Tupolev Tu-22M

A Russian Aerospace Forces Tu-22M3
Role Strategic bomber/Maritime strike
National origin Soviet Union
Manufacturer Tupolev
First flight 30 August 1969; 54 years ago (1969-08-30)
Introduction 1972
Status In service
Primary users Russian Aerospace Forces
Produced 1967–1993
Number built 497
Developed from Tupolev Tu-22

The Tupolev Tu-22M (Russian: Туполев Ту-22М; NATO reporting name: Backfire) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the 1960s. The bomber was reported as being designated Tu-26 by western intelligence at one time.[1] During the Cold War, the Tu-22M was operated by the Soviet Air Forces (VVS) in a missile carrier strategic bombing role, and by the Soviet Naval Aviation (Aviatsiya Voyenno-Morskogo Flota, AVMF) in a long-range maritime anti-shipping role.[2] As of 2021, there were 66 of the aircraft in service.[3][4]


A painting depicting the loading of Raduga Kh-15 missiles on a Tu-22M rotary launcher. The bomber depicted is an early Tu-22M2, with distinctive air intakes.
OBP-15T Targeting bombsight on Tupolev Tu-22M(0)[5]
Older cockpit of Tupolev Tu-22M3 bomber, navigator's and weapon systems officer's panels
Tupolev Tu-22M3 taking off at Ryazan Dyagilevo

In 1962, after the introduction of the Tupolev Tu-22, it became increasingly clear that the aircraft was inadequate in its role as a bomber. In addition to widespread unserviceability and maintenance problems, the Tu-22's handling characteristics proved to be dangerous. Its landing speed was 100 km/h (60 mph) greater than previous bombers and it had a tendency to pitch up and strike its tail upon landing. It was difficult to fly, and had poor all-round visibility.[6] In 1962, Tupolev commenced work on major update of the Tu-22. Initially, the bureau planned to add a variable-sweep wing and uprated engines into the updated design. The design was tested at TsAGI's wind tunnels at Zhukovsky.[6]

During this time Sukhoi developed the T-4, a four-engine titanium aircraft with canards. A response to the XB-70, it was to have a cruise speed of 3,200 km/h (2,000 mph), requiring a major research effort in order to develop the requisite technologies. Tupolev, whose expertise was with bombers, offered the Soviet Air Force (Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily, VVS) a massively updated version of the Tu-22.[7]

Compared to the T-4, it was an evolutionary design, and thus its appeal lay in its simplicity and low cost. The Soviet government was skeptical about the need to approve the development of a replacement aircraft so soon after the Tu-22 had entered service.[8] The Air Force and Tupolev, in order to save face regarding the Tu-22's operational deficiencies and to stave off criticisms from the ICBM lobby, agreed to pass off the design as an update of the Tu-22 in their discussions with the government. The aircraft was designated Tu-22M, given the OKB code "Aircraft 45", and an internal designation of "AM". Their effort was successful as the government approved the design on 28 November 1967, and decreed the development of the aircraft's main weapon, the Kh-22 missile.[9] The T-4 itself made its first flight in 1972, but was later cancelled.[7]

US intelligence had been aware of the existence of the aircraft since 1969, and the first satellite photograph of the bomber was taken in 1970. The existence of the aircraft was a shock to US intelligence as Nikita Khrushchev, who had been the Soviet premier up to 1964, was adamant that ICBMs would render the bomber obsolete.[10]

As in the case of its contemporaries, the MiG-23 and Su-17 projects, the advantages of variable-sweep wing (or "swing wing") seemed attractive, allowing a combination of short take-off performance, efficient cruising, and good high-speed, low-level flight. The result was a new swing-wing aircraft named Samolyot 145 (Aeroplane 145), derived from the Tupolev Tu-22, with some features borrowed from the abandoned Tu-98 project. The Tu-22M was based on the Tu-22's weapon system and used its Kh-22 missile. The Tu-22M designation was used to help get approval for the bomber within the Soviet military and government system.[11]

The Tu-22M designation was used by the Soviet Union during the SALT II arms control negotiations, creating the impression that it was a modification of the Tu-22. Some suggested that the designation was deliberately deceptive, and intended to hide the Tu-22M's performance. Other sources suggest the "deception" was internal to make it easier to get budgets approved. According to some sources, the Backfire-B/C production variants were believed to be designated Tu-26 by Russia, although this is disputed by many others. The US State and Defense Departments have used the Tu-22M designation for the Backfire.[12]

Production of all Tu-22M variants totalled 497, including pre-production aircraft.[2]


An initial attempt at modernizing the Tu-22M, Adaptation-45.03M, based on modernizing the aircraft's radar, began in 1990, but was abandoned before reaching production.[13] In 2007, work began on a new radar for the Tu-22M, the NV-45, which was first flown on a Tu-22M in 2008, with four more repaired Tu-22Ms refitted with NV-45 radars in 2014–2015.[14]

A contract for a full mid-life upgrade, the Tu-22M3M, was signed in September 2014. The aircraft was then planned to receive a further modified NV-45M radar, together with new navigation equipment and a modified flight control system. A new self-defense electronic radar suite was to be fitted, replacing the tail gun of the existing Tu-22M3. Much of the new avionics were planned to be shared with the upgraded Tu-160M2.[15][16] As of 2018, armament was planned to be enhanced by adding the new Kh-32 missile, a heavily modified version of the current Kh-22, the subsonic Kh-SD, the hypersonic Kh-MT, or the Kh-47M2 Kinzhal missiles.[14][17] In 2018, deliveries of the Tu-22M3M were expected to begin in 2021.[13][needs update]

On 11 May 2020, it was reported by TASS, citing anonymous sources in the military-industrial complex, that a test launch of a new hypersonic missile, not belonging to the Kh-32 family, was conducted from a Tu-22M3M. Reportedly, work on the missile had been initiated several years earlier, and its tests were expected to be completed "simultaneously with the work on the upgraded Tu-22M3M bomber".[18]

A separate, simpler, upgrade program (SVP-24-22) was being carried out in 2018 by the company Gefest & T, based on avionics developed for the Sukhoi Su-24 attack aircraft, including a new computer, a new navigation system and digital processing for the aircraft's radar. The upgrade is claimed to greatly increase navigation accuracy and bomb delivery. A SVP-24-22-equipped Tu-22M underwent trials in 2009, and the program was moved into production, with deliveries after 2012.[14]

It was reported in September 2023 that the missiles for the Tu-22M3 have been modified to carry a new 1,700 kg payload.[19]

Operational history[edit]

Soviet Union[edit]

Soviet Tu-22M1 Backfire-B bomber aircraft is escorted by an F-14A Tomcat aircraft.

The two prototypes Tu-22M(0) were delivered to Long Range Aviation's 42nd Combat Training Centre at Dyagilevo air base, near Ryazan, in February 1973. The aircraft began practice sorties in March. Within 20 days of the aircraft's delivery, the air and ground crew at the air base had received their type ratings; this was helped by their earlier training at Tupolev, the Gromov Flight Research Institute and the Kazan plant.[20] In June that year, the aircraft were demonstrated to Soviet government officials, destroying tanks and armoured personnel carriers.[20]

The Tu-22M was first unveiled in 1980 during the aircraft's participation in a major Warsaw Pact exercise. During the exercise, naval Tu-22M2s conducted anti-ship operations by mining parts of the Baltic Sea to simulate an amphibious landing. The exercise was extensively covered by the press and TV media.[21][22] In June 1981, four Tu-22Ms were intercepted and photographed by Norwegian aircraft flying over the Norwegian Sea.[23]

The first simulated attack by the Tu-22M against a NATO carrier group occurred between 30 September and 1 October 1982. Eight aircraft locked onto the U.S. task forces of USS Enterprise and USS Midway which were operating in the North Pacific. They came within 120 mi (200 km) of the task forces. The reaction of the U.S. Navy was thought to have been restrained during this event so as to allow the observation of the Tu-22M's tactics.[24] The bomber also made attempts to test Japan's air defense boundary on several occasions.[citation needed]

A Raduga Kh-22 anti-ship missile under a Tupolev Tu-22M(0)

The Tu-22M was first used in combat in Afghanistan. It was deployed December 1987 to January 1988, during which the aircraft flew strike missions in support of the Soviet Army's attempt to relieve the Mujahideens' Siege of Khost. Two squadrons of aircraft from the 185th GvBAP based at Poltava were deployed to Maryy-2 air base in Turkmenistan. Capable of dropping large tonnages of conventional ordnance, the aircraft bombed enemy forts, bases and material supplies.[25] In October 1988, the aircraft was again deployed against the Mujahideen. Sixteen Tu-22M3s were used to provide cover to Soviet forces that were pulling out of the country. The Tu-22Ms were tasked with destroying paths of access to Soviet forces, attacking enemy forces at night to prevent regrouping, and to attack incoming supplies from Iran and Pakistan. Working alongside 30 newly arrived MiG-27s, the aircraft also flew missions aimed at relieving the besieged city of Kandahar.[26][27] The aircraft had its last Afghan operation in January 1989 at Salang pass.[28]

The Tu-22M suffered from widespread maintenance problems due to poor manufacturing quality during its service with the Soviet forces. The engines and airframes in particular had short service lives.[29] The Air Force at one point sought to prosecute Tupolev for allegedly rushing the inadequate designs of the Tu-22M and the Tu-160 into service.[30] This was compounded by the government bureaucracy, which hampered the provision of spare parts to allow the servicing of the Tu-22M. With some aircraft grounded for up to six months, the mission-capable rate of the aircraft in August 1991 was around 30–40%.[29][31]


Tupolev Tu-22M3 at Ryazan Dyagilevo

At the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, 370 remained in Commonwealth of Independent States service. Production ended in 1993.

The Russian Federation used the Tu-22M3 in combat in Chechnya during 1995, performing strikes near Grozny.[2]

In August 2007, the Tu-22M and the Tu-95 began conducting long-range patrolling, for the first time since 1992.[32][33]

On 9 August 2008, a Russian Tu-22MR reconnaissance aircraft was shot down in South Ossetia by a Georgian air defence Buk-M1 surface-to-air-missile system during the 5–day Russo-Georgian War.[34][35][36] One of its crew members was captured (Major Vyacheslav Malkov), two others were killed and the crew commander, Lt. Col. Aleksandr Koventsov, was missing in action.[37]

On 29 March 2013, two Tu-22M3 bombers flying in international airspace made a simulated attack on Sweden. The Swedish air defense failed to respond.[38][39] Two Tu-22Ms flew supersonic over the Baltic Sea on 24 March 2015.[40] Two Tu-22Ms approached Öland in international airspace on 21 May 2015. The Swedish Air Force sent two Saab JAS 39 Gripen fighters to mark their presence.[41] On 4 July 2015, two Tu-22Ms approached the Swedish island of Gotland without violating its airspace, followed by Swedish and other fighter aircraft.[42]

Tupolev Tu-22M3 during Center 2019 exercise.

In 2014, Russian aerospace expert Piotr Butowski estimated there were seven squadrons of Tu-22Ms in service, each with approximately 10 aircraft, stationed at three airbases; 40 at Belaya airbase in southeastern Siberia, 28 at Shaykovka airbase southwest of Moscow, and 10 at Dyagilevo airbase in Ryazan southeast of Moscow which serves as the training unit for the bomber. With the removal of the aircraft's in-flight refueling capability due to the START I treaty, the Tu-22M's internal fuel capacity limits its operational range (combat radius unrefueled: 4,000–5,000 km (DIA), 3,360–3,960 km (CIA) estimate)[43] from its home bases to only around Russia's immediate sphere of influence.[44]

Tupolev Tu-22M3 taking off with afterburner in 2021

Syrian Civil War[edit]

Since late January 2017, six Tu-22M3s resumed airstrikes in the area of Deir ez-Zor to prevent capture of the city by jihadists and again in late 2017 to support a government offensive.[45] 22–31 January 2016, Tu-22M3s reportedly conducted 42 sorties performing airstrikes in the vicinity of Deir ez-Zor.[citation needed] On the morning of 12 July 2016, six Tu-22M3 bombers carried out a concentrated attack around Palmyra, Al-Sukhnah and Arak.[citation needed] On 14 July, six Tu-22M3 bombers operating from airfields in Russia delivered another massive strike on the newly detected IS facilities in the areas east of Palmyra, as well as in Al-Sukhnah, Arak, and the T-3 oil pumping station in the province of Homs.[46] New raids were conducted on 21 July,[citation needed] 8 August,[47] 11 August,[48] and 14 August[49] 2016.

On 16 August 2016, the bombers began to fly missions in Syria using Iran's Hamedan Airbase.[50]

In November 2017, six Tu-22M3s resumed airstrikes in the area of Deir ez-Zor to support a government offensive.[51] In May 2021, three Tu-22Ms were temporarily deployed to the Khmeymim airbase in Syria.[52] Tu-22Ms were again deployed in eastern Mediterranean in June of the same year for large RF Navy and Air Force drills.[53]

Invasion of Ukraine[edit]

On 15 April 2022, Ukrainian Defence Ministry stated Russia had used Tu-22M3 bombers for the first time since the start of its invasion of Ukraine, to strike targets in Mariupol.[54] It had earlier been reported that FAB-3000M-46 dumb bombs had been reactivated in Russia for use with Tu-22M3 bombers to strike targets at the Azovstal iron and steel works plant that became the last bastion for Ukrainian troops in the besieged city of Mariupol.[55][56]

On 11 May 2022, a video emerged on the World Wide Web showing a Russian Aerospace Forces Tu-22M3 bomber launching two Kh-22 missiles at targets somewhere in Ukraine.[57]

On 5 December 2022, a Russian Aerospace Forces Tu-22M3 bomber, identified as RF-34110, was shown damaged as a result of a long-range drone attack by the Armed Forces of Ukraine against the Dyagilevo air base. Images on social media showed at least the engine outputs and the trailing edge of the stabilizers damaged.[58][59][60]

On 20 August 2023, the Russian government confirmed a drone attack on an airbase in Novgorod and BBC News subsequently published verified images of a Tu-22M3 engulfed in flames at Soltsy air base, Russia, which had been attacked by drones on the day before.[61][62][63][64][65]

Accoring to Ukraine, one Tu-22M3 was destroyed, and two were disabled, in an operation of a Ukrainian intelligence unit ledy by Oleh Babiy in August 2023.[66]

During the 29 December 2023 Russian strikes on Ukraine and other attacks, some 300 Kh-22 missiles have been launched at Ukraine by Russian forces, all by Tu-22M bombers. None have been shot down by Ukrainian forces, although it is suggested that Russia has been targeting areas where there are no MIM-104 Patriot or SAMP/T missile batteries.[67][68]


Closeup of the proprietary refuelling probe on the Tu-22M1 nose

The Tupolev company has sought export customers for the Tu-22M since 1992, with possible customers including Iran, India and the People's Republic of China, but no sales have apparently been made. Unlike the Tu-22 bomber, Tu-22Ms were not exported to Middle East countries that were threatened by the US military presence in the region.[69][needs update]

During 1999, India reportedly signed a lease-to-buy contract for four Tu-22M aircraft for maritime reconnaissance and strike purposes, which were to came enter IAF service in 2001. At the time, the aircraft were to be delivered with Kh-22 cruise missiles.[70][71] As of 2023 there is no evidence of operation or acquisition by the Indian Air Force.


Earliest Tu-22M(0) modification
Tupolev Tu-22M1 modification
Tu-22M2 modification
A Ukrainian Air Force Tu-22M3 at SIAD 2002 Air Show, Bratislava, Slovakia
Earliest pre-production variant, 9 were produced.
Pilot-production aircraft, 9 were produced in 1971 and 1972. Its NATO reporting name was Backfire-A.
The first major production version, entering production in 1972, was the Tu-22M2 (NATO: Backfire-B), with longer wings and an extensively redesigned, area ruled fuselage (raising the crew complement to four), twin NK-22 engines (215 kN thrust each) with distinctive intake ramps, and new undercarriage with the main landing gear in the wing glove rather than in large pods. 211 Tu-22M2 were built from 1972 to 1983.[72] The Tu-22M2 had a top speed of Mach 1.65 and was armed most commonly with long-range cruise missiles/anti-ship missiles, typically one or two Raduga Kh-22 anti-ship missiles.[72] Some Tu-22M2s were later reequipped with more powerful NK-23 engines and redesignated Tu-22M2Ye.
The later Tu-22M3 (NATO: Backfire-C), which first flew in 1977, was introduced into operation in 1983[72] and officially entered service in 1989,[citation needed] had new NK-25 engines with substantially more power, wedge-shaped intake ramps similar to the MiG-25, wings with greater maximum sweep and a recontoured nose housing a new Almaz PNA (Planeta Nositel, izdeliye 030A) navigation/attack (NATO 'Down Beat')[73] radar and NK-45 nav/attack system, which provides much-improved low-altitude flight. The aerodynamic changes increased its top speed to Mach 2.05 and its range by one third compared to the Tu-22M2.[72] It has a revised tail turret with a single cannon, and provision for an internal rotary launcher for the Raduga Kh-15 missile, similar to the American AGM-69 SRAM. It was nicknamed Troika ('Trio' or third) in Russian service. 268 were built until 1993.[74][75][72]
As built, the Tu-22M included the provision for a retractable probe in the upper part of the nose for aerial refueling. The probe was reportedly removed as a result of the SALT negotiations, because with refueling it was considered an intercontinental range strategic bomber.[76] The probe can be reinstalled if needed.[2][self-published source?][77]
Tu-22M3s used to attack targets in Syria underwent modernization, during which the SVP-24-22 specialized computing subsystems were installed on them, significantly increasing the accuracy of the bombing.[78]
The development of the "Izdeliye 4510" began in 1983. It was a modernization with the installation of new NK-32 engines (from the Tu-160) and with a change in engine air intakes. The avionics were modernized by installing a new PNK, the Obzor ("Overview") radar from the [Tu-160 and electronic warfare systems. The range of weapons was expanded: 3 Kh-32 or 10 Kh-15 (with placement on 6 internal and 4 external points of suspension) or UPAB-1500 with a television guidance system. In 1990, a prototype was built at the Kazan aircraft factory. Works in this direction were discontinued in November 1991. The prototype aircraft No. 4504 is in the museum exposition of the Dyagilevo air base.[79]
Several Tu-22M3s, perhaps 12, were converted to Tu-22M3(R) or Tu-22MR standard with the Shompol side looking airborne radar and other ELINT equipment.[2]
Tu-22DP (Dal'nego Perekhvata, long-range interception)/ DP-1 was a long-range interceptor project based on the Tu-22M2 (later on the basis of the Tu-22M3). R & D was conducted by the AN Tupolev Design Bureau together with GosNIIAS. It was assumed that the DP could also carry strike weapons.[79]
A canceled civilian supersonic aircraft based on the Tu-22M3, designed to carry 10–12 passengers. Developed by Tupolev Design Bureau (ANTK named after A. Tupolev) within the framework of conversion program in the second half of the 1990s.[80] The development of the aircraft began in the 1990s with the emergence of interest and demand for supersonic business jets (SBJ). Since the creation of an aircraft from scratch requires a large investment, Tupolev Design Bureau decided to create an SBJ-class aircraft based on Tu-22M3. However, the project proved to be unpromising at the time, as the aircraft was supposed to be used internationally, but did not meet international environmental standards of the day.[81][82]
Tu-22M3 with SVP-24-22
Modernized Tu-22M3 of the Russian Aerospace Forces fitted with a new sighting and computing system SVP-24-22 Gefest, instead of the NK-45 Vakhta-2 complex. The SVP-24-22 includes a new and more powerful SV-24 onboard computer, UVV-MP-22 input-output device, flight information generation unit – BFI, aviation collimator indicator KAI-24, radio navigation system SRNS-24 with the A737 satellite receiver and the solid-state information storage device TBN-K-2 to save data of the navigation-targeting complex SVP-24-22 and of the flight recorder. 5 modernized aircraft entered service in 2015,[83][84][85] 2 in 2017,[86][87] 1 in 2018,[88] 2 in 2019 and 2 in 2022.[89][90][91][92]
Tu-22M3 for the Russian Aerospace Forces with engines from Tu-160M2 (NK-32-02), 80 percent of avionics are replaced or upgraded,[93] including SVP-24-22 bombsights, a phased array NV-45 radar, GLONASS navigation system, modern digital glass cockpit and engine controls, electronic warfare countermeasures,[93][94] and the ability to use precision air-to-surface weapons. The modernization also counts with installation of mid-air refueling equipment, removed from existing aircraft in 1979 under the SALT II agreement, that will significantly increase the combat radius of the bomber.[95] The Russian Ministry of Defense intends to upgrade up to 30 aircraft out of approximately 60 Tu-22M3s currently in service to the advanced Tu-22M3M variant.[96][97] Can carry 3 Kh-32[98] or 4 Kh-47M2 Kinzhal missiles.[17] Service life will be extended to 40–45 years.[99] On 16 August 2018, the first modernized aircraft was unveiled during a roll-out ceremony at the Kazan Aviation Plant.[100] It performed its maiden flight on 28 December 2018.[101] On 20 March 2020, the second modernized Tu-22M3M aircraft had its maiden flight.[102][103] On 27 May 2020, it was reported that an upgraded Tu-22M3M strategic bomber had undergone trials at supersonic speed during its fourth test flight out of five already conducted.[104]


A Tu-22M3 in Russian Air Force's service
Russian Tu 22M3 group airstrike in Syria

Former operators[edit]

Soviet Tu-22M1 Backfire-B bomber aircraft in flight
Soviet Tupolev Tu-22M-3 'Backfire C', 1992
 Soviet Union
A Ukrainian Tu-22M3 is dismantled in 2002 with assistance from the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program implemented by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 16 September 2017, a Tu-22M3 overran the runway at Shaykovka Air Base due to an aborted take off. The aircraft was written off. All four crew members survived without injury.[119]
  • On 22 January 2019, a Tu-22M3 crash-landed after a training flight while attempting to make a landing at the Olenya Air Base near the city of Olenegorsk in Russia's Murmansk region. Three of the four crew members died in the crash.[120] A video shows the aircraft making a hard landing, which instantly ruptured the airframe and detached the forward cockpit area.[121]
  • On 23 March 2021, a Tu-22M3's ejection system malfunctioned,[122] suddenly activating while still on the ground. The incident resulted in the deaths of three crew members and the hospitalization of a fourth.[123] An official from Russia's Defense Ministry said that "due to the insufficient altitude for parachute opening, three crewmembers received fatal injuries upon landing."[120] The aircraft was at Shaykovka Air Base undergoing engine start procedures.
  • On 19 August 2023, a Tu-22M3 was destroyed by a drone strike from the 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive while on the ground at Soltsy-2 in Novgorod Oblast. Satellite pictures taken of the air base showed that the other bombers stationed at the airbase had been evacuated, while photographs taken on the ground showed the plane that had been hit by the drone ablaze, subsequently being completely destroyed by the resultant fire.[124]

Specifications (Tu-22M3)[edit]

Orthographic projection of the Tupolev Tu-22M
1 × 23 mm GSh-23 cannon in remotely controlled tail turret
18 × FAB-500 general-purpose bomb on two fuselage mounted pylons
A Raduga Kh-32 anti-ship missile under a Tu-22M3

Data from Frawley,[125] Donald,[126] Wilson,[127] Kardashev,[128][verification needed] Yakubovich,[129][verification needed]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 4 (pilot, co-pilot, navigator, weapon systems officer)
  • Length: 42.46 m (139 ft 4 in)[citation needed]
  • Wingspan: 34.28 m (112 ft 6 in) spread (20° sweep)
23.3 m (76 ft) swept (65° sweep)
  • Height: 11.05 m (36 ft 3 in)
  • Wing area: 183.6 m2 (1,976 sq ft) spread (20° sweep)
175.8 m2 (1,892 sq ft) swept (65° sweep)
  • Empty weight: 58,000 kg (127,868 lb)
  • Gross weight: 112,000 kg (246,918 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 126,000 kg (277,782 lb)[citation needed]
  • Maximum take-off weight, rocket assisted: 126,400 kg (278,664 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 54,000 kg (119,050 lb) internal
  • Powerplant: 2 × Kuznetsov NK-25 Afterburning turbofan engines, 247.9 kN (55,700 lbf) with afterburner


  • Maximum speed: 1,997 km/h (1,241 mph, 1,078 kn)[citation needed] at 9,140 m (30,000 ft)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 1.88
  • Range: 6,800 km (4,200 mi, 3,700 nmi)
  • Combat range: 2,500 km (1,600 mi, 1,300 nmi) with typical 10,000 kg weapons load[130]
  • Ferry range: 7,000 km (4,300 mi, 3,800 nmi)[citation needed]
  • Service ceiling: 13,300 m (43,600 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 15 m/s (3,000 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 688 kg/m2 (141 lb/sq ft)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.45


  • Guns: 1 × 23-mm GSh-23 cannon in remotely controlled tail turret
  • Hardpoints: wing and fuselage pylons and internal weapons bay with a capacity of 24,000 kg (53,000 lb) of
  • Up to 18 × FAB-500 general-purpose bomb in weapons bay and on wing pylons or
  • Up to 3 × Kh-22/Kh-32 missiles in weapons bay and on wing pylons or
  • Up to 6 × Kh-15 missiles on a MKU-6-1 rotary launcher in its bomb bay, plus 4 × Raduga Kh-15 missiles on two underwing pylons for a total of 10 missiles per aircraft.
  • Up to 4 × Kh-47M2 Kinzhal[131]
  • Various sea mines[132] and freefall bombs – 69 × FAB-250 or 8 × FAB-1500 might be typical.

The Kh-55 (AS-15 Kent) long-range cruise missile was tested on the Tu-22M[133] but apparently not used in service.

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era



  1. ^ Air International October 1980, p. 188
  2. ^ a b c d e Goebel, Greg. "The Tupolev Tu-22 "Blinder" & Tu-22M 'Backfire'". Vectorsite.net. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.
  3. ^ Hoyle, Craig (26 September 2014). "Kings of the swingers: Top 13 swing-wing aircraft". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  4. ^ "The B-21 and H-20 Mean the Age of Flying Wing Bombers Has Arrived". 19fourtyfive.com. 20 May 2022.
  5. ^ Kopp, Carlo (5 July 2007). "Туполев Ту-22M3 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец" [Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire C Bomber - Missile Carrier]. Air Power Australia. Ausairpower.net: 1. Archived from the original on 2019-01-26. Retrieved 2019-02-02.
  6. ^ a b Kandalov & Duffy 1996, p. 124.
  7. ^ a b Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 51.
  8. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, pp. 51–52.
  9. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 52.
  10. ^ Kandalov & Duffy 1996, p. 158.
  11. ^ Eden, Paul, ed. Tupolev Tu-22/22M". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  12. ^ "Tu-22M BACKFIRE (TUPOLEV)". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  13. ^ a b Butowski 2019, p. 46
  14. ^ a b c Butowski 2019, p. 47
  15. ^ Butowski 2019, pp. 46–47
  16. ^ "Источник: проектирование новой версии Ту-22М3 завершено" [Source: the design of the new version of the Tu-22M3 completed]. TASS. 17 November 2017. Archived from the original on 23 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  17. ^ a b "Бомбардировщики Ту-22М3 вооружат гиперзвуковыми ракетами "Кинжал"". Ria.ru. 2 July 2018. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  18. ^ "Russia tests new hypersonic missile designed for Tu-22M3M strategic bomber - source". TASS. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  19. ^ "Tu-22M3 missiles to receive new payload — Russian long-range aviation commander".
  20. ^ a b Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 81.
  21. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 82.
  22. ^ "Military Exercises on Soviet-Bloc TV". New York Times. 14 September 1980. p. A5.
  23. ^ "Soviet planes photographed". The Globe and Mail. 15 June 1981. p. 14.
  24. ^ "Backfires attack US carriers". Flight International. Surrey, UK: IPC Transport Press. 122 (3837): 1480. 14–20 November 1982. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  25. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, pp. 83–84.
  26. ^ "USSR Uses Backfires, MiG-27s to Attack Afghan Mujahedeen". Aviation Week & Space Technology. New York: Penton Media. 129 (19): 21. 7 November 1988. ISSN 0005-2175.
  27. ^ Moseley, Ray (2 November 1988). "Soviets Add Missiles in Afghan War". Chicago Tribune. p. 16.
  28. ^ Gordon, Rigmant & Komissarov 1999, p. 84.
  29. ^ a b Velovich, Alexander (7–13 August 1991). "Spares deficit grounds Tu-22s" (PDF). Flight International. London, UK: Reed Business Information. 140 (4279): 17. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  30. ^ Velovich, Alexander (6–12 November 1991). "Soviet AF wanted Tupolev prosecuted over Blackjack". Flight International. London, UK: Reed Business Information. 140 (4292): 21. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  31. ^ "BACKFIRE BOMBERS IN CHINA" (PDF). Dtic.mil. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  32. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. "Russia Resumes Patrols by Nuclear Bombers". Archived 2017-06-26 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, 17 August 2007. Retrieved: 17 July 2010.
  33. ^ Sekretarev, Ivan (18 August 2007). "Russia starts Soviet-style bomber patrols". Winnipeg Free Press. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  34. ^ Грузия передала России тела штурманов сбитого Ту-22М3. lenta.ru (in Russian). 16 September 2008. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  35. ^ Генштаб признал потерю двух самолетов в Южной Осетии [The General staff acknowledged the loss of two aircraft in South Ossetia]. Lenta.ru (in Russian). 9 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 August 2008. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  36. ^ Chang, Felix K. (13 August 2008). "Russia Resurgent: An Initial Look at Russian Military Performance in Georgia". Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008.
  37. ^ Маленькая бедоносная война [Little bedonosnaâ war] (in Russian). Moskovskij Komsomolets. 7 August 2009. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  38. ^ "Danish F-16s confronted Russian fighter jets approaching Sweden". The Copenhagen Post. April 23, 2013. Archived from the original on October 19, 2014.
  39. ^ Holmström, Mikael (22 April 2013). "Ryskt flyg övade anfall mot Sverige" [Russian aircraft practiced attacks on Sweden]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  40. ^ Cenciotti, David (24 March 2015). "Russian Tu-22 bomber scares NATO air defenses flying at supersonic speed over the Baltic Sea for the first time". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  41. ^ Cenciotti, David (21 May 2015). "Ryskt agerande tvingar MP till vägval" [Russian action forces the MP to choices]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  42. ^ de la Reguera, Eric (4 July 2015). "Ryska bombplan nära Gotland" [Russian bombers near Gotland]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  43. ^ "Tu-22M BACKFIRE (TUPOLEV)". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  44. ^ Russia’s Backfire Bomber Is Back! Archived 2016-10-25 at the Wayback Machine – Warisboring.com, 13 June 2014
  45. ^ Cenciotti, David (17 November 2015). "25 Russian long-range strategic bombers in action over Syria for the very first time". The Aviationist. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  46. ^ "Russia's Tu-22M3 long-range bombers strike IS facilities in Syria". Tass.ru. Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  47. ^ "Шесть Ту-22М3, вылетевшие из России, нанесли удар по объектам ИГ в Сирии". Ria.ru. 8 August 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  48. ^ "Опубликовано видео ударов ВКС по позициям ИГ в Ракке". Ria.ru. 11 August 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  49. ^ "Six Russian Tu-22M3 backfire long-range bombers deliver strikes on IS facilities in Syria". Tass.ru. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  50. ^ "Syrian conflict: Russian bombers use Iran base for air strikes". BBC. 16 August 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  51. ^ "Six Russian Tu-22M3 bombers hit Islamic State facilities near Syria's Abu Kamal". Tass.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  52. ^ "Tu-22M3 bombers' presence in Syria aims to stabilize situation, says Russian lawmaker". TASS. 25 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  53. ^ "Russian naval ships thwart enemy attack in Mediterranean drills". TASS.
  54. ^ "Russian Tu-22M3 bombers strike Mariupol". ukrinform.net. 15 April 2022.
  55. ^ "Dumb Bombs for Dumb Things: VKS reactivates 70-Year-Old FAB-3000M-46 bombs not suitable for Fast Jets to arm its Tupolev Tu-22M3 Supersonic Bombers to strike Ukraine". theaviationgeekclub.com. 8 April 2022.
  56. ^ "Russian TU-22M3 Supersonic Bomber Strikes Azovstal Factory in Mariupol". YouTube. 15 April 2022.
  57. ^ "We May Have Our First Sight Of A Russian Bomber Launching Missiles At Ukraine". thedrive.com. 11 May 2022.
  58. ^ "Ukrainian drones attack Russian Tu-22M bomber base". defence-blog.com. 2022-12-05. Retrieved 2022-12-06.
  59. ^ "Strikes deep inside Russia highlight Ukraine's tactical ingenuity". the Guardian. 2022-12-05. Retrieved 2022-12-06.
  60. ^ Ricardo Meier (2022-12-06). "Russian Tu-22M and Tu-95 bombers hit by suspected Ukrainian drone strikes". airdatanews.com. Retrieved 2022-12-06.
  61. ^ "Ukrainian drone destroys Russian supersonic bomber". BBC News. 22 August 2023. Retrieved 22 August 2023.
  62. ^ Cole, Brendan (19 August 2023). "Russia blames Ukraine for drone attack on military airfield". Newsweek. Retrieved 2023-08-19.
  63. ^ Times, The Moscow (2023-08-19). "Drone Attacks Military Airfield in Northwestern Russia". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2023-08-19.
  64. ^ "Attack on Russian airfield in Novgorod Oblast: Drone damages aircraft". Yahoo News. 2023-08-19. Retrieved 2023-08-19.
  65. ^ "All effects of drone attack against airdrome near Novgorod eliminated — authorities". TASS. Retrieved 2023-08-19.
  66. ^ "Ukraine's Defence Intelligence reveals details of operation to destroy Tu-22 strategic bombers in Russia".
  67. ^ Danylo Kramarenko; Daria Shekina (29 December 2023). "Nuclear warfighter: Key characteristics of Russian Tu-22M3 bomber and Kh-22 'blind' missiles". MSN. MSN. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  68. ^ "Nuclear warfighter: Key characteristics of Russian Tu-22M3 bomber and Kh-22 'blind' missiles". The Kyiv Post. The Kyiv Post. 2023-12-30. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  69. ^ "Tu-22M simulated attack on U.S. aircraft carriers during cold war". 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  70. ^ Sherman, K. (1 April 2001). "India Leases Backfire Bombers, Buys Aircraft Carrier". Journal of Electronic Defense. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  71. ^ Wirtz, James (2004). Balance of Power. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-5017-2.
  72. ^ a b c d e "The Tupolev Tu-22 "Blinder" & Tu-22M "Backfire"". Airvectors.net. Archived from the original on 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
  73. ^ "Tu-22M3 - Cruise Missile - Missile". Scribd. Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  74. ^ Carlo, Kopp (5 July 2007). "Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire C Bomber - Missile Carrier / Туполев Ту-22M3 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец". Ausairpower.net: 1. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  75. ^ Kopp, Carlo (August 1, 2009). "Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire C Bomber – Missile Carrier". Ausairpower.net: 1. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016.
  76. ^ Taylor 1980, p. 212.
  77. ^ "Tupolev Tu-22M1". Riga Aviation Museum. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  78. ^ "Новая система "Гефест" позволяет использовать некорректируемые боеприпасы как высокоточные". Tass.ru. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  79. ^ a b "Ту-22М, сверхзвуковой бомбардировщик". ИА «Оружие России». Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  80. ^ Under the signs of "ANT" and "TU" // Aviation and Cosmonautics. - 2000. - # 11.
  81. ^ Turkey in an hour? Only 6 places! Archived 2010-09-11 at the Wayback Machine F5, April 17, 2009. - Interview with Alexander Leonidovich Pukhov, chief designer of the Tupolev Design Bureau.
  82. ^ "Tu-344". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  83. ^ "Russia brings into service modernized long-range bomber Tu-22M3". Tass. 4 June 2014. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  84. ^ В Национальном центре управления обороной проведен Единый день приемки военной продукции [At the National Centre for defence management held a single day of acceptance of military products]. Armstrade.org (in Russian). 17 April 2015. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  85. ^ "Quality building-up in the Russian Armed Forces". Eng.itogi2015.mil.ru. Archived from the original on 2016-06-29. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
  86. ^ "Tupolev hands over upgraded Tu-160M, Tu-95MSM strategic bombers". Airrecognition.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  87. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / Очередной Ту-22М3 передан в эксплуатацию после завершения контрольно-восстановительных работ". Armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  88. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / "Туполев" передал в эксплуатацию очередной Ту-22М3". Armstrade.org. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  89. ^ "ЦАМТО / Новости / "Туполев" передал в эксплуатацию очередной Ту-22М3 после завершения работ по его доработке". Archived from the original on 2019-04-02. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  90. ^ "Russian Defense Ministry gets Tu-22M3 bomber after major overhaul". TASS.
  91. ^ "Defense firm sends top-notch supersonic bomber to Russian Aerospace Forces after repairs". Tass.
  92. ^ "Russia's long-range aviation receives another Tu-22M3 missile carrier plane".
  93. ^ a b Roblin, Sebastien (13 October 2018). "Bombs Away: Russia's 'New' Tu-22M3M Bomber Might Look Familiar (And Still Deadly)". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  94. ^ Majumdar, Dave (18 November 2017). "Russia's Supersonic Bombers: Now Locked and Loaded with New Supersonic Missiles". Nationalinterest.org. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  95. ^ "Tupolev Tu-22M3 to be refueled in mid-air, operate on longer range". interfax. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  96. ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (21 August 2018). "Russia Rolls Out First Upgraded Tu-22M3M Long-Range Bomber". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019.
  97. ^ Ту-22М3 сделают убийцу ЕвроПРО Ради высокоточной ракеты бомбардировщику поменяют всю электронику [Tu-22M3 aircraft will be capable to overcome NATO air defence, it turns it into a high precision weapon system, all electronics of the aircraft will change]. VPK (in Russian). 7 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  98. ^ "Дальние ракетоносцы Ту-22М3 приземлятся в Крыму". Rg.ru. 18 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  99. ^ "Russia's upgraded strategic bomber to feature advanced avionics suite". TASS. Archived from the original on 27 December 2018. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  100. ^ "New bomber Tupolev-22M3M presented in Kazan". TASS. 16 August 2018. Archived from the original on 16 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  101. ^ "Russia's upgraded Tu-22M3 strategic missile-carrying bomber performs debut flight". TASS. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  102. ^ "Второй модернизированный ракетоносец Ту-22М3М совершил первый полет". EurAsia Daily. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Latest modernised Tu-22 strategic bomber takes flight". flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  104. ^ "Tupolev aircraft maker confirms testing upgraded Tu-22M3M bomber at supersonic speed". TASS.
  105. ^ The Military Balance 2018
  106. ^ a b "Russian Military Forces: Interactive Map".
  107. ^ "43rd Center for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel DA". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  108. ^ "924th Guards Kievskiy Red Banner order of Suvorov Maritime Missile Aviation Regiment". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  109. ^ a b "13th Guards Dnepropetrovsko-Budapeshtskaya order of Suvorov Heavy Bomber Aviation Division". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  110. ^ "184th Guards Poltavsko-Berlinskiy Red Banner Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  111. ^ "5th Kirkenesskaya Red Banner Maritime Missile Aviation Division". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  112. ^ a b "2nd Guards Sevastopolskaya Maritime Missile Aviation Division imeni N.A. Tokarev". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  113. ^ a b "33rd Center for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel Aviation VMF imeni E.N. Preobrazhenskogo". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  114. ^ "Ukraine Bomber Decommissioning and Transfer Chronology" (PDF). Nuclear Threat Initiative. April 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  115. ^ "В ПОЛТАВЕ ГОТОВЯТСЯ К УТИЛИЗАЦИИ ПОСЛЕДНЕГО БОМБАРДИРОВЩИКА". aviaport.ru. 26 January 2006. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  116. ^ Украина ликвидировала последний бомбардировщик [Ukraine eliminated the last bomber]. Korrespondent.net (in Russian). 27 January 2006. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  117. ^ "22nd Guards Donbasskaya Red Banner Heavy Bomber Aviation Division". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 9 October 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  118. ^ Музей дальней авиации [Museum of long-range aviation]. doroga.ua (in Russian). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  119. ^ Самолет Ту-22 выкатился с полосы в Калужской области. iz.ru (in Russian). 16 September 2017. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  120. ^ a b "Three servicemen die in Tu-22 bomber incident at airfield near Kaluga". TASS. Retrieved 2021-03-23.
  121. ^ Rogoway, Tyler (26 January 2019). "Dramatic Video Of Russian Tu-22M3 Crash Landing In Bad Weather Emerges (Updated)". The Drive. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  122. ^ "3 Russian bomber pilots killed by ejection system glitch". AP News. 23 March 2021.
  123. ^ "One crewmember survives incident with Tu-22M3 bomber near Kaluga, says source". TASS. Retrieved 2021-03-23.
  124. ^ Rogoway, Howard Altman, Tyler (2023-08-22). "Destroyed Tu-22M Seen At Now Empty Russian Airbase". The Drive. Retrieved 2023-08-30.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  125. ^ Frawley 2002, p. 163.
  126. ^ Donald 1997, p. 883.
  127. ^ Wilson 2000, p. 138.
  128. ^ Kardashev 2017, p. 191.
  129. ^ Yakubovich 2012, p. 213.
  130. ^ "На что способна одна эскадрилья Су-34? - Армейский вестник". army-news.ru. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  131. ^ "Russia tests strategic bomber with new air-to-surface missile". Tass.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  132. ^ "Russian Tupolev Tu-22M3 long-range bombers practiced laying mines in maritime zones". Navyrecognition.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  133. ^ "Kh-55 (AS-15 Kent/Kh-555/RKV-500/Kh-65)". Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems. 9 September 2008. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2009.


  • "Backfire Proliferates". Air International. Vol. 19, no. 4. October 1980. pp. 186–188. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Butowski, Piotr (March 2019). "Anti-carrier striker". Air International. Vol. 96, no. 3. pp. 44–47. ISSN 0306-5634.
  • Donald, David, ed. "Tupolev Tu-22M". The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Barnes & Noble Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
  • Frawley, Gerald. "Tupolev Tu-22M". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Aerospace Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
  • Gordon, Yefim; Rigmant, Vladimir; Komissarov, Dmitri (1999). Tupolev Tu-22 Blinder Tu-22M Backfire: Russia's Long Range Supersonic Bombers. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1857800656.
  • Healey, John K. (January–February 2004). "Retired Warriors: 'Cold War' Bomber Legacy". Air Enthusiast. No. 109. pp. 75–79. ISSN 0143-5450.
  • Kandalov, Andrei; Duffy, Paul (1996). Tupolev – The Man and His Aircraft: The Man and His Aircraft. Society of Automotive Engineers. ISBN 1560918993.
  • Taylor, J.W.R. (ed.) Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1980–81. London: Jane's Publishing, 1980. ISBN 0-7106-0705-9.
  • Wilson, Stewart (2000). Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
  • The product «45-03». Technical manual.

External links[edit]