Capacity loss

Capacity loss or capacity fading is a phenomenon observed in rechargeable battery usage where the amount of charge a battery can deliver at the rated voltage decreases with use.[1][2]

In 2003 it was reported the typical range of capacity loss in lithium-ion batteries after 500 charging and discharging cycles varied from 12.4% to 24.1%, giving an average capacity loss per cycle range of 0.025–0.048% per cycle.[3]

Stress factors[edit]

Capacity fading in Li-ion batteries occurs by a multitude of stress factors, including ambient temperature, discharge C-rate, and state of charge (SOC).

Capacity loss is strongly temperature-dependent, the aging rates increase with decreasing temperature below 25 °C, while above 25 °C aging is accelerated with increasing temperature.[4][5]

Capacity loss is C-rate sensitive and higher C-rates lead to a faster capacity loss on a per cycle. Chemical mechanisms of degradation in a Li-ion battery dominate capacity loss at low C-rates, whereas, mechanical degradation dominates at high C-rates.[6][7]

Graphite/LiCoO2 battery capacity degradation is reported to be affected by mean SOC as well as the change in SOC (ΔSOC) during the cycling operation. For the first 500 equivalent full cycles mean SOC is found to have a major effect on the capacity fade of cells as compared to ΔSOC. However, towards the end of the testing (600~800 equivalent cycles) ΔSOC becomes the major factor affecting the capacity loss rate of the cells.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Xia, Y. (1997). "Capacity Fading on Cycling of 4 V Li/LiMn2O4 Cells". Journal of the Electrochemical Society. 144 (8): 2593–2600. Bibcode:1997JElS..144.2593X. doi:10.1149/1.1837870.
  2. ^ Amatucci, G. (1996). "Cobalt dissolution in LiCoO2-based non-aqueous rechargeable batteries". Solid State Ionics. 83 (1–2): 167–173. doi:10.1016/0167-2738(95)00231-6.
  3. ^ Spotnitz, R. (2003). "Simulation of capacity fade in lithium-ion batteries". Journal of Power Sources. 113 (1): 72–80. Bibcode:2003JPS...113...72S. doi:10.1016/S0378-7753(02)00490-1.
  4. ^ Waldmann, Thomas (September 2014). "Temperature dependent ageing mechanisms in Lithium-ion batteries – A Post-Mortem study". Journal of Power Sources. 262: 129–135. Bibcode:2014JPS...262..129W. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.03.112.
  5. ^ W. Diao, Y. Xing, S. Saxena, and M. Pecht (2018). "Evaluation of Present Accelerated Temperature Testing and Modeling of Batteries". Applied Sciences. 8 (10): 1786. doi:10.3390/app8101786.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ C. Snyder (2016). "The Effects of charge/discharge Rate on Capacity Fade of Lithium Ion Batteries". Bibcode:2016PhDT.......260S. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ S. Saxena, Y. Xing, D. Kwon, and M. Pecht (2019). "Accelerated degradation model for C-rate loading of lithium-ion batteries". International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. 107: 438–445. doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.12.016. S2CID 115690338.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ S. Saxena, C. Hendricks, and M. Pecht (September 2016). "Cycle life testing and modeling of graphite/LiCoO2 cells under different state of charge ranges". Journal of Power Sources. 327: 394–400. Bibcode:2016JPS...327..394S. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.07.057.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)