Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.
Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.
Selected general articles
US Navy Occupational therapists providing treatment to outpatients
) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations
, of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession
performed by occupational therapists
and Occupational Therapy Assistants. OTs often work with people with mental health problems, disabilities, injuries, or impairments.
The American Occupational Therapy Association
defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities (occupations). Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate fully in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation, and providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes."
Typically, occupational therapists are university-educated professionals and must pass a licensing exam to practice. Occupational therapists often work closely with professionals in physical therapy
, speech therapy
, social work
, clinical psychology
, and medicine
. Read more...
is the practice of smoking tobacco
and inhaling tobacco smoke
(consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes
.) The practice is believed to have begun as early as 5000–3000 BC in Mesoamerica
and South America
. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia
in the late 17th century by European colonists
, where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world
onwards but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette
German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer
in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign
in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse
of Nazi Germany
at the end of World War II
. In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between smoking and cancer. Evidence continued to mount in the 1980s, which prompted political action against the practice. Rates of consumption since 1965 in the developed world
have either peaked or declined. However, they continue to climb in the developing world
Smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco, and tobacco is the most common substance smoked. The agricultural product is often mixed with additives and then combusted
. The resulting smoke is then inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs
or the oral mucosa
. Combustion was traditionally enhanced by addition of potassium
. Many substances in cigarette smoke trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate, alertness and reaction time, among other things. Dopamine
are released, which are often associated with pleasure. As of 2008 to 2010, tobacco is used by about 49% of men and 11% of women aged 15 or older in fourteen low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam), with about 80% of this usage in the form of smoking. The gender gap tends to be less pronounced in lower age groups. Read more...
Mouse (right) with spinal muscular atrophy
is the partial or complete wasting
away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations
(which can destroy the gene to build up the organ), poor nourishment, poor circulation
, loss of hormonal
support, loss of nerve
supply to the target organ
, excessive amount of apoptosis
of cells, and disuse or lack of exercise
or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. In medical practice, hormonal and nerve inputs that maintain an organ or body part are said to have trophic
effects. A diminished muscular trophic condition is designated as atrophy
. Atrophy is reduction in size of cell, organ or tissue, after attaining its normal mature growth. In contrast, hypoplasia is the reduction in size of a cell, organ, or tissue that has not attained normal maturity.
Atrophy is the general physiological
process of reabsorption and breakdown of tissues
, involving apoptosis. When it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support due to other diseases, it is termed pathological atrophy
, although it can be a part of normal body development and homeostasis
as well. Read more...
, also spelled haematology
, is the branch of medicine
concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood
. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells
, blood proteins
, bone marrow
, blood vessels
, and the mechanism of coagulation
. Such diseases might include hemophilia
, blood clots, other bleeding disorders and blood cancers
such as leukemia
, multiple myeloma
, and lymphoma
. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist
or medical laboratory scientist
. Many hematologists work as hematologist-oncologists, also providing medical treatment for all types of cancer. The term is from the Greek αἷμα
meaning "blood," and -λoγία
meaning study. Read more...
An eating disorder
is a mental disorder
defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical
health. They include binge eating disorder
where people eat a large amount in a short period of time, anorexia nervosa
where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight
, bulimia nervosa
where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food, pica
where people eat non-food items, rumination disorder
where people regurgitate
food, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder
where people have a lack of interest in food, and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders
. Anxiety disorders
, and substance abuse
are common among people with eating disorders. These disorders do not include obesity
The cause of eating disorders is not clear. Both biological and environmental factors appear to play a role. Cultural idealization of thinness is believed to contribute. Eating disorders affect about 12 per cent of dancers. Those who have experienced sexual abuse
are also more likely to develop eating disorders. Some disorders such as pica and rumination disorder occur more often in people with intellectual disabilities
. Only one eating disorder can be diagnosed at a given time.
Treatment can be effective for many eating disorders. Typically, it involves counselling
, a proper diet, a normal amount of exercise, and the reduction of efforts to eliminate food. Hospitalization is occasionally needed. Medications may be used to help with some of the associated symptoms. About 70% of people with anorexia and 50% of people with bulimia recover at five year. Recovery from binge eating disorder is less clear and estimated at 20% to 60%. Both anorexia and bulimia increase the risk of death. Read more...
), also known as physiotherapy
, is one of the allied health professions
that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology
), manual therapy
, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy
, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function. Physical therapy is used to improve a patient's quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, physical intervention, and patient education. It is performed by physical therapists
(known as physiotherapists
in many countries).
In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation and administration. Physical therapy services may be provided as primary care treatment or alongside, or in conjunction with, other medical
services. Read more...
(from Greek οὖρον ouron
"urine" and -λογία -logia
"study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine
that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract
system and the male reproductive organs
. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys
, adrenal glands
, urinary bladder
, and the male reproductive organs (testes
, vas deferens
, seminal vesicles
, and penis
The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders
. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary-tract infections
and benign prostatic hyperplasia
, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer
, kidney stones
, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence
Urological techniques include minimally invasive robotic
and laparoscopic surgery
, laser-assisted surgeries, and other scope-guided procedures. Urologists receive training in open and minimally invasive surgical techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions. Urology is closely related to (and urologists often collaborate with the practitioners of) oncology
, pediatric surgery
, colorectal surgery
, and endocrinology
. Read more...
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
is an organic molecule
(or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient
that an organism
needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism
. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized
in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet
. Vitamin C
can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin
does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients
, essential fatty acids
, and essential amino acids
. Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers
. For example, vitamin E
consists of four tocopherols
and four tocotrienols
. The thirteen vitamins required by human metabolism are: vitamin A
), vitamin B1
), vitamin B2
), vitamin B3
), vitamin B5
), vitamin B6
), vitamin B7
), vitamin B9
), vitamin B12
), vitamin C (ascorbic acid
), vitamin D
), vitamin E (tocopherols
), and vitamin K (quinones
Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some forms of vitamin A function as regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The B complex
vitamins function as enzyme cofactors
(coenzymes) or the precursors
for them. Vitamin D
has a hormone-like function as a regulator of mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants
. Both deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness; although excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so.
Before 1935, the only source of vitamins was from food. If intake of vitamins was lacking, the result was vitamin deficiency and consequent deficiency diseases. Then, commercially produced tablets of yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C became available. This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production and marketing of vitamin supplements
, including multivitamins
, to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population. Governments mandated addition of vitamins to staple foods
such as flour or milk, referred to as food fortification
, to prevent deficiencies. Recommendations for folic acid
supplementation during pregnancy
reduced risk of infant neural tube defects
. Although reducing incidence of vitamin deficiencies clearly has benefits, supplementation is thought to be of little value for healthy people who are consuming a vitamin-adequate diet. Read more...
is the idea of extending the human lifespan
, either modestly – through improvements in medicine – or dramatically by increasing the maximum lifespan
beyond its generally settled limit of 125 years. The ability to achieve such dramatic changes, however, does not currently exist.
Some researchers in this area, and "life extensionists", "immortalists" or "longevists" (those who wish to achieve longer lives themselves), believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation
, stem cells
, regenerative medicine
repair, gene therapy
, pharmaceuticals, and organ
replacement (such as with artificial organs or xenotransplantations
) will eventually enable humans to have indefinite lifespans (agerasia) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition. The ethical ramifications, if life extension becomes a possibility, are debated by bioethicists
The sale of purported anti-aging products such as supplements and hormone replacement is a lucrative global industry. For example, the industry that promotes the use of hormones as a treatment for consumers to slow or reverse the aging process in the US market generated about $50 billion of revenue a year in 2009. The use of such products has not been proven to be effective or safe. Read more...
(from the Greek
: χειρουργική cheirourgikē
(composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via Latin
, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The act of performing surgery may be called a "surgical procedure", "operation", or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective "surgical" means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments
or surgical nurse
. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon
is a person who practices surgery and a surgeon's assistant
is a person who practices surgical assistance. A surgical team
is made up of surgeon, surgeon's assistant
provider, circulating nurse and surgical technologist
. Surgery usually spans minutes to hours, but it is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term "surgery" can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or, in British English, simply the office of a physician
, or veterinarian
. Read more...
Illustration of Exposure Risk Assessment and Management related to anticipation, recognition, evaluation, control and confirm.
(United States: industrial hygiene
(IH)) is the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, control, and confirmation of protection from hazards at work that may result in injury, illness, or affect the well being of workers. These hazards or stressors are typically divided into the categories biological
. The risk of a health effect from a given stressor is a function of the hazard multiplied by the exposure to the individual or group. For chemicals, the hazard can be understood by the dose response profile most often based on toxicological studies or models. Occupational hygienists work closely with toxicologists (see Toxicology
) for understanding chemical hazards, physicists (see Physics
) for physical hazards, and physicians and microbiologists for biological hazards (see Microbiology Tropical medicine Infection
) Environmental and occupational hygienists are considered experts in exposure science and exposure risk management. Depending on an individual's type of job, a hygienist will apply their exposure science expertise for the protection of workers, consumers and/or communities.
The British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS) defines that "occupational hygiene is about the prevention of ill-health from work, through recognizing, evaluating and controlling the risks". The International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA) refers to occupational hygiene as the discipline of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling health hazards in the working environment with the objective of protecting worker health and well-being and safeguarding the community at large.
The term "occupational hygiene" (used in the UK and Commonwealth countries as well as much of Europe) is synonymous with industrial hygiene
(used in the US, Latin America, and other countries that received initial technical support or training from US sources). The term "industrial hygiene" traditionally stems from industries with construction, mining or manufacturing and "occupational hygiene" refers to all types of industry such as those listed for "industrial hygiene" as well as financial and support services industries and refers to "work
" and "place of work" in general. Environmental hygiene
addresses similar issues to occupational hygiene
, but is likely to be about broad industry or broad issues affecting the local community, broader society, region or country.
The profession of occupational hygiene
uses strict and rigorous scientific methodology and often requires professional judgment based on experience and education in determining the potential for hazardous exposure risks in workplace and environmental studies. These aspects of occupational hygiene can often be referred to as the "art" of occupational hygiene and is used in a similar sense to the "art" of medicine
. In fact "occupational hygiene" is both an aspect of preventive medicine
and in particular occupational medicine
, in that its goal is to prevent industrial disease, using the science of risk management
, exposure assessment
and industrial safety
. Ultimately professionals seek to implement "safe" systems, procedures or methods to be applied in the workplace or to the environment. Read more...
is a physical exercise
intense enough to cause lactate
to form. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise
, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component. Read more...
(alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine,
) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health
comprises a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors
, genetic predisposition
, disease agents, and lifestyle choices. Health, disease, and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease
, chronic respiratory disease
, unintentional injuries, diabetes
, and certain infectious diseases. This same study estimates that 400,000 people die each year in the United States due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle
. According to estimates made by the World Health Organization
(WHO), about 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, two thirds of this group from non-communicable diseases, including cancer
, and chronic cardiovascular
and lung diseases
. This is an increase from the year 2000, during which 60% of deaths were attributed to these diseases. Preventive healthcare is especially important given the worldwide rise in prevalence of chronic diseases and deaths from these diseases.
There are many methods for prevention of disease. It is recommended that adults and children aim to visit their doctor for regular check-ups, even if they feel healthy, to perform disease screening
, identify risk factors for disease, discuss tips for a healthy and balanced lifestyle, stay up to date with immunizations and boosters, and maintain a good relationship with a healthcare provider. Some common disease screenings include checking for hypertension
(high blood pressure), hyperglycemia
(high blood sugar, a risk factor for diabetes mellitus
(high blood cholesterol), screening for colon cancer
and other common types of sexually transmitted disease
such as chlamydia
, and gonorrhea
(to screen for breast cancer
), colorectal cancer
screening, a Pap test
(to check for cervical cancer
), and screening for osteoporosis
. Genetic testing can also be performed to screen for mutations that cause genetic disorders
or predisposition to certain diseases such as breast or ovarian cancer
. However, these measures are not affordable for every individual and the cost effectiveness of preventive healthcare is still a topic of debate. Read more...
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Swimmers perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011.
An astronaut, Daniel Tani, working out with a short bar to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment
James Lind conducted in 1747 the first controlled clinical trial in modern times, and in 1753 published Treatise on Scurvy.
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
A lady washing her hands c. 1655
Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary, http://stats.oecd.org
Summary of long-term adaptations to regular aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise can cause several central cardiovascular adaptations, including an increase in stroke volume (SV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), as well as a decrease in resting heart rate (RHR). Long-term adaptations to resistance training, the most common form of anaerobic exercise, include muscular hypertrophy, an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle(s), and an increase in neural drive, both of which lead to increased muscular strength. Neural adaptations begin more quickly and plateau prior to the hypertrophic response.
Colorful fruits and vegetables may be components of a healthy diet.
Hippocrates lived about 400 BC, and Galen and the understanding of nutrition followed him for centuries.
Followed for a millennium and a half, Galen (1st century) created the first coherent (although mistaken) theory of nutrition.
A woman jogging at a beach in the U.S. to maintain/improve her physical fitness
Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.
Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted – and depicted – in a wide variety of ways.
Jack Drummond’s single paragraph paper in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins
Running has become a popular form of exercise.
Proteins are chains of amino acids found in most nutritional foods.
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Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist, widely regarded as the premier chemist of the twentieth century. Pauling was a pioneer in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry, and in 1954 was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work describing the nature of chemical bonds. He also made important contributions to crystal and protein structure determination, and was one of the founders of molecular biology. Pauling received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his campaign against above-ground nuclear testing, becoming only one of four people in history to individually receive two Nobel Prizes. Later in life, he became an advocate for regular consumption of massive doses of Vitamin C. Pauling coined the term "orthomolecular" to refer to the practice of varying the concentration of substances normally present in the body to prevent and treat disease, and promote health.
Pauling was first introduced to the concept of high-dose vitamin C by biochemist Irwin Stone in 1966 and began taking several grams every day to prevent colds. Excited by the results, he researched the clinical literature and published "Vitamin C and the Common Cold" in 1970. He began a long clinical collaboration with the British cancer surgeon, Ewan Cameron, MD  in 1971 on the use of intravenous and oral vitamin C as cancer therapy for terminal patients. Cameron and Pauling wrote many technical papers and a popular book, "Cancer and Vitamin C", that discussed their observations. He later collaborated with the Canadian physician, Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD, on a micronutrient regimen, including high-dose vitamin C, as adjunctive cancer therapy.
The selective toxicity of vitamin C for cancer cells has been demonstrated repeatedly in cell culture studies. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  recently published a paper demonstrating vitamin C killing cancer cells. As of 2005, some physicians have called for a more careful reassessment of vitamin C, especially intravenous vitamin C, in cancer treatment.
With two colleagues, Pauling founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine in Menlo Park, California, in 1973, which was soon renamed the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine. Pauling directed research on vitamin C, but also continued his theoretical work in chemistry and physics until his death in 1994. In his last years, he became especially interested in the possible role of vitamin C in preventing atherosclerosis and published three case reports on the use of lysine and vitamin C to relieve angina pectoris. In 1996, the Linus Pauling Institute moved from Palo Alto, California, to Corvallis, Oregon, to become part of Oregon State University, where it continues to conduct research on micronutrients, phytochemicals (chemicals from plants), and other constituents of the diet in preventing and treating disease.
Health and fitness news
“Be careful about reading health books. You may die of a misprint.”
- — Mark Twain
"The more you sweat in training, the less you bleed in battle."
- - Navy SEALs
"He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything." [Arabian Proverb]
“Human life needs superhuman health.”
- - Leonid S. Sukhorukov
"An apple a day keeps the doctor away."
"Do not spend health to gain money, and then, do not spend money to regain health"
" Honour your Divine Body Temple"
- - Fitness Guru Derek Duke Noble
"To sit in a comfortable position or posture for everlasting period is called asana"
- - BirenDra ShaH
Health is very important for our life [kailash vishwakarma]
Things you can do
- Improve the see also reference sections in health articles
- Check the related topic lists for completeness
- Help change the articles on this portal at the beginning of each month
- See also: Biology (below)
Health – Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. this is a level of functional and (or) metabolic efficiency of a person in mind, body and spirit; being free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."
- Death – cessation of life.
- Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and mental health including the prevention of depression. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
- Nutrition – provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life.
- Life extension – The study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
- Health sciences – applied sciences that address the use of science, technology, engineering or mathematics in the delivery of healthcare to human beings.
- Medicine – science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
- Anesthesia – a way to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using medicine called anesthetics.
- Cardiology – branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the human heart. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.
- Clinical research – aspect of biomedical research that addresses the assessment of new pharmaceutical and biological drugs, medical devices and vaccines in humans.
- Diabetes – a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar) above 200mg/dl, either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.
- Dentistry – branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the mouth, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures (teeth) and their impact on the human body.
- Emergency medicine – medical specialty involving care for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. Emergency physicians undertake acute investigations and interventions to resuscitate and stabilize patients.
- Obstetrics – medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period.
- Trauma and Orthopedics – medical specialty dealing with bones, joints and operative management of trauma.
- Psychiatry – medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities.
- Autism a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.
- Psychiatric survivors movement – is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services (known as consumers or service users), or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health.