Wikipedia:Mathematical symbols

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This page is a quick reference for the "standard" mathematical symbols in HTML that should work on most browsers, and is intended mainly for people editing mathematical articles on Wikipedia.

Text effects[edit]

Underline text:

underlineoverline
<u>underline</u>{{overline|overline}}

Underline should not be used for emphasis, per MOS:BADEMPHASIS.

Strikeout text:

strikeout
<s>strikeout</s>

Strikethrough is not generally used in prose, per MOS:NOSTRIKE.

Font:

italicsbold
''italics'' '''bold'''

→ Use a serif font for HTML math equation:

Φ (A)
{{math|Φ (A)}}

Superscripts/subscripts:

x2 x3 x2
1
x<sup>2</sup>x<sub>3</sub>x{{su|p=2|b=1}};

Special characters[edit]

Most commonly used non-keyboard characters can be input directly, by:

  • Copy-and-paste from the below
  • Use the "Insert" pulldown menu immediately below the article text (when editing any Wikipedia page in a desktop web browser).
  • Use the "Special characters" menu immediately above the article text (when editing any Wikipedia page in a desktop web browser).

← ↓ → ↑ ↔ ↵ ⇐ ⇓ ⇒ ⇑ ⇔

ƒ ∂ ∫ ∑ Π ∞ ∇ ℘ ℑ ℜ

¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

∈ ∉ ∋ ∅ ⊆ ⊇ ⊃ ⊂ ⊄ ∪ ∩ ℵ

≠ ≤ ≥ < > ≡ ≢ ∼ ≅ ≈ ∝

° ± × ÷ ⊥ ⊕ ⊗

⌈ ⌉ ⌊ ⌋ « »

⟨ ⟩ or {{angbr}}

† ‡ ¦ ∠ ∴ ◊ ♠ ♣ ♥ ♦

For more:

Though Unicode characters are generally preferred, sometimes HTML entities are needed to avoid problems with wiki syntax or confusion with other characters:

< > × ·
&lt; &gt; &minus; &times; &bull; &prime; &Prime; &sdot; &middot; &ndash; &mdash;

For more:

Spacing[edit]

Typically whitespace should be a regular space ( ) or none at all.

To avoid line-wrapping in the middle of a formula, use {{math}}. If necessary, a non-breaking space ( ) can be inserted with "&nbsp;".

In rare circumstances, such as where one character overlaps another due to one being in italics, a thin space can be added with {{thin space}}.

See also[edit]