Barnes & Noble
|Predecessor||Arthur Hinds & Company|
|Founded||1886 (as Arthur Hinds & Company)|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Founders||Charles M. Barnes|
G. Clifford Noble
New York City, New York,
Number of locations
|627 retail stores|
(As of March 7, 2019[update])
|Leonard Riggio (Chairman),|
James Daunt (CEO)
|Brands||Barnes & Noble Booksellers|
Nook Digital, LLC
|Revenue||US$ 3.552 billion (FY 2019)|
|US$ 38.596 million (FY 2019)|
|US$ 3.769 million (FY 2019)|
|Total assets||US$ 1.705 billion (FY 2019)|
|Total equity||US$ 444.497 million (FY 2019)|
|Owner||Elliott Management Corporation|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Barnes & Noble, Inc., is an American bookseller. It is a Fortune 1000 company and the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States. As of March 7, 2019, the company operates 627 retail stores in all 50 U.S. states. In August 2019, Elliott Management Corporation acquired the company.
After a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the 1990s, Barnes & Noble stands alone as the United States' largest national bookstore chain. Previously, Barnes & Noble operated the chain of small B. Dalton Bookseller stores in malls until they announced the liquidation of the chain. The company was also one of the nation's largest manager of college textbook stores located on or near many college campuses when that division was spun off as a separate public company called Barnes & Noble Education in 2015.
The company is known by its customers for large retail outlets, many of which contain a café serving Starbucks coffee and other consumables. Most stores sell books, magazines, newspapers, DVDs, graphic novels, gifts, games, toys, music, and Nook e‑readers and tablets.
19th century: Foundations
Barnes & Noble began in 1886 as a bookstore called Arthur Hinds & Company, located in the Cooper Union Building in New York City. In the fall of 1886, Gilbert Clifford Noble, a then-recent Harvard graduate from Westfield, Massachusetts, was hired to work there as a clerk.
In 1894, Noble was made a partner, and the name of the shop was changed to Hinds & Noble.
20th century: Expansion
In 1901, Hinds & Noble moved to 31–35 W. 15th Street.
In 1917, Noble bought out Hinds and entered into a partnership with William Barnes, son of his old friend Charles Barnes; the name of the store was changed to Barnes & Noble soon after. Charles had previously opened a book-printing business in Wheaton, Illinois in 1873, named the C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company; William Barnes, however, divested himself of his ownership interest in his father's business shortly before his partnership with Noble. (His father's company would go on to become the Follett Corporation.) Although the flagship store once featured the motto "Founded in 1873," the C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company never had any connection with Barnes & Noble, save for the fact that both were partly owned (at different times) by William Barnes.
In 1930, Noble sold his share of the company to William Barnes' son, John Wilcox Barnes. Noble died on June 6, 1936, at the age of 72. In 1932, at the height of the Great Depression, the bookstore moved its flagship location to 18th Street and Fifth Avenue, which served as the company's flagship location until its closure in 2014. The Noble family retained ownership of an associated publishing business, and Barnes & Noble opened a new publishing division in 1931.
In 1940, the store was one of the first businesses to feature Muzak and it underwent a major renovation the following year. That decade the company opened stores in Brooklyn and Chicago. William Barnes died in 1945, at the age of 78, and his son John Wilcox Barnes assumed full control. The company underwent a significant expansion between the 1950s and the 1960s, opening an additional retail store on 23rd Street in Manhattan, as well as shops near the City University of New York, Harvard, and other Northeast college campuses.
John Barnes died in 1964, and the company was sold to the conglomerate Amtel two years later. The business was then purchased in 1971 by Leonard Riggio, who has been credited as one of the founders, for $1.2 million. By then, it had been mismanaged and consisted only of "a significantly reduced wholesale operation and a single retail location—the flagship store at 105 Fifth Avenue." The publishing operation was sold separately by Amtel to Harper & Row. In 1974, Barnes & Noble became the first bookstore chain to advertise on television and a year later, the company became the first bookseller in the United States to discount books, by selling The New York Times best-selling titles at 40% off the publishers' list price. Between the 1970s and the 1980s, Barnes & Noble opened smaller discount stores, which were eventually phased out in favor of larger stores. They also began to publish their own books to be sold to mail-order customers. These titles were primarily affordable reissues of out-of-print titles and selling them through mail-order catalogs allowed Barnes & Noble to reach new customers nationwide.
In November 1974, editors of the British-produced Guinness Book of Records, claimed on the BBC One television program Record Breakers that the Fifth Avenue store of Barnes & Noble had overtaken that of London's Foyles bookshop to become the world's biggest bookstore.
Barnes & Noble continued to expand throughout the 1980s, and it purchased the primarily shopping mall-based B. Dalton chain from Dayton Hudson in 1986, for an estimated $275 million to $300 million. Solveig Robinson, author of The Book in Society: An Introduction to Print Culture, wrote that the purchase "gave [Barnes & Noble] the necessary know-how and infrastructure to create what, in 1992, became the definitive bookselling superstore." The acquisition of the 797 B. Dalton bookstores turned the company into a nationwide retailer, and by the end of fiscal year 1999, the second-largest online bookseller in the United States. B&N's critics claim that it has contributed to the decline of local and independent booksellers. The last B. Dalton stores were scheduled to close in January 2010.
In 1989, Barnes & Noble purchased the 22-store chain Bookstop.
In September 1993, Barnes & Noble became a publicly traded company by issuing $77 million worth of stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the BKS ticker symbol. The company remained on the stock exchange until August 2019 when Elliot Management purchased all of the company's stock and took the company private.
Before Barnes & Noble created its official website, it sold books directly to customers through mail-order catalogs. It first began selling books online through an early videotex service called "Trintex," a joint venture between Sears and IBM, but the company's website was not launched until May 1997. BarnesandNoble.com went public in 1999.
21st century: Operating in an electronic environment
In 2004, it was reported that the reading of books was on the decline in America, with the number of non-reading adults increasing by 17 million between 1992 and 2002. Despite this, Barnes & Noble claimed that its retail store business was expanding in the book market. Beginning in 1999, Barnes & Noble owned GameStop, a video game and electronics retail outlet. The company distributed its shares in GameStop in late 2004, spinning it off into its own company in an attempt to simplify its corporate structure.
CEO Leonard Riggio stepped down in 2002, naming his younger brother and former acting chief executive of BarnesandNoble.com, Stephen Riggio, to succeed him. Some corporate governance experts noted that this appointment could potentially cause conflict of interest, but the company board noted that Riggio's experience at the company made him the right person for the job. Stephen Riggio stepped down from the position in 2010.
In 2010, website president William Lynch was named CEO. He is credited with helping launch the company's electronic book store and overseeing the introduction of its electronic book reader, the Nook. Many observers saw his appointment as underscoring the importance of digital books to Barnes & Noble's future. Steve Riggio stayed on as vice chairman. When Lynch resigned in mid-2013, he was replaced by Chief Financial Officer Michael Huseby early the next year. Following the spinoff of Barnes & Noble Education, Huseby departed to head the new firm; his place was filled in mid-2015 by Ronald Boire, who departed one year later. Demos Parneros was named Barnes & Noble's Chief Executive Officer in April 2017 after having joined the company as Chief Operating Officer in November 2016; however, he was fired in July 2018 for "company policy violations" without severance and was immediately removed from the company's board, at the advice of a law firm hired by Barnes & Noble. On August 28, 2018, Parneros filed a lawsuit against Barnes & Noble, claiming wrongful termination.
After the bankruptcy and closure of its chief competitor, Borders Group, in 2011, Barnes & Noble became the last remaining national bookstore chain in the United States. This followed a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the 1990s, which also saw the demise of Waldenbooks, Barnes & Noble's own subsidiary B. Dalton, and Crown Books, among others. Barnes & Noble's largest physical bookstore rival is now Books-A-Million, which does not operate in the Western US. Barnes & Noble also faces competition from general retailers, especially from Amazon.com, and from regional and independent booksellers. Amazon has even opened its own physical bookstores, once again creating a second national bookstore chain.
Barnes & Noble began reducing its overall presence in the 2010s, closing its original flagship store in early 2014. In mid-2014, the company announced it would separate its Nook Media division from its retail store division.
In February 2018, Barnes & Noble permanently laid off 1,800 full time employees at an annual cost savings of $40 million per year. According to TechCrunch, the company essentially fired their entire full time staff at all their stores, who would be making an average of $22,000 per year (~$11 per hour), and were replaced by part time workers earning close to minimum wage.
In the 2018 fiscal year that ended in July, the company overall losses reached $17 million.
In early July 2018, Barnes & Noble fired CEO Demos Parneros for an unspecified violation of company policy, which was later revealed to be over sexual harassment claims. It accused Pareneros of breaching his duties of loyalty and good faith and acting as a "faithless servant" by sexually harassing the female employee, bullying subordinates, and attempting to "sabotage" a potential acquisition of the New York-based company, and asserted that the company should therefore be entitled to claw back his salary, bonus, and other benefits during the period of his "disloyal conduct".
On October 3, 2018, the board of directors announced that they would entertain offers to buy the company. Among the potential buyers was Leonard Riggio, who owns approximately 19% of Barnes & Noble stock. As a result of the news, the company's stock price jumped by nearly 30%.
In March 2020, Barnes & Noble announced that they would temporarily stop selling magazines and close 400 of their 620 stores due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Barnes & Noble maintains a separate publishing business in addition to its retail stores and other entities. Barnes & Noble's publishing company got its start by reissuing inexpensive versions of out-of-print books, and made a push to expand the unit in 2003. The company saw success the following year; in September 2004, its book, "Hippie," reached The New York Times Best Seller list.
Barnes & Noble often publishes and sells books at a lower cost than competitors, and sells lines of inexpensive books like Barnes & Noble Classics. In addition, the company has a second paperback series called the Barnes & Noble Library of Essential Reading.Barnes & Noble's edition of The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense by Suzette Haden Elgin, has sold over 250,000 copies, and its reissued edition of The Columbia History of the World by John Garrity, has sold over 1 million copies.
The company has expanded business by acquiring several firms over the years, including J.B. Fairfax International in 1999, SparkNotes, an educational website and publishing company, in 2001 and Sterling Publishing in 2003.
In 1993, Barnes & Noble signed an agreement to serve Starbucks coffee in each of its existing and future cafes. In 2004, Barnes & Noble began offering Wi-Fi in the café area of selected stores, using SBC FreedomLink (now the AT&T Wi-Fi network). All stores offered Wi-Fi as of 2006 and as of July 27, 2009, Wi-Fi is offered for free to all customers.
In 2016, Barnes & Noble announced plans to open four concept stores in 2017 that featured cafés twice the size of its usual food spots, as well as bars offering wine and beer. Restaurants would also include a waitstaff and a full menu for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The restaurants were expected to revive sales growth. Company executives planned to open additional concept stores if sales met expectations. The first stores were opened in Scarsdale, New York, Edina, Minnesota, Plano, Texas, and Folsom, California.
Barnes & Noble hires community business development managers to engage in community outreach. Barnes & Noble also gives back to the community to increase literacy and education. The Barnes & Noble located in Fairbanks, Alaska gave over $80,000 to the community between 2015 and 2018 through book fair fundraising programs. To promote nationwide literacy among 1st through 6th graders and encourage more reading during the summer, Barnes & Noble has implemented a summer challenge.
The Barnes & Noble Review
The Barnes & Noble Review is an online magazine, hosted on Barnes & Noble's website, that publishes evaluations of both fiction and nonfiction works, along with essays, interviews, and pieces on other topics. It was launched in October 2007 by Barnes & Noble CEO Steve Riggio and James Mustich, Jr., publisher of the book catalog A Common Reader. Regular contributors to the magazine have included book critics Michael Dirda, Brooke Allen, Laura Miller, and Adam Kirsch, as well as prominent writers in fields outside of literary criticism, such as political journalists Chris Hayes and Ezra Klein, philosopher A. C. Grayling, music critic Robert Christgau, and cartoonist Ward Sutton. Miller, who has written for Salon and Mustich's Common Reader, said, "The reviews [at BNR] are the same as anywhere else", adding that the tone and length of the pieces evoke The New York Times Book Review rather than the less formal Salon. The magazine's web traffic flourished during its first few years. According to Compete.com, it amassed 50,000 unique visitors in December 2009.
Some critics were originally skeptical of The Barnes & Noble Review. Art Winslow, former literary editor of The Nation, said that because Barnes & Noble is a brand name, BNR's contributors are effectively endorsing the corporation, and that the motives behind the publication undermine its integrity: "Criticism's content should be free of any commercialism. Barnes & Noble has found another way to sell books, and that's the Review. ... I wouldn't write there." Mustich disputed the idea that the magazine serves as a corporate tactic: "We counter that skepticism with quality. If people read the site, they can determine that we are doing what we purport to do. They have never tried to influence my judgment. The first attempt would have been the last."
Barnes & Noble Nook
Barnes & Noble Nook (styled NOOK) is a suite of e-book readers developed by the company, based on the Android platform. The first device was announced in the United States on October 20, 2009 and was released November 30, 2009, for $259. On June 21, 2010, Barnes & Noble reduced the Nook's price to $199, as well as launched a new Wi-Fi-only model, for $149, and released a Nook colored touch screen for $249.
The Nook competes with the Amazon Kindle, Kobo eReader, and other e-reader offerings and color tablets with reading apps, such as Apple's iBooks for iOS devices. Various Nook models feature a 6-inch, 7-inch, or larger touchscreen. Version 1.3 of the Nook introduced Wi-Fi connectivity, a web browser, a dictionary, chess, and sudoku games, and a separate, smaller color touchscreen that serves as the primary input device. The Nook also features a Read in Store capability that allows visitors to stream and read any book for up to one hour while shopping in a Barnes & Noble bookstore. According to a June 2010 CNet article, the company planned to expand this feature to include periodicals in the near future. The color version of the Nook introduced a 7-inch color touchscreen and the ability to view at a portrait or landscape orientation.
On April 30, 2012, Microsoft invested $300 million for a 17.6% stake in Nook, which valued the business at about $1.7 billion.
In November 2012, the technology publications Mashable and Techdirt criticized the license agreement with which Barnes & Noble sells ebooks to consumers, pointing out that the rights to re-download a purchased ebook expire when the customer's credit card expires, and a valid credit card must be added to the account to restore this functionality.
In June 2014, Barnes & Noble had previously announced that it would spin off its Nook Digital division into a separate publicly traded company, but as of 2016, Nook remains a part of Barnes & Noble. That same month, the company announced a partnership with Samsung Electronics to make Nook tablets, as the bookseller moved forward with plans to revamp its digital business. Samsung and Barnes & Noble introduced the Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 Nook 7.0 in August 2014, followed by the Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 Nook 10.1 in October 2014. In December 2014, Barnes & Noble announced that it had ended its Nook partnership with Microsoft by buying back its stake. Samsung and Barnes & Noble continue to introduce new Nook tablets.
In March 2016, Barnes & Noble announced it would close the Nook App Store and Nook Video and in the UK close the Nook Store on March 15. It will continue to sell e-books as well as digital magazines and newspapers in the US.
|Traded as||NYSE: BNED|
|Predecessor||Corporate spin-off from Barnes & Noble, Inc.|
|Founded||August 3, 2015|
|Founder||Leonard Riggio, William Robbins Barnes|
Number of locations
|773 (December 2018)|
|Michael P. Huseby (CEO, chairman)|
|Brands||Yuzu digital textbook platform|
Number of employees
In February 2015, Barnes & Noble had announced plans to spin off its college bookstore assets and create a separate company called Barnes & Noble Education. On August 3, 2015, Barnes & Noble Education, Inc. began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol, "BNED". The company operated stores dedicated to selling college textbooks, both on and off campus.
By December 2018, Barnes & Noble Education had operated or managed 773 campus bookstores under contracts.
In July 2019, Barnes & Noble Education revealed that the company had turned down several offers by California-based Bay Capital Finance to take over the company citing that the offers by Bay Capital were "substantially undervalued BNED, were highly conditional and not credible." Unlike its former parent company, BNED was diversifying its business by the acquisition of many digital services companies to increase the number of services offered by its Digital Student Solutions division during its past four years as an independent company.
Digital Student Solutions division
In March 2016, Barnes & Noble Education enlarged their Digital Student Solutions online services division by acquiring LoudCloud Systems, a digital platform and analytics provider to clients in higher education, the for-profit sector, and K-12 segment.
In August 2017, Barnes & Noble Education acquired Student Brands for $58.5 Million.
In August 2018, Barnes & Noble Education acquired PaperRater, a service that help students write papers and identify plagiarism.
- Alter, Alexandra; Hsu, Tiffany (June 7, 2019). "Barnes & Noble Is Sold to Hedge Fund After a Tumultuous Year". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "Barnes & Noble Founder Retires, Leaving His Imprint On Bookstore's History". NPR. May 7, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "Barnes & Noble Reports Fiscal 2019 Third Quarter Results". Barnes & Noble (Press release). March 7, 2019.
- "Barnes & Noble". wallmine. July 29, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
- "Elliott Completes Acquisition of Barnes & Noble" (Press release). Business Wire. August 7, 2019.
- "National Sponsorships and Donations". Archived from the original on January 21, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- DePillis, Lydia (July 10, 2013). "Barnes & Noble's troubles don't show why bookstores are doomed. They show how they'll survive". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
it's now the only national bookstore chain in the country
- Townsend, Matt (July 10, 2013). "Bookstores Not Dead Yet as Riggio Bets on Barnes & Noble". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on September 16, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
the last national bookstore chain
- Hyken, Shep (April 8, 2018). "Barnes & Noble, Amazon, Independents: Who's Disrupting Whom?". Forbes. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "Barnes & Noble to Move." The Bookseller and Stationer, January 1. 1922 p. 13
- The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 ISBN 0595374786, 9780595374786 page 71
- The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 ISBN 0595374786, 9780595374786 page 65
- The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 ISBN 0595374786, 9780595374786 page 101
- "Barnes & Noble to Move." The Bookseller and Stationer, January 1. 1922 p. 13
- The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 ISBN 0595374786, 9780595374786 page 151
- Blair, Cynthia. "1917: First Barnes & Noble Bookstore Opens in Manhattan". Newsday. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control by Theodore G. Striphas. Columbia University Press: 2009. 978-0-231-14814-6 p. 62
- The Noble Legacy: The Story of Gilbert Clifford Noble, Cofounder of the Barnes & Noble and Noble & Noble Book Companies by Betty N. Turner. iUniverse: 2006 ISBN 9780595374786 page 153
- Eisenstadt, Peter, ed. (2004). "The Encyclopedia of New York State". Syracuse University Press. p. 1266.
- The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control by Theodore G. Striphas. Columbia University Press: 2009. 978-0-231-14814-6 p. 64
- Barnes & Noble: Groundbreaking Entrepreneurs by Kayla Morgan. Abdo Publishing: 2000 ISBN 9781604537581 p. 78
- The Late Age of Print: Everyday Book Culture from Consumerism to Control by Theodore G. Striphas. Columbia University Press: 2009. 978-0-231-14814-6 p. 65
- Reluctant Capitalists: Bookselling and the Culture of Consumption by Laura J. Miller. University Of Chicago Press: 2007 p. 47
- Wilkinson, Carol (1986). "Barnes & Noble Books". In Peter Dzwonkoski (ed.). American literary publishing houses, 1900-1980. edited by Peter Dzwonkoski. Dictionary of literary biography. 46. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research Company. pp. 40. ISBN 0-8103-1724-9.
- "Barnes & Noble History". Barnes & Noble. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-13. Cite journal requires
- Record Breakers. Presented by Roy Castle. Co-presented by Norris and Ross McWhirter. BBC 1. Broadcast on Tuesday November 19, 1974.
- Miller, Stephen (October 13, 2015). "Bruce Dayton, CEO of Retailer That Became Target, Dies at 97". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- Robinson, Solveig. The Book in Society: An Introduction to Print Culture. Broadview Press, November 15, 2013. ISBN 1770484310, 9781770484313. p. 260.
- "BarnesAndNobleInc.com" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- St. John, Warren (July 6, 1999). "Barnes & Noble's Epiphany". Wired. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- Strom, Stephanie (September 3, 1993). "Barnes & Noble Goes Public: Vol. 2". The New York Times. p. D1.
- "Barnes & Noble Offering Price Rises to $20 A Share". The New York Times. September 28, 1993. p. D4.
- "Barnes & Noble History". Barnes & Noble Inc. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- "Barnesandnoble sets IPO at $18 - May 24, 1999". money.cnn.com. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Huge Decline In Book Reading". Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg (October 5, 2004). "Barnes & Noble Pares GameStop". The Wall Street Journal.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. "A Shifting Of Leadership At Bookseller; Barnes & Noble Chief Steps Aside for Brother". Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Barnes & Noble CEO Steps Down, BN.com President William Lynch Takes Over". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Barnes & Noble names website head William Lynch as CEO". USA Today. March 18, 2010.
- Brown, Abram (July 8, 2013). "Barnes & Noble CEO Lynch Out After Nook Woes Deepen". Forbes. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- "Barnes & Noble points Michael P. Huseby CEO". Market Watch. January 8, 2014.
- "Barnes & Noble Names Ronald Boire of Sears Canada as C.E.O." The New York Times. July 3, 2015.
- "Barnes & Noble Completes Spin-Off of Barnes & Noble Education".
- "Barnes & Noble Says CEO Boire 'Not a Good Fit' and Will Step Down".
- Isidore, Chris (July 3, 2018). "Barnes & Noble fires CEO for violating company policy". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
- "A lawsuit by a fired Barnes & Noble CEO is a spectacular example of not going quietly". Quartz at Work. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- Leopold, Todd (September 12, 2011). "The death and life of a great American bookstore". CNN. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- "Amazon Will Be the Fifth Largest Bookstore Chain". Publisher's Weekly. June 1, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2017.
- Pasquarelli, Adrianne (January 7, 2014). "Barnes & Noble closes the book on Fifth Ave. store". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
- Franzen, Carl. "Barnes & Noble is splitting into two companies: one for Nooks and one for books".
- Thomas, Lauren (February 13, 2018). "Barnes & Noble confirms job cuts, expects $40 million in annual cost savings". CNBC. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Biggs, John (February 16, 2018). "Barnes & Noble is killing itself". TechCrunch.
- Cheng, Andria (September 6, 2018). "Barnes & Noble's Problem Is No Longer Just Amazon". Forbes.
- Meyersohn, Nathaniel (September 6, 2018). "Barnes & Noble is overrun with problems". CNN. Retrieved November 15, 2019.
- Stempel, Jonathan (October 30, 2018). "-Barnes & Noble countersues ex-CEO it fired after alleged harassment". Reuters. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
- Wahba, Phil (October 3, 2018). "Barnes & Noble Considers Selling Itself Yet Again". Fortune Magazine.
- "Elliott Completes Acquisition of Barnes & Noble" (Press release). Business Wire. August 7, 2019.
- Jones, Philip (June 7, 2019). "Elliott to buy Barnes & Noble; Daunt will run both chains". The Bookseller website.
- Kelly, Keith J. (April 1, 2020). "Barnes & Noble stops selling magazines while coronavirus rages". New York Post. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Wyatt, Edward. "Huge Book Retailer Expands Its Publishing Role". Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Barnes & Noble Library of Essential Reading". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- "Barnes & Noble: a history". May 20, 2011. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "B&N Buys J.B. Fairfax International". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
- "Barnes & Noble inc - BKS Quarterly Report (10-Q) Item 1: Financial Statements". Edgar Online. June 18, 2001. Archived from the original on December 24, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
- "Business | Starbucks Co. Books Space In Barnes & Noble Chain | Seattle Times Newspaper". community.seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- Neilson, Ranjay Gulati, Sarah Huffman, and Gary L. "The Barista Principle — Starbucks and the Rise of Relational Capital". strategy+business. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
- Colker, David. "Internet wants to be free at Barnes & Noble", Los Angeles Times, July 29, 2009
- "Cheers? Barnes & Noble Is Getting Into the Bars and Restaurant Business". Fortune. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Barnes & Noble continues to expand full-service Kitchen". Nation's Restaurant News. November 10, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2018.
- intern, David Jones, News-Miner. "Barnes & Noble voted best local bookstore". Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Pick up a page-turner: Book-sellers name their summer reading picks". August 8, 2018.
- "Summer Reading Challenge". Barnes & Noble website. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- Staff, Motley Fool. "Barnes & Noble (BKS) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference Call Transcript". The Motley Fool. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
- "Fun Stuff for Kids Online". Sioux City Journal. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
- Smith, Jordan Michael (April 2010). "Critical Condition". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
- Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg and Geoffrey A. Fowler (October 20, 2009). "B&N Reader Out Tuesday". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- Ina Fried (October 19, 2009). "Barnes & Noble's 'Nook' said to cost $259". cnet news. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- "Barnes & Noble Cuts Nook Price". CBS News. June 21, 2010.
- "Nook Features". Barnes & Noble.
- David Carnoy (April 23, 2010). "B&N delivers meaty Nook update, teases iPad app". cnet news. Retrieved June 7, 2010.
- "Nook Color Features". Barnes &. Noble. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Ovide, Shira (May 2, 2012). "Microsoft to Invest in Barnes & Noble's Nook". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- Rosen, Kenneth (November 28, 2012). "Barnes & Noble: That Ebook is Only Yours Until Your Credit Card Expires". Mashable.
- Cushing, Tim (November 27, 2012). "Barnes & Noble Decides That Purchased Ebooks Are Only Yours Until Your Credit Card Expires". Techdirt.
- "B&N to Split Off College Stores, Retain Nook and Retail Stores". The Digital Reader. February 26, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- "Barnes & Noble Partners With Samsung to Make Nook Tablets". FOXBusiness. June 5, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- "Microsoft, Barnes & Noble bring their weird Nook "partnership" to a formal end". Ars Technica. December 4, 2014. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- "Samsung and Barnes & Noble introduced the Samsung Galaxy Tab S2 NOOK". PC Magazine. September 2015.
- Barnes & Noble is shutting down the Nook App Store on March 15th Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- "Barnes & Noble Education Reports Second Quarter Fiscal Year 2019 Financial Results". Business Wire (Press release). December 4, 2018.
- Kell, John (February 26, 2015). "Barnes & Noble is spinning off its college store business". Fortune. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- Schaffler, Rhonda (August 3, 2015). "Barnes and Noble Education Spins Off, Looks for Growth in Digital Textbooks, Colleges: Barnes and Noble Education rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange after spinning off from Barnes and Noble, and will have its own board and management team". TheStreet.com.
- McCoy, Kevin (August 30, 2017). "Barnes & Noble Education shares plunge on earnings miss". USA Today. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
- "Barnes & Noble closes the book on Fifth Avenue Store". Crain's New York. January 6, 2014.
- Lima, Beatriz Costa (March 1, 2017). "Barnes and Noble Education Buys MBS Textbook Exchange". KBIA.
- "Barnes & Noble Education Acquires MBS for $174.2 Million". Business Wire (Press release). February 28, 2017.
- Duffer, Ellen (July 28, 2019). "Barnes & Noble Education Declines Acquisition Offer". Forbes.
- "Barnes & Noble Education, Inc. Announces the Acquisition of LoudCloud Systems". Business Wire (Press release). March 8, 2016.
- Milliot, Jim (August 7, 2017). "B&N Education Buys Student Brands for $58.5 Million". Publishers Weekly.
- "Barnes & Noble Education Acquires PaperRater.com". MarketWatch. August 22, 2018.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (July 19, 1999). "Barnes & Noble's Jekyll and Hyde". New York magazine.
- Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A. (April 18, 2014). "What's Barnes & Noble's Survival Plan? Former CEO Cuts Holding to 20%, but Says, 'The Story Isn't Written Yet'". The Wall Street Journal.
- The Rise And Fall Of Barnes & Noble. CNBC. November 8, 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barnes & Noble.|