|Founders||Ed Crane, Charles Koch, Murray Rothbard|
|Type||501(c)(3) Non-profit think tank|
|Focus||Public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence|
President and CEO
|Peter N. Goettler|
|Robert A. Levy|
70 adjunct faculty
|Charles Koch Foundation; Cato Foundation|
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.[nb 1] In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute. Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence. According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".
The Cato Institute is libertarian in its political philosophy, and advocates a limited role for government in domestic and foreign affairs as well as a strong protection of civil liberties. This includes support for the lowering or abolishing most taxes, opposition to the Federal Reserve system, the privatization of numerous government agencies and programs including Social Security, the Affordable Care Act and the United States Postal Service, demilitarization of the police, along with adhering to a non-interventionist foreign policy.
The institute was founded in December 1974 in Wichita, Kansas, as the Charles Koch Foundation and initially funded by Charles Koch.[nb 2] The other members of the first board of directors included co-founder Murray Rothbard, libertarian scholar Earl Ravenal, and businessmen Sam H. Husbands Jr. and David H. Padden. At the suggestion of Rothbard, the institute changed its name in 1976 to Cato Institute after Cato's Letters, a series of British essays penned in the early 18th century by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon.
Cato relocated first to San Francisco, California, in 1977, then to Washington, D.C., in 1981, settling initially in a historic house on Capitol Hill.(p446) The institute moved to its current location on Massachusetts Avenue in 1993. Cato Institute was named the fifth-ranked think tank in the world for 2009 in a study of think tanks by James G. McGann, PhD of the University of Pennsylvania, based on a criterion of excellence in "producing rigorous and relevant research, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research".
By 2011, the Cato Institute had a budget of $39 million and was "one of the largest think tanks in Washington. In 2012, Ed Crane—who was then the president of Cato, William Niskanen—who had served as Cato chairman, and the Koch brothers—with 50 percent of Cato shares, held shares in Cato Institute. When Niskanen died in March 2012, the Koch brothers contested Niskanen's wife's inheritance of 25 percent of Cato's shares in a lawsuit filed in a court in Kansas. The brothers sued for control of the Cato Institute. In response to the lawsuit which called for Crane's resignation, "independent parties on the political Left, Right, and Center" provided "testimonials to Cato's effectiveness" as a respected leader of thought, educator and contributor to the "marketplace of ideas". During the 2012 United States presidential election, the Koch brothers were also "prominent donors" to the Americans For Prosperity who supported the Tea Party movement and opposed President Obama. Those who supported Cato's existing management rallied around the "Save Cato" banner, while those who supported the Koch brothers, called "For a Better Cato".
The Cato Institute publishes numerous policy studies, briefing papers, periodicals, and books. Peer-reviewed academic journals include the Cato Journal and Regulation. Other periodicals include Cato's Letter, Cato Supreme Court Review, and Cato Policy Report. Cato published Inquiry Magazine from 1977 to 1982 (before transferring it to the Libertarian Review Foundation) and Literature of Liberty from 1978 to 1979 (before transferring it to the Institute for Humane Studies).
Notable books from Cato and Cato scholars include:
- Human Freedom Index
- In Defense of Global Capitalism
- The Improving State of the World
- Restoring the Lost Constitution
In addition to maintaining its own website in English and Spanish, Cato maintains websites focused on particular topics:
- "Downsizing the Federal Government" contains essays on the size of the U.S. federal government and recommendations for decreasing various programs.
- Libertarianism.org is a website focused on the theory and practice of libertarianism.
- Cato Unbound, a web-only publication that features a monthly open debate among four people. The conversation begins with one lead essay, followed by three response essays by separate people. After that, all four participants can write as many responses and counter-responses as they want for the duration of that month.
- PoliceMisconduct.net contains reports and stories from Cato's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project and the National Police Misconduct News Feed.
- Overlawyered is a law blog on the subject of tort reform run by author Walter Olson.
- HumanProgress.org is an interactive data web project that catalogs increases in prosperity driven by the free market.
- "Public Schooling Battle Map" illustrates different moral conflicts that result from public schooling.
- UnlawfulShield.com is dedicated to abolishing Qualified Immunity.
- FreedomInthe50States.org ranks states by policies that shape personal and economic freedom.
The Cato Institute hosts conferences throughout the year. Topics include monetary policy, the U.S. Constitution, poverty and social welfare, technology and privacy, financial regulation, and civic culture.
Speakers at past Cato Institute conferences have included Federal Reserve Chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke, Federal Reserve Vice Chairman Richard Clarida, International Monetary Fund Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato, Czech Republic President Václav Klaus, and Avanti Financial Group Founder and CEO Caitlin Long.
Libertarianism, classical liberalism, and conservatism
Many Cato scholars have advocated support for civil liberties, liberal immigration policies, drug liberalization, and the repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell and laws restricting consensual sexual activity. The Cato Institute officially resists being labeled as part of the conservative movement because "'conservative' smacks of an unwillingness to change, of a desire to preserve the status quo".
On the other hand, Cato has strong ties to the political philosophy of classical liberalism.   According to executive vice president David Boaz, libertarians are classical liberals who strongly emphasize the individual right to liberty. He argues that, as the term "liberalism" became increasingly associated with government intervention in the economy and social-welfare programs, some classical liberals abandoned the old term and began to call themselves “libertarians”. Officially, Cato admits that the term “classical liberal” comes close to the mark of labeling its position, but fails to capture the contemporary vibrancy of the ideas of freedom. According to Cato's mission statement, the Jeffersonian philosophy that animates Cato's work has increasingly come to be called 'libertarianism' or 'market liberalism.' It combines an appreciation for entrepreneurship, the market process, and lower taxes with strict respect for civil liberties and skepticism about the benefits of both the welfare state and foreign military adventurism.
In 2006, Markos Moulitsas of the Daily Kos proposed the term "Libertarian Democrat" to describe his particular liberal position, suggesting that libertarians should be allies of the Democratic Party. Replying, Cato vice president for research Brink Lindsey agreed that libertarians and liberals should view each other as natural ideological allies, and noted continuing differences between mainstream liberal views on economic policy and Cato's "Jeffersonian philosophy".
The relationship between Cato and the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) improved with the nomination of Cato's new president John A. Allison IV in 2012. He is a former ARI board member and is reported to be an "ardent devotee" of Rand who has promoted reading her books to colleges nationwide. In March 2015 Allison retired and was replaced by Peter Goettler. Allison remains[when?] on the Cato Institute's board.
Cato positions on political issues and policies
The Cato Institute advocates policies that advance "individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace". They are libertarian in their policy positions, typically advocating diminished government intervention in domestic, social, and economic policies and decreased military and political intervention worldwide. Cato was cited by columnist Ezra Klein as nonpartisan, saying that it is "the foremost advocate for small-government principles in American life" and it "advocates those principles when Democrats are in power, and when Republicans are in power"; and Eric Lichtblau called Cato "one of the country's most widely cited research organizations." Nina Eastman reported in 1995 that "on any given day, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay of Texas might be visiting for lunch. Or Cato staffers might be plotting strategy with House Majority Leader Dick Armey, another Texan, and his staff."
On domestic issues
Cato scholars have consistently called for the privatization of many government services and institutions, including NASA, Social Security, the United States Postal Service, the Transportation Security Administration, public schooling, public transportation systems, and public broadcasting. The institute opposes minimum wage laws, saying that they violate the freedom of contract and thus private property rights, and increase unemployment. It is opposed to expanding overtime regulations, arguing that it will benefit some employees in the short term, while costing jobs or lowering wages of others, and have no meaningful long-term impact. It opposes child labor prohibitions. It opposes public sector unions and supports right-to-work laws. It opposes universal health care, arguing that it is harmful to patients and an intrusion onto individual liberty. It is against affirmative action. It has also called for total abolition of the welfare state, and has argued that it should be replaced with reduced business regulations to create more jobs, and argues that private charities are fully capable of replacing it. Cato has also opposed antitrust laws.
Cato is an opponent of campaign finance reform, arguing that government is the ultimate form of potential corruption and that such laws undermine democracy by undermining competitive elections. Cato also supports the repeal of the Federal Election Campaign Act.
Cato has published strong criticisms of the 1998 settlement which many U.S. states signed with the tobacco industry. In 2004, Cato scholar Daniel Griswold wrote in support of President George W. Bush's failed proposal to grant temporary work visas to otherwise undocumented laborers which would have granted limited residency for the purpose of employment in the U.S.
In 2003, Cato filed an amicus brief in support of the Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down the remaining state laws that made private, non-commercial homosexual relations between consenting adults illegal. Cato cited the 14th Amendment, among other things, as the source of their support for the ruling. The amicus brief was cited in Justice Kennedy's majority opinion for the Court.
In 2006, Cato published a Policy Analysis criticising the Federal Marriage Amendment as unnecessary, anti-federalist, and anti-democratic. The amendment would have changed the United States Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage; the amendment failed in both houses of Congress.
Criticism of corporate welfare
In 2004, the institute published a paper arguing in favor of "drug re-importation". Cato has published numerous studies criticizing what it calls "corporate welfare", the practice of public officials funneling taxpayer money, usually via targeted budgetary spending, to politically connected corporate interests.
Cato president Ed Crane and Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope co-wrote a 2002 op-ed piece in The Washington Post calling for the abandonment of the Republican energy bill, arguing that it had become little more than a gravy train for Washington, D.C., lobbyists. Again in 2005, Cato scholar Jerry Taylor teamed up with Daniel Becker of the Sierra Club to attack the Republican Energy Bill as a give-away to corporate interests.
On copyright issues
On foreign policy
Cato's non-interventionist foreign policy views, and strong support for civil liberties, have frequently led Cato scholars to criticize those in power, both Republican and Democratic. Cato scholars opposed President George H. W. Bush's 1991 Gulf War operations (a position which caused the organization to lose nearly $1 million in funding),(p454) President Bill Clinton's interventions in Haiti and Kosovo, President George W. Bush's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and President Barack Obama's 2011 military intervention in Libya. As a response to the September 11 attacks, Cato scholars supported the removal of al Qaeda and the Taliban regime from power, but are against an indefinite and open-ended military occupation of Afghanistan. Cato scholars criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.
Ted Galen Carpenter, Cato's vice president for defense and foreign policy studies, criticized many of the arguments offered to justify the 2003 invasion of Iraq. One of the war's earliest critics, Carpenter wrote in January 2002: "Ousting Saddam would make Washington responsible for Iraq's political future and entangle the United States in an endless nation-building mission beset by intractable problems." Carpenter also predicted: "Most notably there is the issue posed by two persistent regional secession movements: the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south." But in 2002 Carpenter wrote, "the United States should not shrink from confronting al-Qaeda in its Pakistani lair," a position echoed in the institute's policy recommendations for the 108th Congress. Cato's director of foreign policy studies, Christopher Preble, argues in The Power Problem: How American Military Dominance Makes Us Less Safe, Less Prosperous, and Less Free, that America's position as an unrivaled superpower tempts policymakers to constantly overreach and to redefine ever more broadly the "national interest".
On environmental policy
Cato scholars have written about the issues of the environment, including global warming, environmental regulation, and energy policy.
PolitiFact.com and Scientific American have called Cato's work on global warming "false" and based on "data selection". A December 2003 Cato panel included Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling and John Christy. Michaels, Balling and Christy agreed that global warming is related at least some degree to human activity but that some scientists and the media have overstated the danger. The Cato Institute has also criticized political attempts to stop global warming as expensive and ineffective:
No known mechanism can stop global warming in the near term. International agreements, such as the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, would have no detectable effect on average temperature within any reasonable policy time frame (i.e., 50 years or so), even with full compliance.
Cato scholars have been critical of the Bush administration's views on energy policy. In 2003, Cato scholars Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren said the Republican Energy Bill was "hundreds of pages of corporate welfare, symbolic gestures, empty promises, and pork-barrel projects". They also spoke out against the former president's calls for larger ethanol subsidies.
With regard to the "Takings Clause" of the United States Constitution and environmental protection, libertarians associated with Cato contended in 2003 that the Constitution is not adequate to guarantee the protection of private property rights.
In 2019, Cato closed its "Center for the Study of Science" (which E&E News characterized as "a program that for years sought to raise uncertainty about climate science") after its head Pat Michaels had left the institute over disagreements, along with his collaborator Ryan Maue, a meteorologist. By that time, the Cato Institute was also no longer affiliated with its former distinguished fellow Richard Lindzen, another critic of the scientific consensus on climate change.
Other commentaries on presidential administrations
Cato scholars were critical of George W. Bush's Republican administration (2001–2009) on several issues, including education, and excessive government spending. On other issues, they supported Bush administration initiatives, most notably health care, Social Security, global warming, tax policy, and immigration.
Cato has criticized President Obama's stances on policy issues such as fiscal stimulus, healthcare reform, foreign policy, and drug-related matters, while supporting his stance on the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell and the DREAM Act.
Funding, tax status, and corporate structure
The Cato Institute is classified as a 501(c)(3) organization under U.S. Internal Revenue Code. For revenue, the institute is largely dependent on private contributions and does not receive government funding. The Cato Institute reported fiscal year 2015 revenue of $37.3 million and expenses of $29.4 million. According to the organization's annual report, $32.1 million came from individual donors, $2.9 million came from foundations, $1.2 million came from program revenue and other income, and $1 million came from corporations.
Net assets as of FYE March 2020: $81,391,000.
According to an agreement signed in 1977, there were to be four shareholders of the Cato Institute. They were Charles and David Koch, Ed Crane, and William A. Niskanen. Niskanen died in October 2011. In March 2012, a dispute broke out over the ownership of Niskanen's shares. Charles and David Koch filed suit in Kansas, seeking to void his shareholder seat. The Kochs argued that Niskanen's shares should first be offered to the board of the institute, and then to the remaining shareholders. Crane contended that Niskanen's share belonged to his widow, Kathryn Washburn, and that the move by the Kochs was an attempt to turn Cato into "some sort of auxiliary for the G.O.P ... It's detrimental to Cato, it's detrimental to Koch Industries, it's detrimental to the libertarian movement."
In June 2012, Cato announced an agreement in principle to settle the dispute by changing the institute's governing structure. Under the agreement, a board replaced the shareholders and Crane, who at the time was also chief executive officer, retired. Former BB&T bank CEO John A. Allison IV replaced him. The Koch brothers agreed to drop two lawsuits.
In 2018, several former Cato employees alleged longtime sexual harassment by Crane, going back to the 1990s and continuing until his departure in 2012. Politico reported that he settled one such claim in 2012. Crane denied the allegations.
Associates in the news
- Cato senior fellow Robert A. Levy personally funded the plaintiffs' successful Supreme Court challenge to the District of Columbia's gun ban (District of Columbia v. Heller), on the basis of the Second Amendment.
- In January 2008, Dom Armentano wrote an op-ed piece about UFOs and classified government data in the Vero Beach Press-Journal. Cato Executive Vice President David Boaz wrote that "I won't deny that this latest op-ed played a role in our decision ..." to drop Armentano as a Cato adjunct scholar.
Recipients of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences at Cato
Milton Friedman Prize
Since 2002, the Cato Institute has awarded the Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty every two years to "an individual who has made a significant contribution to advancing human freedom." The prize comes with a cash award of US$250,000.
|2002||Peter Thomas Bauer||British|
|2004||Hernando de Soto Polar||Peruvian|
|2018||Ladies in White||Cuban|
Board of directors
As of 2019:
- John A. Allison IV, former president and CEO, Cato Institute; retired chairman and CEO, BB&T
- Baron Bond, executive vice president, The Foundation Group LLC
- Rebecca Dunn, Trustee, DUNN Foundation
- Robert Gelfond, CEO and founder, MQS Management
- Peter N. Goettler, president and CEO, Cato Institute; former managing director, Barclays Capital
- David C. Humphreys, president & CEO, TAMKO Building Products, Inc.
- James M. Kilts, partner, Centerview Capital Holdings; former CEO, The Gillette Company
- James M. Lapeyre, Jr., president, Laitram, LLC
- Ken Levy, Levy Family Fund
- Robert A. Levy, chairman, Cato Institute
- Nancy Pfotenhauer, President and CEO, MediaSpeak Strategies
- Lewis E. Randall, former director, E-Trade Financial Corporation
- Howard Rich, chairman, U.S. Term Limits
- Nestor R. Weigand, Jr., chairman and CEO, JP Weigand & Sons, Inc.
- Jeffrey S. Yass, managing director, Susquehana International Group, LLP
- Fred Young, former owner, Young Radiator Company
Notable Cato experts
Notable scholars associated with Cato include the following:
- Swaminathan Aiyar, research fellow, Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
- Doug Bandow, senior fellow
- Jason Bedrick, policy analyst
- David Boaz, executive vice president
- Mark A. Calabria, director of financial regulation studies
- Edward H. Crane, founder and president emeritus
- Steve H. Hanke, senior fellow and director, Troubled Currencies Project
- Gene Healy, vice president
- Nat Hentoff, senior fellow
- Andrei Illarionov, senior fellow, Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
- Brink Lindsey, vice president for research
- Patrick J. Michaels, director, Center for the Study of Science
- Jeffrey A. Miron, senior fellow
- Daniel J. Mitchell, senior fellow
- John Mueller, senior fellow
- William A. Niskanen, chairman and distinguished senior economist
- Johan Norberg, senior fellow
- Alex Nowrasteh, immigration policy analyst
- Walter Olson, senior fellow
- Randal O'Toole, senior fellow
- Tom G. Palmer, senior fellow and director of Cato University
- Roger Pilon, vice president for legal affairs
- José Piñera, co-chairman, Project on Social Security Choice
- William Poole, senior fellow
- Alan Reynolds, senior fellow
- Nicholas Quinn Rosenkranz, senior fellow in constitutional studies
- Julian Sanchez, senior fellow
- Patrick Basham (Democracy Institute)
- David E. Bernstein (George Mason University School of Law)
- Donald J. Boudreaux (George Mason University)
- Robert L. Bradley, Jr. (Institute for Energy Research)
- Bryan Caplan (George Mason University)
- John H. Cochrane (University of Chicago Booth School of Business)
- Robert Corn-Revere (Davis Wright Tremaine)
- Tyler Cowen (George Mason University)
- Kevin Dowd (University of Nottingham)
- Richard A. Epstein (New York University School of Law)
- Alex Epstein (Center for Industrial Progress)
- Enrique Ghersi (University of Lima)
- Robert Higgs (The Independent Institute)
- Daniel B. Klein (George Mason University)
- Arnold Kling (George Mason University)
- Chandran Kukathas (London School of Economics)
- Loren Lomasky (University of Virginia)
- Jonathan R. Macey (Yale Law School)
- Tibor R. Machan (Auburn University and Chapman University, Argyros School of Business and Economics)
- Michael Munger (Duke University)
- David G. Post (Temple University Beasley School of Law)
- Alvin Rabushka (Hoover Institution)
- Harvey Silverglate (Foundation for Individual Rights in Education)
- Ilya Somin (George Mason University School of Law)
- Richard L. Stroup (The Independent Institute)
- James Tooley (Newcastle University)
- Lawrence H. White (George Mason University)
- Glen Whitman (Royal Society)
- Walter E. Williams (George Mason University)
- Leland B. Yeager (Auburn University and University of Virginia)
- Radley Balko, media fellow
- Randy E. Barnett, senior fellow
- James M. Buchanan (1919–2013)
- Vladimir Bukovsky, senior fellow
- F. A. Hayek (1899–1992)
- Penn Jillette, H.L. Mencken research fellow
- Václav Klaus, distinguished senior fellow
- Deepak Lal, senior fellow
- Christopher Layne, visiting fellow in foreign policy studies
- Jeffrey Milyo, senior fellow
- P. J. O'Rourke, H.L. Mencken research fellow
- Jim Powell, senior fellow
- Richard W. Rahn, senior fellow
- George Selgin, senior fellow
- Vernon L. Smith, senior fellow
- Teller, H.L. Mencken research fellow
- Cathy Young, media fellow
According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States". Other "Top Think Tank" rankings include # 13 (of 85) in Defense and National Security, #5 (of 80) in Domestic Economic Policy, #4 (of 55) in Education Policy, #17 (of 85) in Foreign Policy and International Affairs, #8 (of 30) in Domestic Health Policy, #14 (of 25) in Global Health Policy, #18 (of 80) in International Development, #14 (of 50) in International Economic Policy, #8 (of 50) in Social Policy, #8 (of 75) for Best Advocacy Campaign, #17 (of 60) for Best Think Tank Network, #3 (of 60) for best Use of Social Networks, #9 (of 50) for Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program, #2 (of 40) for Best Use of the Internet, #12 (of 40) for Best Use of Media, #5 (of 30) for Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals, #11 (of 70) for the Most Significant Impact on Public Policy, and #9 (of 60) for Outstanding Policy-Oriented Public Programs. Cato also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks.
- Koch Industries is the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Koch is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Weigel, David (March 30, 2015). "The Cato Institute Switches Out Captains". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- "Cato's Mission". Cato Institute. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "Board of Directors". Cato Institute. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- "Cato Institute website profile of David Boaz". Cato Institute. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "Cato Institute" (PDF). Candid. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- "25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report" (PDF). OCLC 52255585. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
- Cobane, Craig T. (2005). "Think Tanks". Americans at War. Gale. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- James G. McGann (Director) (January 31, 2018). "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". Retrieved June 28, 2018.
- "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
- Burris, Charles (February 4, 2011). "Kochs v. Soros: A Partial Backstory". LewRockwell.com. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- The essays, named after Cato the Younger, the defender of republican institutions in Rome, expounded on the political views of philosopher John Locke, that had a strong influence on the American Revolution's intellectual environment. See: Mitchell, Annie (July 2004). "A Liberal Republican "Cato"". American Journal of Political Science. 48 (3): 588–603. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00089.x.
- Rossiter, Clinton (1953). Seedtime of the Republic: the origin of the American tradition of political liberty. New York: Harcourt, Brace. pp. 141.
No one can spend any time the newspapers, library inventories, and pamphlets of colonial America without realizing that Cato's Letters rather than John Locke's Civil Government was the most popular, quotable, esteemed source for political ideas in the colonial period.
- Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 741. ISBN 978-1-58648-350-0. OCLC 76141517.
- "The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program 2009" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- McDuffee, Allen (March 12, 2012). "Koch brothers vs. Cato: Cato Chairman Bob Levy refutes Charles Koch's statement". Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- McDuffee, Allen; Farnam, T.W. (March 1, 2012). "Koch Brothers sue Cato Institute, president". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Troy, Tevi (March 15, 2012). "Think tank politics". Washington Post.
- Rich, Andrew (April 5, 2004). Think Tanks, Public Policy, and the Politics of Expertise (1 ed.). Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83029-4.
- "Save Cato". Cato Institute. September 19, 2012. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- "For a Better Cato". June 9, 2012. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- ISSN 0273-3072
- "Academic Search Complete" (PDF). EBSCO. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, ProQuest
- ISSN 0147-0590
- "Business Source Complete" (PDF). EBSCO. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, ProQuest
- OCLC 464445035, 51687065
- ISSN 1936-0398
- ISSN 0743-605X
- ISSN 0148-5008; OCLC 3456688
- ISSN 0161-7303; OCLC 4007467 (Literature of Liberty ended publication in 1982.)
- "elcato.org". elcato.org.
- "Downsizing the Federal Government". downsizinggovernment.org.
- "PoliceMisconduct.net – The Cato Institute's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project". policemisconduct.net.
- "Public Schooling Battle Map". cato.org.
- "Unlawful Shield – A Cato Institute Website Dedicated to Abolishing Qualified Immunity". www.unlawfulshield.com.
- "How free is your state?". www.freedominthe50states.org.
- "Multimedia: Cato Daily Podcast". cato.org.
- Cato Institute. "Events". Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- "21st Annual Monetary Conference: The Future of the Euro". Cato Institute. November 20, 2003. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- "25th Annual Monetary Conference: Monetary Arrangements in the 21st Century". Cato Institute. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- "37th Annual Monetary Conference - Fed Policy: A Shadow Review". Cato Institute. November 14, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- Bleier, Karen (October 27, 2008). "International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato". Getty Images. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
file photo taken on November 30, 2006
- Wilson, Mark (November 20, 2003). "Alan Greenspan Speaks About Euro in Washington". Getty Images. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Jones, Caleb. "Bernanke". AP Images. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke speaks at the Cato Institute's annual Monetary Conference ...
- "Latin America: Between Populism and Modernity". Cato Institute. November 30, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- "President of the Czech Republic Václav Klaus Delivers Remarks at the Cato Institute". Federal Document Clearing House, Inc. Washington Transcript Service. September 19, 2009. Archived from the original on June 10, 2014. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- "38th Annual Monetary Conference - Digital Currency: Risk or Promise?". Cato Institute. November 19, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- Shapiro, Ilya (June 19, 2012). "One Cheer for Obama's New Immigration Policy". [email protected]. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Hidalgo, Juan Carlos (November 7, 2011). "Barack Obama: The Enthusiastic Drug Warrior". Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Pilon, Roger. "Government Shouldn't Police Morals – or Sexual Practices". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Preble, Christopher (March 25, 2010). "Obama Right on "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"". [email protected]. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- "Cato's Mission". Cato Institute. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
- "A New Intelectual History of Classical Liberalism". Cato Institute. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Saving the Soul of Classical Liberalism". Cato Institute. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Home Study Course". Cato Institute. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Definition of Libertarianism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Cato's Mission". Cato Institute. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- "Cato on "How to Label Cato"". The Cato Institute. Cato Institute. Archived from the original on August 22, 2007. Retrieved February 29, 2008.
- "Brink Lindsey". Cato Institute. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Lindsey, Brink (January 2003). "Should We Invade Iraq?". Reason Magazine (January 2003). Reason Magazine. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Mayer, Jane. "The Kochs v. Cato: Winners and Losers". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- "Peter Goettler named new head of libertarian think tank Cato Institute". washingtonexaminer.com. March 30, 2015.
- Klein, Ezra (March 7, 2012). "Why Do the Kochs Want to Kill the Cato Institute?". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 12, 2012.
- Lichtblau, Eric (March 6, 2012). "Cato Institute Is Caught in a Rift Over Its Direction". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Easton, Nina J. (July 9, 1995). "Making America Work : RED WHITE AND SMALL : Ed Crane's Cato Institute Is a Think Tank That Believes the Country Would Work Better if There Was Less Government". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- "Fixing Transit: The Case for Privatization". cato.org. November 10, 2010.
- "Privatizing Social Security: A Big Boost for the Poor". cato.org. July 26, 1996.
- "Top Ten Reasons to Privatize Public Broadcasting". cato.org. July 25, 2005.
- "Privatize Almost Everything". cato.org. April 30, 2013.
- "Postal Service Privatization". cato.org. April 30, 1996.
- "After Another Failure, Time to Privatize TSA". cato.org. June 2, 2015.
- "Time to Privatize NASA". cato.org. January 26, 1998.
- "Privatize the FAA!". cato.org. April 24, 2013.
- "The Minimum Wage Is Cruelest to Those Who Can't Find a Job". cato.org. July 22, 2013.
- William Niskanen, "House Faces the Dumbest Bill of the Year (So Far): A $2.10 Increase in the Minimum Wage" Archived October 31, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, [email protected], June 14, 2006
- "Overtime Regulation". cato.org. July 2, 2015.
- "Obama's Overtime Edict: Anything But a Free Lunch". cato.org. March 13, 2014.
- "A Case against Child Labor Prohibitions". cato.org. July 29, 2014.
- "Child Labor or Child Prostitution?". cato.org. October 8, 2002.
- "Bans on Child Labor". cato.org. November 18, 2013.
- "Labor Unions Against the Public Interest". cato.org. July 2, 2013.
- Vedder, Richard. "171 Right-to-Work Laws: Liberty, Prosperity, and Quality of Life" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
- "Universal Health Care". cato.org.
- "Universal Health Care Not Best Option". cato.org. February 23, 2009.
- Gryphon, Marie. "The Affirmative Action Myth". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- "Welfare and Private Charity". cato.org. April 13, 2012.
- "The Welfare State Needs Abolition, Not "Reform"". cato.org. May 5, 2015.
- "The Case Against Antitrust". cato.org. November 17, 2004.
- "It's Time To Reexamine Antitrust Legislation". cato.org. November 13, 1997.
- "Why Campaign Finance Reform Never Works". cato.org. March 20, 1997.
- "Campaign Finance". cato.org.
- Thomas C. O'Brien, "Constitutional and Antitrust Violations of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement" Archived December 3, 2003, at the Wayback Machine, Policy Analysis no. 371, Cato Institute, May 18, 2000
- Griswold, Daniel (December 3, 2004). "Beyond the Barbed Wire: Bush won a mandate for immigration reform". Reason.com. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Cato's link
- Anthony Hawks, "The Balanced Budget Veto: A New Mechanism to Limit Federal Spending" Archived June 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Policy Analysis no. 487, Cato Institute, September 4, 2003
- "539 U.S. 558 LAWRENCE et al. v. TEXAS No. 02-102. Supreme Court of United". bulk.resource.org. Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Carpenter, Dale (June 1, 2006). "The Federal Marriage Amendment: Unnecessary, Anti-Federalist, and Anti-Democratic". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Balko, Radley (July 17, 2006). "Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on April 9, 2010. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
- "Drug Reimportation: The Free Market Solution", Policy Analysis no. 521, Cato Institute, August 4, 2004
- James Bovard, "Archer Daniels Midland: A Case Study In Corporate Welfare" Archived July 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Policy Analysis no. 241, September 26, 1995
- Stephen Moore and Dean Stansel, "Ending Corporate Welfare As We Know It", Policy Analysis no. 225, May 12, 1995
- Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare Budget: Bigger Than Ever", Policy Analysis no. 415, October 10, 2001
- Stephen Slivinski, "The Corporate Welfare State: How the Federal Government Subsidizes U.S. Businesses", Policy Analysis no. 592, May 14, 2007
- Pope, Carl; Crane, Ed (July 30, 2002). "Fueled by Pork". The Washington Post. p. A.17. Retrieved August 21, 2013. (subscription required). Cato's link
- Jerry Taylor and Daniel Becker, "Energy Bill Blues", July 2, 2005
- Gigi Sohn, "A Welcome Voice on the Right" Archived May 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Public Knowledge, March 21, 2006
- Bandow, Doug (August 12, 2015). "GOP's Foreign Policy Goes from Bad to Ugly as Marco Rubio Pushes Intervention for Fun and Profit". Cato Institute. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Malou Innocent and Ted Galen Carpenter (September 14, 2009). "Escaping the 'Graveyard of Empires': A Strategy to Exit Afghanistan". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Overthrow Saddam? Be Careful What You Wish For". Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Carpenter, Ted Galen. "Take the War on Terrorism to Pakistan". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on June 1, 2002. Retrieved November 9, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Peña, Charles V. "Waging an Effective War" (PDF). Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress. p. 53. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- Lozada, Carlos (May 3, 2009). "The Big Idea – The Power Problem". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- "Defense Execs Say Deeper DoD Budget Cuts, Higher Taxes OK". breakingdefense.com.
- Farley, Robert (April 1, 2009). "Cato Institutes claim on global warming disputed by most experts". Politifact. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Cato was criticized for publishing an alleged misleading Addendum: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. See: Fischer, Douglas; The Daily Climate (October 22, 2012). "Fake Addendum by Contrarian Group Tries to Undo U.S. Government Climate Report". Scientific American. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- Michaels, Patrick J. "Global Warming" (PDF). Cato Handbook for Congress: Policy Recommendations for the 108th Congress. p. 474. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 6, 2012. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Taylor, Jerry; Peter Van Doren (November 19, 2003). "Mighty Porking Power Rangers: Scanning the energy bill". National Review Online. Retrieved May 27, 2008.
- Taylor, Jerry; Peter Van Doren (January 27, 2007). "Ethanol Makes Gasoline Costlier, Dirtier". Chicago Sun-Times.
- Ball, Terence (2003). "Takings". Environmental Encyclopedia. Gale. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Waldman, Scott (May 29, 2020). "Cato closes its climate shop; Pat Michaels is out". E&E News. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- McCluskey, Neal. "Feds in the Classroom". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- "Downsizing the Federal Government". Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- Cannon, Michael F (October 21, 2009). "Yes, Mr. President, A Free Market Can Fix Health Care" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved November 20, 2010.
- Allen, Mike (January 23, 2005). "Semantics Shape Social Security Debate: Democrats Assail 'Crisis' While GOP Gives 'Privatization' a 'Personal' Twist". The Washington Post. p. A04.
- Biggs, Andrew; Macguineas, Maya (January 6, 2003). "Cutting Corporate Welfare Could Fund a Bush Social Security Plan". CATO Institute. Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
- Moore, Stephen; Kerpen, Phil (October 12, 2004). "Show Me the Money! Dividend Payouts after the Bush Tax Cut". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel (May 18, 2006). "America Needs Real Immigration Reform". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel (May 22, 2007). "Illegal Immigration: Will Congress Finally Solve It?". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Griswold, Daniel (March 17, 2007). "Immigration Reform Must Include a Temporary Worker Program". Cato Institute. Retrieved July 4, 2012.
- Samples, John (January 15, 2008). "McCain vs. Madison". The American Spectator. The American Spectator Foundation. Archived from the original on July 28, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013. Cato's link
- Carpenter, Ted Galen (July 7, 2008). "John McCain on Foreign Policy: Even Worse Than Bush". Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture. Rockford Institute. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Cato's link
- Mitchell, Dan (September 6, 2010). "Obama's New Stimulus Schemes: Same Song, Umpteenth Verse". Cato @ Liberty. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Healy, Gene (November 24, 2009). "Obamacare is unconstitutional". Washington Examiner. Retrieved August 20, 2013., Cato's link
- "Obama's War Without Policy in Libya". March 25, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
- Greenwald, Glenn (January 28, 2017). "Trump's Muslim Ban Is Culmination of War on Terror Mentality but Still Uniquely Shameful". The Intercept. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "About Cato". Cato Institute. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- Bennett, Laurie (March 13, 2012). "The Kochs Aren't the Only Funders of Cato". Forbes. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- Ames, Mark (April 20, 2012). "Independent and Principled? Behind the Cato Myth". The Nation. The Nation Company, L.P. Retrieved December 9, 2014.
- "Fiscal year 2020 financial results" (PDF). Cato Institute. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- "Koch Brothers File Lawsuit Over The Ownership Of the Cato Institute". The Huffington Post. March 1, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- Kochs launch court fight over Cato, Mike Allen, POLITICO, March 1, 2012, retrieved March 1, 2012
- Battle for control of Cato Institute highlights unusual structure, March 3, 2012, The Washington Post, Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Yadron, Danny (June 25, 2012). "Koch Brothers, Cato Institute Settle Dispute". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
- Cato Institute and Shareholders Reach Agreement in Principle Archived August 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Cato Institute press release, June 25, 2012.
- Lichtblau, Eric (June 25, 2012). "Cato Institute and Koch Brothers Reach Agreement". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Former Cato employees describe years of harassment". POLITICO. February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- Greenhouse, Linda (November 12, 2007). "Supreme Court May Take Gun Case – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Armentano, Dom (February 8, 2008). "Intelligent extraterrestrial life: The other inconvenient truth?". TC Palm. Stuart, FL. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- Cox, Billy (January 30, 2008). "Cato caves on UFOs". Herald-Tribune. Sarasota, FL. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Nobel Laureates at Cato". Cato Institute.
- "Economists and Public Policy" (PDF). Cato Institute.
- Ronall, Joachim O.; Saxena, Rohan; Beloff, Ruth (2007). "Friedman, Milton". Encyclopaedia Judica (2nd ed.). Thomson Gale. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- "The Milton Friedman Prize". Cato Institute. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- "Peter Bauer, 86; Economist Fought Foreign Aid". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. May 19, 2002. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
- Konrad, Rachel (May 6, 2004). "Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto receives Friedman Prize". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
- "Mart Laar Receives Milton Friedman Prize". Cato Policy Report. Cato Institute. July–August 2006. Archived from the original on July 26, 2006. Retrieved December 23, 2010.
- "Student wins $500,000 for challenging Chavez". NBC News. Associated Press. April 23, 2008.
- "Iranian writer Akbar Ganji wins Milton Friedman Prize". Arabianbusiness.com. April 13, 2010. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- 联合早报网 (2012). "茅于轼获美国傅利曼自由奖". realtime.zaobao.com. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- Dorn, James (2014). "Leszek Balcerowicz Transformed Poland Through An Embrace Of Economic Freedom". Forbes. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- "Cato Institute Honors Free Speech Advocate Flemming Rose with 2016 Milton Friedman Prize". 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- "Las Damas de Blanco: Winner of the 2018 Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty". 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- "Policy Scholars". cato.org.
- Kopan, Tal (November 13, 2013). "Report: Think tanks tied to Kochs". Politico. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
- "Directory SPN Members". State Policy Network. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Gelb, Alan; Diofasi, Anna; Hashmi, Nabil; Post, Lauren (March 17, 2015). "CGD's Think Tank Public Profile Rankings Are Back". Center for Global Development. cgdev.org. Retrieved July 17, 2015.