Turkish exonyms

An exonym is a place name, used by non-natives of that place, that differs from the official or native name for that place. Turkish has a wealth of exonyms in areas beyond the current borders of Turkey notably those that were once part of Ottoman Empire and its vassals and tributaries or within the Turkish, Ottoman, or a Turkic sphere of cultural or economic influence. In addition, Turkish sometimes renders the names of other cities in a phonetic Turkish spelling, e.g., Chicago as Şikago or Manchester as Mançester. As these forms are not commonly used in Turkish, there is not a systematic attempt to include them here.

Cities are grouped by country and then listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by Turkish variants in order of significance. A blue asterisk generally indicates the availability of a Turkish Wikipedia article for that city under that name which may also provide additional reference for the equivalence.

Afghanistan[edit]

 Afghanistan
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Aqchah Akça, Akçe
Badakhshan Badahşan, Bedahşan
Balkh Belh
Chaghcharan Çaǧçaran
Farah Ferah
Fayzabad Feyzabad
Ghazni Gazne, Gazni
Hazarajat Hazarecat, Hazaristan
Herat Herat, Hırat
Hindu Kush Hindikuş, Hindukuş
Islam Qala İslam Kale, Kafir Kale
Jalalabad Celalabat
Kabul Kâbil
Kandahar Kandahar, Kandehar
Lashkargah Büst, Leşkergah
Mazari Sharif Mezar-ı Şerif
Meymaneh Maymana
Morghab Murgap
Musa Qala Musa Kale
Oruzgan Oruzgan, Uruzgan
Panjshir Panşir, Penşir
Sare-e Pol Sar-i Pol, Sar-ı Pul
Sherberghan Şibirgan, Şıbırgan, Şiraban
Shindand Sebzevar
Shir Khan Bandar Güzel Kale, Şir Han Bender
Taloqan Talhan, Talkan, Talukan
Wakhan Vahan, Vehan
Zabulistan Zabulistan, Zebilistan
Zaranj Zaranc, Zaranç, Zarani, Zaranka, Zerre

Albania[edit]

 Albania
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Berat Berat, Belgrad(-ı Arnvaud), Arnavutbelgrat
Bilisht Behlişte, Bihlişte
Bojana River Boyana, Buna
Burrel Mat, Burel
Buthrotum Butrint
Cape of Rodon Kazık Burnu
Delvinë Delvine, Delvinye
Drin Dirin
Dukagjin Highlands Dukakin, Dukagin
Durrës Dıraç;[1] Duraç, Turaç
Elbasan Elbasan, İlbasan, İlbesan
Erseka Erseke, Kolonya, Ersek
Fier Fier, Ferecik
Gjirokastër Ergiri (Kasrı), Eǧrikasr(ı), Ergirokastri, Argirikasrı
Gramsh Grameç
Iballë Altınali
Ishëm İsmid, İzmid, İzmit
Kavayë Kavaye
Kelmend (municipality) Klemente
Korçë Göriçe, Kör(i)çe;[1] Hemhudut
Krujë Akçahisar, Akçehisar, Aksaray
Lake Skadar İşkodra, Boyana
Lezhë Leş, Eşim, Selimiye
Librazhd Libraş
Lushnjë Loşna, Luşna
Mallakastër Malakas(t)ra, Kasr-ı Mal
Moscopole Timuri(n)çe, Tomorumce, Timorimce, İskopol, Oskopol, Voskopoya
Orosh Uruş
Peqin Peklin, Bekleyin
Përmet Per(e)medi
Peshkopi Debre-i Zir, Peşkopi, Piskopoya
Pogradec Pogradaş, İstrarova, İstarye, İstarve
Sarandë Aya Sarandi, Aya berande, Sarandoz
Sazan Island Sazan Adası, Sazana
Shëngjin Şingin, Şenkin
Shkodër İşkodra;[1] İskenderiye-i Arnavud
Shkumbin İşkomi Nehri
Shpat İşbat
Skrapar İsk(a)rapar, Uskurbar, Iskırapar
Tirana Tiran,[1] Terane Tiranë Albanian
Tepelenë Tepdelen, Depedelen
Vlorë Avlonya

Algeria[edit]

 Algeria
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Aïn El Turk Ayn el-Türk, Eyn el-Türk
Aïn Turk Ayn Türk, Eyn Türk
Algiers Cezayir, Cezair-i Magrib, Cezair-i Garb, Argel
Annaba Annabe, Unnabe, Bone, Beled-i Annab, Anabe, Beled-i Unnab
Arzew Arzev
Béjaïa Becaye, Bicaye, Becaya
Biskra Biskira
Blida Bilida
Bouïra Buyra
Cherchell Şerşel, Çerçel, Cercere, Şirşel
Chlef Necce
Collo El Kul, Kol
Constantine Kosantina, Kosantine, Kasmatine, Kasantine, Konstantin(iyye)
Dellys Tilis, Telis, Dellis
Guelma Kelma
Honaine Huneyn
Hussein Dey Hüseyin Dayı
Jijel Cicel, Çiçel, Cicelye, Şirşel
Ketchaoua Mosque Keçiova Camii
Koléa Kolah
Mansourah Mansure
Médéa Midya, Medye
Mers El Kabir Mersel Kebir, Mersal Kebir
Miliana Milyana
Mostaganem Müstagânem, Mostaganem, Mosteganim
Oran Oran, Vahran
Peñón of Algiers Cezayir Kayalıǧı, Adakale, Cezayir Kalesi
Sétif Satif, Setif
Skikda Sakika
Stora Ustora
Ténès Tenes, Tanas
Tizi Ouzou Tiziuzu
Tlemcen Telmesan, Tilimsan, Tilemsen, Telmisan, Telemsan, Telemsen, Tremesen

Andorra[edit]

 Andorra
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Andorra la Vella Andoraa, El Darra, Endare

Armenia[edit]

 Armenia
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Abovyan Eller
Aghin Aǧin
Akhuryan Düzkent
Alagyaz Alagöz, Çamışlı
Alaverdi Allahverdi, Manes
Aparan Baş Abaran, Baş Aparan
Aragats Alagöz
Ararat Develi
Armavir Kurdukulu, Serdarabad, Şah Kirman
Artashat Kemerli
Artashavan İlançalan
Arzni Serçeli
Ashotsk Kızılkoç
Aygedzor Kuleli
Aryum Büyük Ayrım
Bazmaghbyur Tekke
Berd Tavuzkale, Tavuzkent
Chambarak Çemberek
Charetsavan Lusavan
Dilijan Delican
Garni Baş Gerni
Gavar Kever, Yeni Bayazıt
Goris Gorus, Goris
Gyumri Gümrü, Kumayrı
Hrazdan Aşaǧı Ahta
Ijevan Kervansaray
Jamshlu Küçük Camışlı
Jermuk Kuşcu, İstisu, Cermik
Karmrashen Kırmızılı
Kapan Kafan, Kapan, Maden
Maralik Molla Gökçe
Martuni Aşaǧı Karanlık
Masis Uluhanlı
Mayisyan Ortakilise
Metsamor Kemerli
Mount Achkasar Aǧçala Daǧı
Lake Sevan Gökçe Gölü
Odzun Uzunlar
Serdarapat Serdarabat, Serdarabad
Shamlugh Şamlık
Sisian Karakilise
Sotk Zod
Spitak Hamamlı
Stepanavan Celaloǧlu
Torunik Kızılşafak
Tsaghkadzor Dereçiçek
Tsoghamarg Çizikler
Vagharshapat Üçkilise, Üçmüezzin, Eçmiyazin
Vayk Soylan, Azizbekov
Vanadzor Büyük Karakilis(e)
Vardenis Basargeçer
Vedi Büyük Vadi
Vernashen Başkent
Voskehask Molla Musa, Musahan
Voskevaz Kızıldemir
Yeghegnadzor Keşişkent
Yerevan Erivan, Revan

Austria[edit]

 Austria
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Austria Üstürya, Usturya
Bad Deutsch-Altenburg Altunbardak, Ovar
Bruck an der Leitha Anporok
Carinthia Dodoşka, Karenti, Karintiya Kärnten German
Deutschkreuz Kerestire, Alamanhaçı
Eisenstadt Kışmarton, Kışmaran, Zelezne
Graz Gradçe, Graviçe, Graç
Güssing Kösek, Nimet-(i) Uyvar
Hainburg an der Donau Hanburg
Heidenschuss Square Çerkez (Dayı) Meydanı
Innsbruck Cisr-i Ene
Kahlenberg Al(a)mandaǧı
Klagenfurt Selofçe, Klagenfort
Leitha Layta, Leyta, Litava
Linz Linçe, Lin(e)ç, Lenz
Mur River Mur, Mür(e), Mora, Morova, Morava
Schlossberg Eşloş, İşloş
Stephansdom İstifani Kilisesi
Stephansplatz İstifani Meydanı
Styria İstirya, Eşterya Steiermark German
Wiener Neustadt Yenişehir-i Beç, Beçyenişehir

Azerbaijan[edit]

 Azerbaijan
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Absheron Abşeron, Apşeron
Agdam Akdam, Aǧdam
Aghdara Akdere
Aǧstafa Akastafa, Ahıstafa, Ahıstabad, Ahıstav
Baku Bakü Bakı Azeri
Boyuk Zira Nargin Adası, Büyük Zire adası
Chilov Çilov Adası, Ciloy Adası
Füzuli Fuzuli, Karabulak
Ganja Gence
Gülüstan Gülistan
Hadrut Akoǧlan, Aǧoǧlan, Hadrut Endonym mainly used
Jabrayil Cebrail, Cebrayıl
Jalilabad Celilabad
Kalbajar Kelbecer, Kelpazar
Khachmaz Kaçmaz
Khankendi Hankendi
Khojali Hocalı
Kura river Kür Endonym mainly used
Lankaran Lenkeran
Mingachevir Mingeçevir
Mount Bazardüzü Pazardüzü Daǧı
Mount Kaputjugh Kapıcık Daǧı
Nakhchivan Nahçivan
Pirallahi Island Pirallahı Adası, Artem
Qubadlı Kubatlı
Şabran Şabran, Deveci
Shaki Şeki
Shamakhi Şamahı, Şomahi
Şərur Şerîr, Şerur
Shirvan Şirvan, Ali Bayramlı
Shusha Şuşa, Şişe
Siyəzən Kızıl Burun
Slavyanka Kızılca
Sumqayit Sumgayıt, Sumkayıt
Suqovuşan Sukavuşan, Magadiz
Tartar Terter
Təpəkənd Tepekent, Tonaşen
Xocavənd Hocavent, Hocavend, (Aşaǧı) Karanlık, Cumapazarı
Xudafərin Hüdaferin
Yevlakh Yevlah
Zaqatala Zakatala, Zakatal
Zəngilan Zengilan

Belarus[edit]

 Belarus
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Barysaw Borisov, Borisof
Brest Berestiye, Brest-Litovsk
Chavusy Çavuşy
Iwye Öye, Eve, Ev
Orsha Ada Kale

Belgium[edit]

 Belgium
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Antwerp Anvers Antwerpen Dutch
Bruges Bruges Brugge Dutch
Brussels Brüksel Bruxelles French
Faymonville Faymonvil, Türkanya

Bosnia-Herzegovina[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Chad[edit]

 Chad
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
N'Djamena Encemine

China[edit]

 China
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Almaliq Elmalık
Artux Ardıç, Artuç, Artış
Beijing Pekin, Hanbalık
Bortala Böretala, Bortala
Gaochang Karahoca
Guangzhou Kanton
Hami Kumul
Hanzhou Kansay
Jimsar Cimisar, Jimisar, Beşbalık, Başbölük
Kucha Kuça(r)
Qinghai Gökdeniz
Quanzhou Zeytun
Shandong Şantun(balık), Sandun(balık)
Shanghai Şangay, Şanǧay
Shenyang Mukden
Tacheng Çöçek
Taklamakan Desert Termekan, Taklar Mekan Endonym mostly used
Tian Shan Tanrı Daǧları
Tianjin Tencin
Turpan Turfan
Yangtze River Gök Irmak
Yarkant Yarkent
Yellow River Sarı Irmak, Altın Nehir
Yengisar Yeni Hisar
Yining Kulca

Comoros[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Cyprus[edit]

Czechia[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Eritrea[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Abkhazia[edit]

South Ossetia[edit]

Germany[edit]

 Germany
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Bavaria Bavyera Bayern German
Cologne Köln, Kolonya Kölle Colognian German
Eastphalia Ostfalya Ostfalen German
Landshut Lonçate
Meissen Masla, Misniye
Monschau Monşo
Munich Münih Minga
Rhine Ren Rhein German
Passau Pojap
Regensburg Ratisbon Regensburg German
Saxony Saksonya Sachsen German
Westphalia Vestfalya Westfalen German

Greece[edit]

Hungary[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Israel[edit]

Italy[edit]

Japan[edit]

Jordan[edit]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Kenya[edit]

Kosovo[edit]

Kyrgyzstan[edit]

Latvia[edit]

Lebanon[edit]

Libya[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Madagascar[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Malta[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Moldova[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Montenegro[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Mozambique[edit]

Myanmar[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

 Netherlands
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Amsterdam Amstırdam, Amesterdam Amsterdam Dutch Endonym also used
Gouda Huda, Hoda Gouda Dutch
Rotterdam Lonçat Rotterdam Dutch
The Hague Lahey Den Haag Dutch
Turkeye Türkiye Turkeye Dutch

North Korea[edit]

North Macedonia[edit]

Oman[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Palestine[edit]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Russia[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Slovakia[edit]

Slovenia[edit]

Somalia[edit]

South Africa[edit]

 South Africa
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Cape of Good Hope Ümit Burnu, Kavbono Espiranse

South Korea[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sudan[edit]

 Sudan
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Dongola Dongula
Port Sudan Bür Sudan
Suakin Sevakin, Savakin, Sevvakin

Sweden[edit]

 Sweden
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Gislaved Cızlavet, Cislavet
Götgatan Götgatan Caddesi
Ölmevalla Ölme Valla
Stockholm Stokholm, İstokholm

Switzerland[edit]

 Switzerland
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Geneva Cenev(r)e
Gruyères Gravyer
Lausanne Lozan
Lucerne Luzern
Montreux Montrö
Neuchâtel Nöşatel, Nöşetel
Ouchy Uşi

Syria[edit]

Tajikistan[edit]

 Tajikistan
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Darvoz Darvaz
Gorno-Badakhshan Daǧlık Bedahşan
Hisor Hisar
Istaravshan Uratepe
Karakul Karagöl
Khujand Hocant, Hucand, Hucend
Kofarnihon Yeni Pazar, Vahdat
Kulob Gölab, Külyab, Külyap, Kolyab, Hatlan `
Panjakent Pencikent
Qabodiyonb Kabadyan
Qurghonteppa Kurgantepe
Shaartuz Şehr-i Tuz
Tursunzoda Tursunzade

Tanzania[edit]

 Tanzania
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Dar es Salaam Darüsselam, Dar es Selam
Kilwa Kisiwani Kilva
Pemba Island Peneye, Yeşil Ada
Tanganyika Tanganika
Zanzibar Zencibar, Zencivar Endonym also used

Tunisia[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Turkmenistan[edit]

 Turkmenistan
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Anau Ab-ı Nev, Anev, Anav
Ashgabat Aşkabat
Atamurat Kerki Endonym also used
Balkanabat Nebitdaǧ Endonym also used
Baýramaly Bayram-Ali, Bayramalı
Bereket Kazancık Endonym also used
Dandanaqan Dandanakan
Daşoguz Taşhavuz Endonym also used
Garabogaz Karaboǧaz, Bektaş
Garrygala Kara-Kale, Mahtumkulu
Geok Tepe Göktepe
Gumdag Kumdaǧ
Hazar Çeleken Endonym also used
Konye-Urgench Köhne Ürgenç, Eski Ürgenç, Lucanya, Gürgenç, Curcan, Cürcan
Kopet Dag Köpetdaǧ
Magdanly Gavurdaǧ, Madenli, Maǧdandlı
Merv Marı Endonym also used
Nisa Nusay Endonym also used
Serdar Kızılarvat, Kızılavrat
Serhetabat Serhetabad, Guşkı, Kuşka
Türkmenabat Çarcu, Amul Endonym also used
Türkmenab Türkmenbaşı, Kızılsu

Ukraine[edit]

 Ukraine
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language

United Arab Emirates[edit]

 United Arab Emirates
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Abu Dhabi Abu Dabi
Ain El Ayn
Fujairah Füceyre
Sharjah Şarika

United Kingdom[edit]

 United Kingdom
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Cornwall Kernevekeli
Gibraltar Cebelitarık, Cebel-i Tarık, Cıbralta
London Londra
Strait of Gibraltar Cebelitarık Boǧazı, Septe Boǧazı, Zukak, Sokak

United States[edit]

 United States
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Albuquerque Albükerk
Chicago Şikago[9]
Philadelphia Filadelfiya
Puerto Rico Porto Riko, Borigin
Washington, D.C. Vaşington[10]
California Kaliforniya

Uzbekistan[edit]

 Uzbekistan
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Afshana Efşene, İbn-i Sina
Baykand Baykent, Paykent
Beruniy Biruni, Beruni, Kat, Kos
Guliston Güllistan, Mirzaçul
Itchan Kala İç Kale
Jizzak Cizzak
Karakalpakstan Karakalpakistan
Khiva Hiva, Harezm, Harzem, Harizm
Khwarezm Harezm Diyarı, Harzem Bölgesi
Kokand Eski Kurgan, Hokand, Hokant, Kakan, Havakend Endonym also used
Mo'ynoq Muynak, Moynak
Namangan Namakkan Endonym also used
Navoiy Nevai, Navoy, Kermine Endonym also used
Olmaliq Elmalık
Qarshi Karşı, Nasaf
Samarakand Semerkant, Semizkend
Shahrisabz Şehr-i-Sebz, Keş, Kiş
Tashkent Taşkent, Şaş, Bin Erik, Binkent, Şaşkent, Çaç, Terken Toshkent Uzbek
Termez Tirmiz, Termiz Endonym also used
To'rtko'yl Dörtgöl, Dörtköl
Urgench Urgenç, Ürgenç
Xo'jayli Hoca(y)lı

Vatican City[edit]

  Vatican City
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
St. Peter's Square Aziz Petrus Meydanı, Senpetro

Yemen[edit]

 Yemen
English name Turkish name Endonym Notes
Name Language
Aden Ade(y)n
Amran Umran
Anss Anes
Arhab Erceb
Bab-el-Mandeb Bâb'ül Mendeb Boǧazı, Babülmendep
Bani Al Awam Beni Avam
Bani Hushaysh Beni Haşiş
Bayt al-Faqih Beytü'l Fakih
Bilad Ar Rus Biladü'r Rus
Cairo Castle Kahire Kalesi
Dhamar Damar
Dhu Marmar Di Mermer
Hajja Hacca Maǧrip, Hicce
Hamdan Hemedan
Houta Lahic, Lehic
Hudadah Hudeyde, Hüdeyde
Hutayb Hudaip
Huth Huş
Ibb Ab, Eb, Ib
Iyal Surayh Iyal-i Serih
Jabal Haraz Cebel-i Haraz
Jabal Sabir Celeblisab(ı)r
Jibla Cible
Kamaran Kameran, Kemeran Adası
Kawkaban Kavkaban, Kevkeban
Khwlan Havlan
Luḩayyah Lihye, Luhayye
Mahrah Mehre
Makhadir Mehadır
Manakhah Manaha
Maqbananh Makbene
Ma'rib Maǧrib
Mocha Meha, Moha, Mo(h)ka, Muha
Mukalla Mukalla, Mükella
Mutaynah Mutayne
Nihm Nehem
Rada' Rada, Reda
Sa'da Sade
Sana'a San'a
Sanhan Sinhan
Sawadiyah Sevadiye
Shaghadirah Şekadra
Shaharah Şehare
Shaharah Bridge Huş Geçidi
Socotra Sakotra, Sokotra, Sukutra
Ta'izz Ta'az, Taiz
Thula Sula, Tula
Yafa Yafi
Yarim Yerim
Zabid Zabid, Zebid, Zubeyd
Zuhrah Zühre

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "KNAB, Place Names Database of EKI: Foreign names". eki.ee.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Prof.Dr. Şükrü Halûk Akalın, Makedonya'da Eğitim Dili Olarak Türkçe
  3. ^ (in Turkish)"Vidin Tarihine Notlar"
  4. ^ (in Turkish)"Osmanlı Devleti'nin İrşeve Kanalı Projesi"
  5. ^ ""Evliya Çelebi: VI. Cilt"". Archived from the original on 2018-04-16. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
  6. ^ ""Sorular"". Archived from the original on 2015-07-17. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
  7. ^ "Sorular-Sosyal Bilimler-Tarih"
  8. ^ ""Villa Weidner"". Archived from the original on 2015-07-17. Retrieved 2015-06-24.
  9. ^ Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Şikago Başkonsolosluğu (Consulate General of Turkey, Chicago)
  10. ^ Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Vaşington Büyükelçiliği (Turkish Embassy, Washington)