Tucanoan languages

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Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Tukano Languages.png
East Tukano (nuclear green), Central Tukano (turquoise green) and West Tukano (dark green). Dots indicate current locations of the various languages. Shaded areas indicate their extents before the 20th century.

Tucanoan (also Tukanoan, Tukánoan) is a language family of Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.


There are two dozen Tucanoan languages:

  • Western Tucanoan[2]
    • Correguaje (also known as Coreguaje, Caquetá, Korewahe, Koreguaje)
    • ?Tama
    • Napo
      • Orejón (also known as Coto, Payoguaje, Payaguá, Koto, Payowahe, Payawá, M`áíhɨ̃ki)
      • Siona–Secoya (Upper Napo)
        • ?Macaguaje (AKA Kakawahe, Piohé) †
        • Siona (Siona, Sioni, Pioje, Pioche-Sioni, Tetete)
        • Secoya (Piohé, Secoya, Siona-Secoya)
  • Central Tucanoan[citation needed]
    • Cubeo (also known as Cuveo, Kobeua, Kubewa)
    • Tanimuca (also known as Retuarã)
  • Eastern Tucanoan[citation needed]
    • South
      • Macuna (also known as Buhagana, Wahana, Makuna-Erulia, Makuna)
      • Barasana (also known as Paneroa, Eduria, Edulia, Comematsa, Janera, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano)
    • Central
    • North
      • Tucano (also known as Tukana, Dasea)
      • Guanano (also known as Wanana, Wanano, Kotedia, Kotiria, Wanana-Pirá)
        • Piratapuyo (also known as Waikina, Uiquina)
  • ?Miriti
  • ?Cueretú (also known as Kueretú) †
  • ?Yauna (also known as Jaúna, Yahuna, Yaúna) †

Most languages are, or were, spoken in Colombia.


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tucanoan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Thiago Chacon (2012)


  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.

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