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A reconstruction of a Peloponnesian soldier, based on archeological excavations

Unified English Spelling[edit]

Thanks to Angr. My prefs:
  • -our/-or: US (etymology, derivation, length)
  • -re/-er: UK (etymology, derivation, but counterexamples fiber/fibrous, sober/sobriety, enter/entrance; on the other hand, centre/centering)
  • -ise/-ize: US/UK -ize (already in both countries, etymology, disambiguation)
  • -ogue/-og; -gramme/-gram, -fence/-fense, -exion/-ection: US (etymology, derivation, uniformity)
  • ae,oe / e: US (length)
  • ll/l: US (stress rules; woollen okay)
  • l/ll: US (derivation, stress rules)
  • license, and practice: US (derivation, pronunciation)
  • grey, cosy, vice (tool), mollusc, pyjamas, calliper, moustache, camomile (UK)
  • disk, tire, skeptic, carburetor, check, jewelry (US)
  • ax(e), mo(u)ld, mo(u)lt, artefact/artificial, plow/plough, sulfur/sulphur, liquorice/licorice, yog(h)urt (who cares)
  • story, cipher, draft (other form being abandoned in UK)


  • alumin(i)um

doesn't belong because it's not just a spelling difference.


  • judgement, acknowledgement: UK (derivation)

Proto-human (language)[edit]

By comparing basic vocabulary across the established families of oral languages of the world, we have been able to reconstruct the Proto-Human language. We find that all reconstructed words are *na. An extension of this method to additional lexical items (in other basic word lists) finds that those items also reconstruct to *na. We therefore conclude that the ancestral human population used the word *na for everything.

Cf. How likely are chance resemblances between languages?

Statistical significance in polls[edit]

Responses in an opinion poll need to be separated by 2σ to be considered significant. (A difference of 2σ gives a 97.7% probability,[1]; a difference of 1.65σ is 95% probable.[2])

The p = 0.1 for 95% significance above a specific percentage is 1.28σ.[3]

From the math ref desk:

The problem of computing mean value and standard deviation for the result of polls is solved here: [[4]]. If the first poll shows X1 ≈ μ1 ± σ1 and the second poll shows X2 ≈ μ2 ± σ2 , then compute the difference X = X1 − X2 ≈ (μ1 ± σ1) − (μ2 ± σ2) = (μ1 − μ2) ± √(σ12 + σ22) = μ ± σ . Compute the quotient U = μ/σ . If, say, U=2.7, then try with input CDF[NormalDistribution[0, 1], 2.7] , and get the probability 0.996533. Bo Jacoby (talk) 06:37, 22 April 2014 (UTC).

The sampling error z for 95% confidence (p=0.05) is 1.96σ. Thus the above would be 0.653 and 0.842 z.

Edit window[edit]

Online AWB[edit]

Python script to create Wikt pages from a DB[edit]

To do[edit]

  • ISO updates: merge Kadazan/Dusun, split 2 varieties off to Rungus. PNG SL.
  • S.Twa also indigenous, like Kwisi etc. (Inskepe). Kwisi may have once had cattle?
  • expand kantenji

maybe fix language infobox so E17 fn's in eg Kagwahiva language link better. maybe code-link (name) as w Glotto.

Language updates now that Glottolog codes finished

finish Pama–Nyungan languages classfj

fix Sak language: glotto includes Pyu & rem. Taman (split/merge Bodo-Garo too?)

fix Zeme languages when rem. spurious

why Sua language + Mbulungish language?

break up Central Plateau languages

fix Iwam languages

merge Mambiloid languages unclass.

break up Banggi languages?

break up Li'o language per classification

does Baloi language not belong in libi1251 Ngiri language?


I, Ling.Nut award this very overdue Linguist's barnstar to Kwamikagami. Thanks for making the Internet not suck.
Thanks for taking an interest in the language families of South America - they really need a hand! ·Maunus·ƛ· 08:32, 3 August 2008 (UTC)
I, Ikiroid, award this Barnstar to Kwami for helping me with effectively editing language pages.
Barnstar of Diligence.png The Barnstar of Diligence
I, Agnistus award this Barnstar to Kwami for his invaluable contributions to the Origin of hangul article.
Antiflame-barnstar.png The Anti-Flame Barnstar
I think you deserve a golden fire extinguisher for helping me deal with that misguided revolutionary Serendipodous 10:47, 27 June 2008 (UTC)
GDBarnstar1.png The Graphic Designer's Barnstar
For your wonderful moon mass charts, I offer the Graphic designer's barnstar. Serendipodous 12:24, 5 September 2008 (UTC)
Original Barnstar.png The Original Barnstar
For transforming Rongorongo from a sketchy, unhelpful mess into a tightly organized family of articles covering the entire Rongorongo corpus in a manner both scholarly and accessible, I award you this Barnstar. May it bring you much mana! Fishal (talk) 02:10, 11 September 2008 (UTC)
Working Man's Barnstar.png The Working Man's Barnstar
For getting all the EL61 links changed to Haumea (dwarf planet), I think you deserve the working man's barnstar. Must have been tedious as heck. Serendipodous 09:40, 19 September 2008 (UTC)
Original Barnstar.png The Original Barnstar
Presented for your creation of the Malagasy IPA pages and your tireless transcription efforts. Thank you! Lemurbaby (talk) 11:44, 19 November 2010 (UTC)
Design Barnstar.png The Graphic Designer's Barnstar
For your contributions to File:IPA chart 2005.png (better seen in the English Wikipedia logs since the move to Commons). In taking linguistics courses as an undergraduate, having a printout-size and easy-to-find IPA reference was indispensable. I will probably be finding printouts of this file mixed in with my college papers for decades to come; that's just how often I used it. —/Mendaliv//Δ's/ 22:31, 7 December 2010 (UTC)
Tireless Contributor Barnstar.gif The Tireless Contributor Barnstar
I, Stevey7788, hereby present you the Tireless Contributor Barnstar for your tremendously prolific work on languages and linguistics. Excellent articles, wonderful images, and impressive contributions overall! — Stevey7788 (talk) 23:17, 12 December 2010 (UTC)
Editors Barnstar Hires.png The Editor's Barnstar
For your continued good work in articles on languages. Thank you. Drmies (talk) 00:55, 27 July 2011 (UTC)
Team Barnstar Hires.png The Teamwork Barnstar
I hope the script story will have a happy end :-) Bogdan Nagachop (talk) 21:47, 3 August 2011 (UTC)
Original Barnstar Hires.png The Original Barnstar
Hi there,

I noticed that you edited an article that I created (Chay Shegog) and edited the pronunciation. I am a Shegog myself. I'm not bothered about your change at all. The emphasis is how you wrote it so shi-GOG. I noticed that you have done some stuff related to American Indians on Wikipedia. Are you of Native American descent? I've done some research and there is some evidence to suggest that the name Shegog is taken from zhigaag (so like Chicago with two g's and no 'o') which means skunk in the Ojibwe language. But all Shegog's I know pronounce it with a short -og similar to dog. Thanks, Shegan AGirl1191 (talk) 04:16, 6 March 2012 (UTC)

Tireless Contributor Barnstar Hires.gif The Tireless Contributor Barnstar
Thanks for your recent run of newly-created language articles, and for your efforts to improve the encyclopedia. Northamerica1000(talk) 17:28, 17 March 2012 (UTC)
Original Barnstar Hires.png The Original Barnstar
thank for contributing us... Liansanga (talk) 00:23, 8 June 2012 (UTC)
Admin Barnstar.png The Admin's Barnstar
For your past excellent service as Administrator, and a sad reminder that sometimes ARBCOM can blow it - big time.

HammerFilmFan (talk) 01:33, 6 October 2012 (UTC)

Shield 00.svg Guardian of Hamari Boli
Most sincere gratitude for your invaluable contributions to Hindi-Urdu related articles on English Wikipedia. Forever indebted to you -and wikipedia of course- for telling it like it is.. Amazing how you never gave up and went thru all the troubles dealing with zealots. Bravo! You're one of the inspirations that led to the genesis of edge.walker (talk) 22:01, 11 August 2012 (UTC)
Instructor's Barnstar hi-res.png The Instructor's Barnstar
This Barnstar is awarded to Wikipedians who have performed stellar work in the area of instruction & help for other editors.
For your contributions to the Wikipedia:Manual of Style and especially for your contributions to Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting. Moreover, in providing examples of how to implemented the Manual in text editing and your great cooperation with me! Magioladitis (talk) 22:54, 9 November 2012 (UTC)
Resilient Barnstar Hires.png The Resilient Barnstar
For your WP rules following Saraikistan (talk) 18:41, 4 January 2013 (UTC)
Barnstar of Diligence Hires.png The Barnstar of Diligence
For your linguistic contributions. We will carry on this professional discussion later because I will be off now. Regards Maria0333 (talk) 07:59, 7 February 2013 (UTC)
Original Barnstar Hires.png The Original Barnstar
For all-round good work, but especially this edit. Keep it up! Green Giant (talk) 09:12, 8 January 2014 (UTC)
Allaroundamazingbarnstar.png All Around Amazing Barnstar
Dear Kwamikagami, thank you for all of your amazing contributions to language related articles. Your contributions are making a difference here on Wikipedia! Keep up the good work! With regards, AnupamTalk 21:25, 9 April 2014 (UTC)
LGBT-Barnstar1.png The LGBT Barnstar
For your work over at Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States, the article looks vastly improved and I am happy to see there was an agreement made on the results. =) Knowledgekid87 (talk) 00:46, 25 April 2014 (UTC)
Brilliant Idea Barnstar Hires.png The Brilliant Idea Barnstar
Good job Sit1101 (talk) 01:53, 30 December 2014 (UTC)
The Helping Hand Barnstar The Barnstar of Diligence The Motivational Barnstar
The Tireless Contributer Barnstar The Special Barnstar The Rosetta Barnstar
The Multiple Barnstar
These are just some barnstars for some of the many amazing things you do here on Wikipedia, I don't know what this site would do without you. Abrahamic Faiths (talk) 21:06, 27 April 2015 (UTC)
Original Barnstar.png The Original Barnstar
For working to help close RfCs and reduce the backlog. Wugapodes (talk) 00:54, 5 August 2015 (UTC)
Tireless Contributor Barnstar Hires.gif The Tireless Contributor Barnstar
For great, expeditious and lynx-eyed reviewing and correction of all Aboriginal articles,Nishidani (talk) 16:37, 14 February 2019 (UTC)
Barnstar of National Merit Papua New Guinea.svg The Papua New Guinean Barnstar of National Merit
Thank you for your many years of tireless work on articles of Papuan languages! Here's something to add to your long list of barnstars. (Although admittedly, this is just for "East New Guinea Highlands languages" and other Papuan languages on the eastern half of the island.) — Sagotreespirit (talk) 09:56, 20 April 2020 (UTC)