Tucanoan languages

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Tukánoan
Geographic
distribution
Amazon
Linguistic classificationOne of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions
Glottologtuca1253[1]
Tukano Languages.png
East Tukano (nuclear green), Central Tukano (turquoise green) and West Tukano (dark green). Dots indicate current locations of the various languages. Shaded areas indicate their extents before the 20th century.

Tucanoan (also Tukanoan, Tukánoan) is a language family of Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

Language contact[edit]

Jolkesky (2016) notes that there are lexical similarities with the Arutani, Paez, Sape, Taruma, Witoto-Okaina, Saliba-Hodi, Tikuna-Yuri, Pano, Barbakoa, Bora-Muinane, and Choko language families due to contact.[2]

Classification[edit]

Chacon (2014)[edit]

There are two dozen Tucanoan languages:[3]

Western Tucanoan
  • ?Cueretú (Kueretú) †
  • Napo
    • Orejón (also known as M'áíhɨ̃ki, Maijiki, Coto, Koto, Payoguaje, Payaguá, Payowahe, Payawá)
    • Correguaje–Secoya
      • Correguaje (Koreguaje, Korewahe, also known as Caquetá)
      • Siona–Secoya (Upper Napo)
        • ?Macaguaje (AKA Kakawahe, Piohé) †
        • Siona (Siona, Sioni, Pioje, Pioche-Sioni, Tetete)
        • Secoya (Piohé, Secoya, Siona-Secoya)
        • ?Tama
Eastern Tucanoan
  • South
    • Tanimuca (also known as Retuarã)
    • ?Yauna (Jaúna, Yahuna, Yaúna) †
  • West
    • Barasana–Macuna
      • Macuna (also known as Buhagana, Wahana, Makuna-Erulia, Makuna)
      • Barasana (Southern Barasano, also known as Paneroa, Eduria, Edulia, Comematsa, Janera, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano)
    • Cubeo–Desano
  • East
    • Central
      • Tucano (Tukana, also known as Dasea)
      • Waimaha–Tatuyo
    • North
      • Kotiria–Piratapuyo
        • Guanano (Wanana, Wanano, also known as Kotedia, Kotiria, Wanana-Pirá)
        • Piratapuyo (also known as Waikina, Uiquina)
      • Pisamira–Yuruti

Plus unclassified Miriti.†

Most languages are, or were, spoken in Colombia.

Jolkesky (2016)[edit]

Internal classification by Jolkesky (2016):[2]

(† = extinct)

Tukano

Varieties[edit]

Below is a full list of Tucanoan language varieties listed by Loukotka (1968), including names of unattested varieties.[4]

Western group
Yahuna group
Yupua group
  • Yupua / Hiupiá - spoken on the Coca River, a tributary of the Apoporis River, Colombia.
  • Kushiita - once spoken at the mouth of the Apoporis River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Now perhaps extinct. (Unattested.)
  • Durina / Sokó - spoken on the Carapato River, Amazonas territory, Colombia.
Coretu group
Cubeo group
Särä group
Erulia group
Desána group
Tucano group

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items.[4]

Language Branch head eye hand one two three
Tucano I dex-póa kaxpéri tomógha nĩkáno peáro itiáro
Uaíana I dé-paue kape oama ikãpeleko peápeleko itiapeleko
Tuyuca I déx-píu kaxfea uamo txixkálo peálo ixtiéro
Waikína I dax-púa káxfea umuká axkakiró péaro tíaro
Uantya I kapéga uamó
Bará I dex-féa kapéka anó hixkága peága tixtíaga
Uanána I dax-púa kaxpádi dapáro kéliã peáro tíaro
Uasöna II de-póue káxea oámu hikálo peálo itíalo
Tsölá II rix-fóa kuíri ámo híkã péga ixtíale
Urubu-Tapuya II re-kapeã uamon
Pamöä II rea-poá kapé uamon
Patsoca II kapé uamó
Möxdöá II rea-poa kapea oamó hikän pángara éteaná
Sära Sära lix-hóga káxea áma hohogá héaga ediaga
Omöá Sära dix-hóga káxea hóga héaga ediago
Buhágana Sära tix-hóga kaxea ámo kohága héaga ediága
Macuna Sära ri-hóga kaea ámo
Erulia Erulia lix-hóga káxfea uamó kóla héãlã edíala
Tsölöa Erulia rix-hóa káxea ámo gohé héa idía
Palanoa Erulia lix-hoá káxea ámo
Cubeo Cubeo hi-póbe hi-yakóli pubu kũinálõ pekálõã dópekelõã
Dyuremáwa Cubeo hi-póbi dya-kóli pilí kuináro pikáro dyobekiro
Hehénawa Cubeo hi-póbí ya-kóli pilí kwináro pikaːro yobekiro
Bahúkiwa Cubeo hí-póbi dyá-koli pilí kuinárõã pikárõã dyóbekirõã
Desána Desána dex-púru yéle mohópama yũhúge péye eléye
Chiranga Desána dix-púlu kudiru muhá uhúpũnu perú ilerú
Yahuna Yahuna líupukóa hiyakóli pitaka ínoho ípo makalaka
Tanimuca Yahuna dupukoa ñákua pitaka
Yupuá Yupuá kúele yaːkõá múho tzyundyá axpedyá aleddyá
Durina Yupuá kúrʔ díölö móhu chun apáina áʔalia
Coretu Coretu sí-roho sia-kokia muhú námare nahárakiare masírakiáre
Tama Western xixo-pué nakoba teyo káyapa choteyo
Coreguaje Western sixó-pués nankoká xẽte
Amaguaje Western zium-bue nañka hente teo kayapa toazumba
Icaguate Western hente toazumba
Siona Western sixum-bué nankoka enté teheke samú
Pjoje Western siom-pwö nánkoa höntö tayo kayayé toasoñé
Cóto Western tsíong ñákoa óteperé teyong tépe báwabwö


gloss branch water fire sun star maize jaguar axe
Tucano I axkó pexkáme mũhípũ yãxkõá ohóka yaí kumé
Uaíana I óko pekáne muhĩpü yõkõá olikaleko yéi kóme
Tuyuca I oxkó pexkámene mũhĩphfu yãxkõá ohólika yéi kumé
Waikína I axkó pexkáka axsé yapíkoa nodogé komé
Uantya I óko pekáme muipem ñokoam yahi kumúa
Bará I oxkó pexkáme mũhífũ yöxkóã ódixka yeído kómea
Uanána I pxtxáka yapítxoa iyó yaído kúma
Uasöna II óko pekáme múhípe yókóaː olíka yái komé
Tsölá II óxko péro múhífú yóxkõã ohólika yái kómea
Urubu-Tapuya II óko péro muipem ñokon oriká kumuá
Pamöä II hokó paʔáro muipem yakopaké oriká kumuä
Patsoca II óko pekaró muipum ñonkóãn oriká dyahi komé
Möxdöá II okó péro moépo áríka yáhi koméa
Sära Sära ida péame ómakani yoxkó ohólika yái kómea
Omöá Sära éde heáme amakai yoxkoá ohólika yái kumá
Buhágana Sära íde héame ómãkãyi yóxko oholika yái kumá
Macuna Sära íde éa úmakanö tapia áre yáiya
Erulia Erulia óxko heáme mũhihũ yõxkóã ohólika yái kumá
Tsölöa Erulia oxkó heáno muhíhú yoxkó ohólika yáí kúmoa
Palanoa Erulia óxko heáne muhíhu yoxkó ohólika yái kúmoa
Cubeo Cubeo okó toá auiyá abiákoa ueá yauí kométako
Dyuremáwa Cubeo okó toábo avía abíakoli veá dyaví hoekí
Hehénawa Cubeo okó toábo aviá abíakoli veá yawí hoéki
Bahúkiwa Cubeo okó toaːbo aviá abiákoli veá dyaví hoekí
Desána Desána dexkó peáme abé néyãxkã ohólexka ye kumé
Chiranga Desána dexko piámeʔe abé naiukamo húdeka diéche kumé
Yahuna Yahuna ókoa peká ihía tãapíã oáka yaia kómeá
Tanimuca Yahuna ókoa peka ayáka tapia wáka yáiya
Yupuá Yupuá déxko píele aué yóxkólo óo kúmi
Durina Yupuá pílö áwe yokolo óho diwórekö kúmi
Coretu Coretu kótapu hékiekie háya yákohe mitólikere híyai kumú
Tama Western okó toá enesé mañeguai keá edyai supo
Coreguaje Western óko toá ense mañokó weá chaí supú
Amaguaje Western óko toa ense manúko bea ayroyai supó
Icaguate Western toa enze mañoko
Siona Western oko toá ensé mañoko gueá ayroxai supó
Pjoje Western ókó towá öntsö mánioko wéa yaí súpo
Cóto Western óko towaʔa báñi túku béa yái dzöʔó

Proto-language[edit]

Proto-Tukanoan reconstructions by Chacon (2013):[5]

gloss proto-Tukanoan
3rd.person.masculine *-pi
agouti *wuɨ
ant sp. *meka
aracu fish[6] *p’ot’ika
armadillo *pãmu
back *sõkɨ
bat *ojo
big *pahi
(to) bite *kũ
black *tj’ĩ
black ink (jenipapo) *weʔe
blood *tj’ie
blow *pu-
bone *k’oʔa
(to) break *p’ope (*poa)
breast *upe
buriti palm *neʔe
capybara *kuetju
cara (Dioscorea alata) *japi
case *-t’e
centipede; boa *jãk’i
charcoal (1) *nitti
charcoal (2); grease *neo
cheek *wajo
chew *tj’ãk’ɨ
chili *p’ia
cold *tjɨsi
kapok *jɨi
(to) cut *t’ɨtte
dance / ritualized songs *p’aja
deer *jama
dove *ƭʃɨ-
duck *p’ete
ear *k’ãp’o
egg *tj’ia
elder *p’ɨkɨ
elevated structure (shelves, roof, etc.) (jirau) *kaja
(to) end *pet’i
excrement *k’ɨt’a
face *tj’ia
father *pa-kɨ
feminine *-k’o
fire / firewood *peka
fish; fish sp. (?) *waʔi
(to) fish with a net; strain, remove *wajo
fishing net *p’api
float *paʔja
flower *k’oʔo
foot *k’ɨp’o
fruit sp. *toa
Inga (fruit sp.) *p’ene
garden; outside; village *wese
gather / collect *tʃɨ-a
grandfather *jẽkku-
grape *ɨʔje
grass *taja
green / blue / not ripe *tjɨ̃p’e
hand; palm (of the hand) *pɨtɨ
head *tj’ɨpo
heavy *t’ɨkkɨ
heron *jahi
hole *k’ope
hot; heat *atjɨ
house; anthill *wɨ’e
hummingbird *mimi
I *jɨʔɨ
insect sp. *tjusi
jaguar *jai
kingfisher *tjãsa
know *masi
lake *tj’itta
land / territory / region *jep’a
larva *p’ekko
leg; hips; knee *jɨ̃ka
locative / part-of-a-whole *-t’o
distant *tj’oa
macaw *maha
man *ɨmɨ
manioc *kɨi
monkey *takke
monkey sp. / coati *sisi
mosquito *mɨte
mouth *tj’ɨse (*jɨ-ʔo)
name *wãmi
navel *tʃõp’ɨ
non-3rd animate person -p’ɨ
nose *ɨ̃kʷ’e
paca *seme
pacu fish *uhu
palm weevil *pĩko
parrot *wekko
path *maʔa
peccary *tjẽse
penis *no-
people; 1.pl.inclusive *p’ã-tjã
(to) plant *otte
poison *tjima
pot / ceramics / clay *sot-
pupunha palm *ɨne
red *sõʔa
river *tj’ia
root *t’ɨ̃k ’o
(to) rub *sĩk’e
(to) sit
(to) sleep *kã-
(to) smoke meat *sɨʔjo
snake *ãja
spider *p’ɨpɨ
spirit; ancestral *wãtti
(to) squeeze *p’ipo
(to) stop *nɨk’V
stone *k’ɨ̃ta
stump; stick, club *tu-tu
(to) swell *p’upi
tapir *wekkɨ
termite *p’utu
thorn; fishhook *pota
three *ɨt’ia
thunder *wɨ̃po
toad sp. *p’opa
tobacco *mɨt’o
tocandira ant *piata
tongue / liver *tj’eme
tooth *k’õpi
tortoise; turtle *k’oɨ
toucan *tj’ase (?)
traira fish *t’oje
tree *tjũkkɨ
(to) urinate *k’one
urucum (achiote) *p’õsa
(to) wait *kʷɨt’e
wasp *utti
water *okko
white; whitewash *p’o-
wife *t’ɨ̃po
wind *wĩno
woman *t’õmi-
woodpecker *kone
yam *jãp’o
you all *mɨ-tja

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tucanoan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho De Valhery. 2016. Estudo arqueo-ecolinguístico das terras tropicais sul-americanas. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Brasília.
  3. ^ Chacon, Thiago (2014). "A Revised Proposal of Proto-Tukanoan Consonants and Tukanoan Family Classification". International Journal of American Linguistics. 80 (3): 275–322. doi:10.1086/676393.
  4. ^ a b Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.
  5. ^ Chacon, Thiago (2013). On Proto-Languages and Archaeological Cultures: pre-history and material culture in the Tukanoan Family. In Revista Brasileira de Linguística Antropológica. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 217-245.
  6. ^ Aracus. amazonwaters.org

Bibliography[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.

External links[edit]