and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(1949)—Article 19 states that "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers"
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.
Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice". The version of Article 19 in the ICCPR later amends this by stating that the exercise of these rights carries "special duties and responsibilities" and may "therefore be subject to certain restrictions" when necessary "[f]or respect of the rights or reputation of others" or "[f]or the protection of national security or of public order (order public), or of public health or morals".
is the practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. It also means "the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism." The term has its origins in the period in the United States known as the Second Red Scare, lasting roughly from 1950 to 1956 and characterized by heightened fears of communist
influence on American institutions and espionage
agents. Originally coined to criticize the anti-communist
pursuits of Republican U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy
, "McCarthyism" soon took on a broader meaning, describing the excesses of similar efforts. The term is also now used more generally to describe reckless, unsubstantiated accusations, as well as demagogic
attacks on the character or patriotism of political adversaries. During the McCarthy era, thousands of Americans were accused of being communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. Many people suffered loss of employment and/or destruction of their careers; some even suffered imprisonment. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts later overturned, laws that would be declared unconstitutional, dismissals for reasons later declared illegal or actionable
, or extra-legal procedures that would come into general disrepute. The most famous examples of McCarthyism include the speeches, investigations, and hearings of Senator McCarthy himself; the Hollywood blacklist
, associated with hearings conducted by the House Un-American Activities Committee
(HUAC); and the various anti-communist activities of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) under Director J. Edgar Hoover
. McCarthyism was a widespread social and cultural phenomenon that affected all levels of society and was the source of a great deal of debate and conflict in the United States. Some conservatives regard the term as inappropriate and deprecate what they say are myths created about McCarthy.
George Orwell statue at the headquarters of the BBC. A defence of free speech in an open society, the wall behind the statue is inscribed with the words "If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear”, words from George Orwell's proposed preface to Animal Farm (1945).
Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1949)—Article 19 states that "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers"
In this month
Howard Allan Stern
(born January 12, 1954) is an American
radio personality, television host, author, actor, and photographer best known for his radio show
, which was nationally syndicated
from 1986 to 2005. He gained wide recognition in the 1990s where he was labeled a "shock jock
" for his outspoken and sometimes controversial style. Stern has been exclusive to Sirius XM Radio
, a subscription-based satellite radio
service, since 2006. The son of a former recording and radio engineer, Stern wished to pursue a career in radio at the age of five. While at Boston University
he worked at the campus station WTBU
before a brief stint at WNTN
in Newton, Massachusetts
. He developed his on-air personality when he landed positions at WRNW
in Briarcliff Manor
. In 1981, he was paired with his current newscaster and co-host Robin Quivers
in Washington, D.C.
Stern then moved to WNBC
in New York City
in 1982 to host afternoons until his firing in 1985. He re-emerged on WXRK
that year, and became one of the most popular radio personalities during his 20-year tenure at the station. Stern's show is the most-fined radio program, after the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) issued fines
to station licensees for allegedly indecent material that totaled $2.5 million. Stern has won Billboard's
Nationally Syndicated Air Personality of the Year award eight times, and is one of the highest-paid figures in radio. Stern describes himself as the "King of All Media
" for his ventures outside radio. Since 1987, he has hosted numerous late night television shows
, pay-per-view events and home video releases
. He embarked on a five-month political campaign for Governor of New York
in 1994. His two books, Private Parts
(1993) and Miss America
(1995), spent 20 and 16 weeks respectively on The New York Times Best Seller list
. The former was adapted into Private Parts
(1997), a biographical comedy film that starred Stern and his radio show staff
that earned $41.2 million in domestic revenue. Stern performs on its soundtrack
which topped the Billboard 200
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