This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (July 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Samaná English (SE and SAX) is a variety of the English language spoken by descendants of black immigrants from the United States who have lived in the Samaná Peninsula, now in the Dominican Republic. Members of the enclave are known as the Samaná Americans.
The language is a relative of African Nova Scotian English and African-American Vernacular English, with variations unique to the enclave's history in the area. In the 1950 Dominican Republic census, 0.57% of the population (about 12,200 people) said that their mother tongue was English.
Most speakers trace their lineage to immigrants that arrived to the Peninsula in 1824 and 1825. All of Hispaniola was all administered by Haiti, and its president was Jean-Pierre Boyer. The immigrants responded to an invitation for settlement that Jonathas Granville had delivered in person to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, and New York City. Abolitionists like Richard Allen, Samuel Cornish, Benjamin Lundy, and Loring D. Dewey joined the campaign, which was coined the Haitian emigration.
The response was unprecedented, as thousands of African Americans boarded ships in eastern cities and migrated to Haiti. Most of the immigrants arrived during the fall of 1824 and the spring of 1825. More continued moving back and forth in later years but at a slower rate.
Between 1859 and 1863, another immigration campaign brought new settlers to the island but at a fraction of the number in 1824 and 1825. Those who originally settled in Samana were fewer than 600 but formed the only surviving immigration enclave.
While more than 6000 immigrants came in 1824 and 1835, by the end of the 19th century, only a handful of enclaves on the island spoke any variety of the antebellum Black Vernacular. They were communities in Puerto Plata, Samaná and Santo Domingo. The largest was the one in Samaná that maintained church schools, where it was preserved. During the Rafael Trujillo dictatorship (1930–1961), however, the government began a systematic policy of Hispanizing the entire Dominican population. The church schools in which English was taught were eliminated, and the language was discouraged.
Enclaves across the island soon lost an important element of their identity, which led to their disintegration. Samaná English withstood the assaults in pa because the location of Samaná was favorable to a more independent cultural life. However, government policies have still influenced the language's gradual decline, which may well now be an endangered language.
The language is variously described as either a creole language or a dialect of English. It is similar to that of Caribbean English Creoles spoken by the English-speaking Caribbean, especially Turks and Caicos and Bahamian Creole.
The 15th edition (2005) of Ethnologue dropped it from its list of languages, but linguists still consider it a separate language variation.
- Irma Nicasio; Jesús de la Rosa (April 1998). "Historia, Metodología y Organización de los Censos en República Dominicana: 1920–1993" (PDF) (in Spanish). Santo Domingo: Oficinal Nacional de Estadística. p. 44/131. Retrieved 14 May 2014.[dead link]
- Hidalgo, Dennis R. (2003). From North America to Hispaniola. Mt. Pleasant, Michigan: Central Michigan University. pp. 1–50.
- Miller, Floyd J. (1975). The search for a black nationality : black emigration and colonization, 1787–1863. Urbana: University of Illinois. pp. 132–250. ISBN 0252002636.
- Tabliamonte, Sali Anna. . (1991). A Matter of Time: Past Temporal Reference Verbal Structures in Samaná English and the Ex-Slave Recordings. Ottawa, Canada: Université d'Ottawa.
- DeBose, Charles E. (1983). "A Dialect That Time Forgot". Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: 47–53.
- Davis, Martha Ellen (2007). "Asentamiento y vida económica de los inmigrantes afroamericanos de Samaná: testimonio de la profesora Martha Willmore (Leticia)" (PDF). Boletín del Archivo General de la Nación (LXIX, Vol. XXXII, Núm. 119 ed.). 32 (119): 709–734. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Ethnologue report for English; Samaná English is described under the heading "Dominican Republic"
- Linguistic map of Caribbean English dialects from Muturzikin.com
- Caribbean English (British Library)
- Cross-Referencing West Indian Dictionary
- "Bajan (Barbadian) dialect in NYC" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2014.