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Language codes
ISO 639-3

Stavangersk, Stavanger dialect or Stavanger Norwegian (Norwegian: Stavangersk, Stavanger-dialekt (Bokmål) or Stavangerdialekt (Nynorsk)) is a dialect of Norwegian used in Stavanger.

The pronunciation and origin resembles that of the written Nynorsk, yet the official written language of the Stavanger municipality is Bokmål.



  • /n, t, d, l/ are alveolar [n, t, d, l].[1]
  • As in Bergen and Oslo, younger speakers of the Stavanger dialect tend to merge /ç/ with /ʃ/.[2]
  • /r/ is realized as a voiced uvular continuant, either a fricative [ʁ] or an approximant [ʁ̞]. It can be voiceless [χ] before a voiceless consonant or a pause.[3]


  • Long ⟨o⟩ (phonetically []) and long ⟨u⟩ (phonetically [ʉː]) can be strongly diphthongized to, respectively, [əu] and [əʉ].[4]
  • Short ⟨o⟩ is near-close central [ʊ̈].[4]
  • Short ⟨u⟩ and long ⟨å⟩ are close-mid advanced back [, o̟ː].[4]
  • Short ⟨å⟩ is open-mid central [ɞ].[5]
  • Long ⟨a⟩ is back [ɑː].[5]
  • Short ⟨a⟩ has the quality of the cardinal vowel [a], which is the most anterior realization of this vowel in Norway.[5]
  • The diphthong ⟨ai⟩ has a front starting point [æi].[6]
Diphthong phonemes of
Starting point Ending point
Front Central
unrounded rounded rounded
Mid ei øy øʉ


Phonetic realization[edit]

Phonetically, the tonemes of the Stavanger dialect are the same as those of Central Standard Swedish; accent 1 is falling, whereas accent 2 is double falling.[8][9]


  1. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 30–31, 34, 36.
  2. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 23.
  3. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 38.
  4. ^ a b c Vanvik (1979), p. 18.
  5. ^ a b c Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  6. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 22.
  7. ^ Ims (2010), p. 15.
  8. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 238.
  9. ^ Ophaug (2014), p. 59.


  • Ims, Charlotte Sol (2010), Sandnes i skyggen av Stavanger - en sociolingvistisk undersøkelse av Sandnes-mål med utgangspunkt i utvalgte språklige variabler (PDF), Adger: Universitetet i Adger
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Ophaug, Wencke (2014), EXFAC Fonetikk og fonologi (PDF)
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6

Further reading[edit]

  • Berntsen, Mandius; Larsen, Amund B. (1925), Stavanger Bymål, Oslo: Aschehoug
  • Rasch, Jacob (1957), Norsk ordsamling - Stavanger 1698, Universitetsforlaget, ISBN 9788200180098
  • Svedsen, Martin (1931), Syntaksen i Stavanger bymål, Oslo: Aschehoug
  • Westerlund, Selmer Ernst (1927), Den musikalske aksent i Stavangermålet, Oslo: Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi

External links[edit]