In Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron (eds.). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 80–98. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198841364.003.0006. ISBN 9780198841364. OCLC 1101772304.
- ^ a b Schambra, William A. (May 22, 2014). "Opinion: The coming showdown between philanthrolocalism and effective altruism". Philanthropy Daily. Archived from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- ^ Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (August 8, 2022). "The Reluctant Prophet of Effective Altruism". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
- ^ MacAskill, William (September 2019b). "Practical ethics given moral uncertainty". Utilitas. 31 (3): 231–245. doi:10.1017/S0953820819000013. S2CID 150859616. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
- ^ Berger, Ken; Penna, Robert (November 25, 2013). "The Elitist Philanthropy of So-Called Effective Altruism". Stanford Social Innovation Review. Archived from the original on December 3, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
- ^ a b MacAskill, William (December 3, 2013). "What Charity Navigator Gets Wrong About Effective Altruism". Stanford Social Innovation Review. Archived from the original on December 3, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
- ^ Moss, Ian David (Spring 2017). "In Defense of Pet Causes". Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
- ^ a b Skelton, Anthony (2016). "The ethical principles of effective altruism". Journal of Global Ethics. 12 (2): 137–146. doi:10.1080/17449626.2016.1193552. S2CID 147936480. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ A guide to the development, implementation and evaluation of clinical practice guidelines. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council. 1998. pp. 21–25. ISBN 1864960485. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
- ^ a b Rubenstein, Jennifer (December 14, 2016). "The Lessons of Effective Altruism". Ethics & International Affairs. Archived from the original on August 27, 2018. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- ^ a b Piper, Kelsey (July 19, 2022). "The return of the "worm wars"". Vox. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
- ^ a b Gobry, Pascal-Emmanuel (March 16, 2015). "Can Effective Altruism really change the world?". The Week. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
- ^ Rosato, Donna; Wong, Grace (November 2011). "Best jobs for saving the world". CNN. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved February 28, 2013.
- ^ Todd, Benjamin. "Which Ethical Careers Make a Difference?: The Replaceability Issue in the Ethics of Career Choice". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Konduri, Vimal. "GiveWell Co-Founder Explains Effective Altruism Frameworks". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- ^ Wolfe, Alexandra (November 24, 2011). "Hedge Fund Analytics for Nonprofits". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg LP. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ "Doing good by doing well". The Economist. Archived from the original on December 27, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- ^ Pitney, Nico (March 26, 2015). "That Time A Hedge Funder Quit His Job And Then Raised $60 Million For Charity". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015.
- ^ Singer, Peter (2009). The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty. New York: Random House. ISBN 9781400067107. OCLC 232980306.
- ^ Zhang, Linch (March 17, 2017). "How To Do Good: A Conversation With The World's Leading Ethicist". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
- ^ Gunther, Marc (November 26, 2021). "Why the future of animal welfare lies beyond the West". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ Klein, Ezra (December 6, 2019). "Peter Singer on the lives you can save". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (April 12, 2021). "The wild frontier of animal welfare". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ "Fish: the forgotten victims on our plate". The Guardian. September 14, 2010. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Global Warming Climate Change and Farm Animal Welfare (PDF). Compassion in World Farming. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Mood, Alison (2010). Worse things happen at sea: the welfare of wild-caught fish (PDF). fishcount.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Piper 2018a.
- ^ Engber, Daniel (August 18, 2016). "How the Chicken Became the Unlikely Focus of the Animal Rights Movement". Slate Magazine. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (April 12, 2021). "The wild frontier of animal welfare". Vox. Retrieved September 5, 2021.
- ^ ""Effective Altruism for Animals" Panel, Animal Studies". New York University Animal Studies Initiative. NYU. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ "How one founder aims to bring researchers and food producers together around cultured meat". TechCrunch. August 23, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ "Is Anyone Right About the Future of Cultivated Meat? Does It Matter?". Green Queen. November 9, 2021. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ a b Torrella, Kenny (March 2, 2021). "The next frontier for animal welfare: Fish". Vox. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
- ^ Lombrozo, Tania (November 15, 2016). "Expanding The Circle Of Moral Concern". NPR. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ Samuel, Sigal (April 4, 2019). "Should animals, plants, and robots have the same rights as you?". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ Piper, Kelsey (October 31, 2018). "Vegan diets are hard to sell. Animal activists might do better focused on corporate decisions, not people's plates". Vox. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
- ^ Sigal, Samuel (April 4, 2019). "Moral circle expansion: should animals, plants, and robots have the same rights as humans?". Vox. Retrieved December 1, 2021.
- ^ MacAskill, William (August 7, 2022). "What is longtermism?". BBC. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
- ^ a b MacAskill, William (August 5, 2022). "Opinion | The Case for Longtermism". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 15, 2022.
- ^ Bostrom, Nick (2003). "Astronomical Waste: The Opportunity Cost of Delayed Technological Development" (PDF). Utilitas. 15 (3): 308–314. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.429.2849. doi:10.1017/S0953820800004076. S2CID 15860897. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 11, 2017. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- ^ Ord, Toby (2020). "Introduction" (PDF). The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781526600196. OCLC 1143365836. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
- ^ Guan, Melody (April 19, 2015). "The New Social Movement of our Generation: Effective Altruism". Harvard Political Review. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Piper, Kelsey (December 21, 2018). "The case for taking AI seriously as a threat to humanity". Vox. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
- ^ Basulto, Dominic (July 7, 2015). "The very best ideas for preventing artificial intelligence from wrecking the planet". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Burton, Paul (October 13, 2015). "Family Gives Away Half Their Income To Help Others". WBZ-TV. Archived from the original on September 30, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Geoghegan, Tom (December 13, 2010). "Toby Ord: Why I'm giving £1m to charity". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (November 30, 2020). "Toby Ord explains his pledge to give 10% of his pay to charity". Vox. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
- ^ MacAskill, William (November 26, 2015). "One of the most exciting new effective altruist organisations: An interview with David Goldberg of the Founders Pledge". 80,000 Hours. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Butcher, Mike (June 10, 2015). "UK Tech Founders Take The Founders Pledge To 2%, Committing $28m+ To Good Causes". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- ^ "Home". Founders Pledge. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- ^ "The Founder's Guide to Impactful Philanthropy". intheworks.helpscout.com. Retrieved February 21, 2022.
- ^ Todd, Benjamin (August 9, 2020). "How are resources in effective altruism allocated across issues?". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
- ^ Todd, Benjamin (July 28, 2021). "Is effective altruism growing? An update on the stock of funding vs. people". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
- ^ Zillman, Claire (July 29, 2021). "Sam Bankman-Fried and the conscience of a crypto billionaire". Fortune. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
- ^ a b Pincus-Roth, Zachary (September 23, 2020). "The Rise of the Rational Do-Gooders". The Washington Post Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
- ^ Oliver, Huw (October 6, 2014). "'Effective altruists' are a new type of nice person". Vice. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ William, MacAskill (2014). "Replaceability, Career Choice, and Making a Difference". Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 17 (2): 269–283. doi:10.1007/s10677-013-9433-4. ISSN 1386-2820. S2CID 143054318. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Matthews 2018a.
- ^ "Want To Make An Impact With Your Work? Try Some Advice From 80,000 Hours". TechCrunch. August 4, 2015. Archived from the original on November 9, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2015.
- ^ Kristof, Nicholas (April 4, 2015). "The Trader Who Donates Half His Pay". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
- ^ "Evidence Action's Deworm the World Initiative – August 2022 version". GiveWell. August 2022. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (November 18, 2021). "Is therapy the best way to make the world happier?". Vox. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
- ^ "Mayor Bowser Announces Partnership to Provide Free Access to the Canopie Maternal Mental Health Program | mayormb". mayor.dc.gov. September 15, 2021. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
- ^ Meyer, Robinson (December 1, 2020). "The Best Way to Donate to Fight Climate Change (Probably)". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
- ^ Samuel, Sigal (December 2, 2019). "Want to fight climate change effectively? Here's where to donate your money". Vox. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (January 14, 2022). "Nearly half the world's kids are exposed to dangerous levels of lead". Vox. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
- ^ Weathers, Scott (February 29, 2016). "Can 'effective altruism' change the world? It already has". Transformation. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- ^ Snow, Mathew (August 25, 2015). "Against Charity". Jacobin. Archived from the original on August 28, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- ^ Srinivasan, Amia (September 24, 2015). "Stop the Robot Apocalypse". London Review of Books. 37 (18). Retrieved September 20, 2022.
- ^ Lichtenberg 2015.
- ^ Earle, Sam; Read, Rupert (April 5, 2016). "Why 'Effective Altruism' is ineffective: the case of refugees". The Ecologist. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
- ^ Kissel, Joshua (January 31, 2017). "Effective Altruism and Anti-Capitalism: An Attempt at Reconciliation". Essays in Philosophy. 18 (1): 68–90. doi:10.7710/1526-0569.1573.
- ^ Berkey, Brian (2018). "The Institutional Critique of Effective Altruism" (PDF). Utilitas. 30 (2): 143–171. doi:10.1017/S0953820817000176. S2CID 12014675. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 13, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- ^ Syme, Timothy (February 2019). "Charity vs. revolution: effective altruism and the systemic change objection". Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 22 (1): 93–120. doi:10.1007/s10677-019-09979-5. S2CID 150872907.
- ^ Ashford, Elizabeth (2018). "Severe Poverty as an Unjust Emergency". In Woodruff, Paul (ed.). The Ethics of Giving: Philosophers' Perspectives on Philanthropy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 103–148. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190648879.003.0005. ISBN 9780190648879. OCLC 1025376469.
- ^ Schoffstall, Joe (August 2, 2021). "Mark Zuckerberg cash discreetly leaked into far-left prosecutor races". Fox News. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- ^ Vincent, Isabel (April 24, 2021). "Big tech bankrolls BLM in exchange for net neutrality support". New York Post. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- ^ Bronstein, Zelda (September–October 2018). "California's 'Yimbys': The Growth Machine's Shock Troops". Dollars & Sense. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- ^ Redmond, Tim (May 26, 2021). "The big Yimby money behind housing deregulation bills". 48hills.org. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
- ^ Crary, Alice (Summer 2021). "Against Effective Altruism". Radical Philosophy (210). Retrieved January 20, 2023.
- ^ Douthat, Ross (November 18, 2022). "Opinion | The Case for a Less-Effective Altruism". The New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
- ^ Zwolinski, Matt (August 24, 2015). "Why Wouldn't You Save a Drowning Child?". Foundation for Economic Education.
- ^ a b Appiah, Kwame Anthony (2006). Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. Issues of Our Time. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 158–162. ISBN 0393061558. OCLC 61445790.
- ^ Mclauchlan, Danyl (April 8, 2019). "In search of a way to do good that amounts to more than feeling good". The Spinoff. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
- ^ Effective Altruism: A Better Way to Lead an Ethical Life. Intelligence Squared. November 30, 2015. Event occurs at 21:05. Retrieved January 23, 2022 – via YouTube.
- ^ Jern, Alan (October 13, 2020). "Effective altruism is logical, but too unnatural to catch on". Psyche.co. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
- ^ a b Lowrey, Annie (November 17, 2022). "Effective Altruism Committed the Sin It Was Supposed to Correct". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- ^ Dwyer, Susan (January 23, 2015). "Altruism can be all too effective". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
- ^ Táíwò, Olúfẹ́mi O.; Stein, Joshua (November 16, 2022). "Is the effective altruism movement in trouble?". The Guardian. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
- ^ Osipovich, Alexander (April 16, 2021). "This Vegan Billionaire Disrupted the Crypto Markets. Stocks May Be Next". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021.
- ^ Schleifer, Theodore (March 20, 2021). "How a crypto billionaire decided to become one of Biden's biggest donors". Vox.
- ^ a b Kulish, Nicholas (November 14, 2022). "FTX's Collapse Casts a Pall on a Philanthropy Movement". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- ^ Hiltzik, Michael (November 21, 2022). "Column: How Sam Bankman-Fried exploited the 'effective altruism' fad to get rich and con the world". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
- ^ "What Sam Bankman-Fried's downfall means for effective altruism". The Economist. November 17, 2022. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
- ^ Hannah, Jonathan (November 18, 2022). "Sam Bankman-Fried's downfall is more than a black eye for Effective Altruism". Philanthropy Daily.
- ^ Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (December 1, 2022). "Sam Bankman-Fried, Effective Altruism and the Question of Complicity". The New Yorker.
- ^ Levitz, Eric (November 16, 2022). "Is Effective Altruism to Blame for Sam Bankman-Fried?". New York.
- ^ Samuel, Sigal (November 16, 2022). "Effective altruism gave rise to Sam Bankman-Fried. Now it's facing a moral reckoning". Vox. Retrieved November 19, 2022.
- ^ MacAskill, William [@willmacaskill] (November 11, 2022). "A clear-thinking EA should strongly oppose "ends justify the means" reasoning. I hope to write more soon about this. In the meantime, here are some links to writings produced over the years" (Tweet). Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved December 2, 2022 – via Twitter.
- Adams, Carol J.; Crary, Alice; Gruen, Lori, eds. (February 17, 2023). The Good it Promises, The Harm it Does: Critical Essays on Effective Altruism. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780197655702.
- Bajekal, Naina (August 22–29, 2022). "How to do the most good: a growing movement argues we should care about people thousands of miles away—and millions of years in the future". Time. Vol. 200, no. 7–8. pp. 69–75.
- Earle, Samantha; Read, Rupert (March 2016). "Effective altruism: Is it effective? Should it be more affective?". The Philosophers' Magazine (73): 84–91. doi:10.5840/tpm20167378.
- Gabriel, Iason (August 2016). "Effective altruism and its critics". Journal of Applied Philosophy. 34 (4): 457–473. doi:10.1111/japp.12176. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron, eds. (2019). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198841364.001.0001. ISBN 9780198841364. OCLC 1101772304.
- Lechterman, Theodore M. (January 2020). "The effective altruist's political problem". Polity. 52 (1): 88–115. doi:10.1086/706867. S2CID 212887647.
- MacAskill, William (June 2019c). "Aid scepticism and effective altruism". Journal of Practical Ethics. 7 (1): 49–60.
- McMahan, Jeff (March 2016). "Philosophical critiques of effective altruism" (PDF). The Philosophers' Magazine (73): 92–99. doi:10.5840/tpm20167379. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- Piper, Kelsey (2020). "Effective altruism". In Pigliucci, Massimo; Cleary, Skye; Kaufman, Daniel (eds.). How to Live a Good Life: A Guide to Choosing Your Personal Philosophy. New York: Vintage Books. pp. 255–270. ISBN 9780525566144. OCLC 1133275390.
- Singer, Peter; Saunders-Hastings, Emma; Deaton, Angus; Gabriel, Iason; Janah, Leila; Acemoglu, Daron; Brest, Paul; MacFarquhar, Larissa; Tumber, Catherine; Reich, Rob (July 1, 2015). "Forum: The logic of effective altruism". Boston Review. Archived from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020. An article based on the preface and first chapter of Singer's book The Most Good You Can Do was published in the Boston Review on July 1, 2015, with a forum of responses by other writers and a final response by Singer.
- Zuolo, Federico (July 2019). "Beyond moral efficiency: effective altruism and theorizing about effectiveness". Utilitas. 32: 19–32. doi:10.1017/S0953820819000281. hdl:11567/1005385. S2CID 201390996. Archived from the original on February 15, 2021. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- EffectiveAltruism.org, an online introduction and resource compilation on effective altruism
- Centre for Effective Altruism, an organization building and nurturing the effective altruism community
- Effective Altruism Forum, an effective altruism online forum
- Effective Altruism Global, a series of effective altruism conferences
- 80,000 Hours, an effective altruism non-profit conducting research on which jobs have most positive social impact
- Effective Altruism: An Introduction, a series of 10 podcast episodes