Portal:Byzantine Empire

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PortalsHistoryByzantine Empire

Introduction

Animated map showing the territorial evolution of the Byzantine Empire (in green).

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, and formerly Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum), or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

Selected article

At the Battle of Taginae (also known as the Battle of Busta Gallorum) in June/July 552, the forces of the Byzantine Empire under Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and paved the way for the complete Byzantine conquest of the Italian Peninsula.

From as early as 549 the Emperor Justinian I had planned to dispatch a major army to Italy to conclude the protracted war with the Ostrogoths initiated in 535. During 550-51 a large expeditionary force totaling 20-25,000 men was gradually assembled at Salona on the Adriatic, comprising regular Byzantine units and a large contingent of foreign allies, notably Lombards, Heruls and Bulgars. The imperial chamberlain (cubicularius) Narses was appointed to command in mid 551. The following spring Narses led this grand army around the coast of the Adriatic as far as Ancona, and then turned inland aiming to march down the Via Flaminia to Rome.

Selected biography

Basil II and Constantine VIII, holding cross. Nomisma histamenon.

Basil II, later surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Greek: Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος, Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 – December 15, 1025), known in his time as Basil the Porphyrogenitus and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his ancestor Basil I the Macedonian, was a Byzantine emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.

The first part of his long reign was dominated by civil war against powerful generals from the Anatolian aristocracy. Following their submission, Basil oversaw the stabilization and expansion of the Byzantine Empire's eastern frontier, and above all, the final and complete subjugation of Bulgaria, the Empire's foremost European foe, after a prolonged struggle. At his death, the Empire stretched from Southern Italy to the Caucasus and from the Danube to the borders of Palestine, its greatest territorial extent since the Muslim conquests, four centuries earlier.

Despite near-constant warfare, Basil also showed himself a capable administrator, reducing the power of the great land-owning families who dominated the Empire's administration and military, and filling the Empire's treasury. Of far-reaching importance was Basil's decision to offer the hand of his sister Anna to Vladimir I of Kiev in exchange for military support, which led to the Christianization of the Kievan Rus', and the incorporation of Russia within the Byzantine cultural sphere.

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New articles


May 2019

New articles

Byzantine Church (Petra) • Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa

April 2019

New articles

Battle of Constantinople (1241) • Exousiastes • Maria Komnene (daughter of Alexios I) • Podestà of Constantinople

Greatly expanded/rewritten articles

Demetrios Angelos Doukas

March 2019

New articles

Areobindus (died 546) • Artze • Byzantine–Trapezuntine treaty of 1282 • Demarchos • Eukterion • Eulogios the Persian • Kingdom of the Aures] • Saints Theodore Tyro and Theodore Stratelates Church, Serres • Stephen the Persian

Greatly expanded/rewritten articles

Arzen • Excubitors • Hikanatoi • Łewond • Treaty of Safar

February 2019

New articles

Baktangios • Barasbakourios • Basil the Younger • Battle of Telephis–Ollaria • Byzantine–Georgian treaty of 1022 • Byzantine–Georgian treaty of 1031 • Charpezikion • Crusader attack on Blachernae (1101) • Michael Apokapes • Nina Garsoïan • Rhabdion • Siege of Petra (541) • Siege of Petra (550–551) • Sisauranon • Sophia Eudokia Laskarina • Terentius (comes et dux Armeniae)

January 2019

New articles

Battle of Anglon • Martin (general) • Sa'id ibn Abd al-Malik

December 2018

New articles

Ambazuces • Amantius (praepositus) • Bishopric of Chariopolis • Cécile Morrisson • Glyki • John Drimys • Photice • Panagia Kontariotissa • Siege of Martyropolis (531)

Greatly expanded/rewritten articles

Euroea (Epirus) • Hayrabolu

November 2018

New articles

Basilica of St. Achillios • John Phokas • Panagia Olympiotissa Monastery • Siege of Claudiopolis • Siege of Laodicea • Siege of Panormus • Siege of Sozopolis

October 2018

New articles

Byzantine–Venetian treaty of 1268 • İnecik, Tekirdağ • Panion • Our Lady of Philermos • Rock-cut architecture of Cappadocia • Siege of Aleppo (994–995)

Greatly expanded/rewritten articles

Aetolofos, Larissa • Allelengyon • Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae

September 2018

New articles

Alexios Komnenos (governor of Dyrrhachium) • Amicus of Giovinazzo • Bardas Hikanatos • Battle of Saint George • Centre for Byzantine Research • John Komnenos (parakoimomenos) • John Komnenos (son of Andronikos I) • Joscelin of Molfetta • Paolo Cesaretti • Scriptor Incertus • Sententiae Syriacae • Siege of Dyrrhachium (1107–1108) • Syro-Roman law book

August 2018

New articles

Battle of Horreum Margi • Eusebius of Thessalonica • Gento (Goth) • Guntarith • Iatrosophia • Metropolitanate of Tourkia • Prokathemenos • Triarius

Greatly expanded/rewritten articles

Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I) • Isaac Komnenos (son of John II) • John IV of Ohrid • Michael Glykas

July 2018

New articles

De Situ Terrae Sanctae • Manuel Anemas • Manuel Komnenos (kouropalates) • Urbicius (eunuch)

Greatly expanded/rewritten articles

Battle of Petroe • Isaac I Komnenos

June 2018

New articles

Drypia • Habib ibn Maslama al-Fihri • Tower of Apollonia

May 2018

New articles

Constantine Komnenos Angelos • Dioiketes • John Kaloktenes • Megas dioiketes • Mount Galesios • Petzeas • Siege of Thessalonica (676–678)


External links and resources

Societies of Byzantine studies

Journals of Byzantine studies

Byzantine studies and research institutes

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Bibliography and primary sources

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Art, museums and exhibitions

Prosopography

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Recognised content

This is a list of articles related to the Byzantine Empire that have been recognized by the Wikipedia community as being of particular quality.

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Featured articles:

Basiliscus  • Battle of Dyrrhachium (1081)  • Battle of Kalavrye  • Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347  • Byzantine Empire  • Byzantine navy  • Chariot racing  • Greece runestones  • Gregory of Nazianzus  • Istanbul  • Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria  • Manuel I Komnenos  • Maximus the Confessor  • Paul Palaiologos Tagaris  • Roman–Persian Wars  • Sack of Amorium  • Siege of Constantinople (674–678)  • Siege of Constantinople (717–718)  • Siege of Thessalonica (1422–1430)  • Simeon I of Bulgaria  • Theodore Komnenos Doukas  • Thomas the Slav  • Treaty of Devol  • Jovan Vladimir

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A-class articles:

Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (782)  • Abbasid invasion of Asia Minor (806)  • Abu'l-Aswar Shavur ibn Fadl  • Ahmad ibn Tulun  • Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Harith  • Bardanes Tourkos  • Battle of Andrassos  • Battle of Azaz (1030)  • Battle of Lalakaon  • Battle of Petroe  • Battle of Solachon  • Bessas (general)  • Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628  • John Kourkouas  • John Troglita  • Junayd of Aydın  • Priscus (general)  • Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria  • Vitalian (general)

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Good articles:

Abdallah al-Battal  • Abu Taghlib  • Adrianos Komnenos  • Alexios Apokaukos  • Alexios Komnenos (governor of Dyrrhachium)  • Alexios Komnenos (protosebastos)  • Alexios Philanthropenos  • Alexios Strategopoulos  • Alexios V Doukas  • Andronikos Doukas Angelos  • Andronikos Komnenos (son of Alexios I)  • Artabanes (general)  • Avar–Byzantine wars  • Bardas  • Basil II  • Baths of Zeuxippus  • Battle of Akroinon  • Battle of Alexandretta  • Battle of Anzen  • Battle of Apamea  • Battle of Arcadiopolis (970)  • Battle of Bathys Ryax  • Battle of Constantinople (922)  • Battle of Kleidion  • Battle of Kopidnadon  • Battle of Krasos  • Battle of Manzikert  • Battle of Mauropotamos  • Battle of Settepozzi  • Battle of the Gates of Trajan  • Battle of the Olive Grove of Koundouros  • Battle of Yarmouk  • Byzantine–Arab Wars  • Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 894–896  • Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty  • Byzantine Greeks  • Byzantine–Ottoman Wars  • Byzantine–Venetian treaty of 1268  • Chalke  • Chlemoutsi  • Church of St. Polyeuctus  • Constantine (son of Leo V)  • Constantine Angelos  • Constantine Dalassenos (duke of Antioch)  • Constantine Diogenes  • Constantine Doukas (usurper)  • Constantine Komnenos Angelos  • Constantine Lekapenos  • Constantine the Great  • Cutzinas  • David III of Tao  • Domestic of the Schools  • Droungarios of the Fleet  • Droungarios of the Watch  • Emirate of Crete  • Eustathios Argyros (general under Leo VI)  • Eustathios Daphnomeles  • Eutharic  • Euthymius I of Constantinople  • Gabras  • Geoffrey of Briel  • George Mouzalon  • Germanus (cousin of Justinian I)  • Glarentza  • Gothic War (535–554)  • Gubazes II of Lazica  • Guy Pallavicini  • Harald Hardrada  • Heraclius  • Heraclius (son of Constans II)  • Heraclius the Elder  • Isaac I Komnenos  • Isaac Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)  • Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I)  • Isaac Komnenos (son of John II)  • John Doukas (megas doux)  • John Doukas (sebastokrator)  • John I Doukas of Thessaly  • John II Komnenos  • John IV of Ohrid  • John Komnenos (Domestic of the Schools)  • John Komnenos Asen  • John Komnenos the Fat  • John of Brienne  • John Palaiologos (brother of Michael VIII)  • John Tzelepes Komnenos  • Justin (consul 540)  • Justinian I  • Konstantios Doukas  • Law School of Beirut  • Leo II (emperor)  • Leo Tornikios  • Licario  • Mansur ibn Lu'lu'  • Manuel Erotikos Komnenos  • Manuel the Armenian  • Marianos Argyros  • Martino Zaccaria  • Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik  • Maurice (emperor)  • Mauro-Roman Kingdom  • Megas logothetes  • Michael I Komnenos Doukas  • Michael IV the Paphlagonian  • Michael VIII Palaiologos  • Michael Bourtzes  • Michael Dokeianos  • Michael Lachanodrakon  • Momchil  • al-Muktafi  • Muslim conquest of Sicily  • Nikephoros (Caesar)  • Nikephoros Diogenes  • Nikephoros Komnenos  • Nikephoros Komnenos (brother of Alexios I)  • Nikephoros Melissenos  • Nikephoros Phokas Barytrachelos  • Nikephoros Phokas the Elder  • Nikephoros Xiphias  • Orphanotrophos  • Ottoman conquest of Lesbos  • Peter the Patrician  • Protostrator  • Sack of Damietta (853)  • Sa'd al-Dawla  • Salih ibn Mirdas  • Sayf al-Dawla  • Shahrbaraz  • Siege of Berat (1280–1281)  • Siege of Constantinople (860)  • Siege of Damascus (634)  • Siege of Jerusalem (637)  • Siege of Kamacha (766)  • Siege of Nicaea (727)  • Siege of Patras (805 or 807)  • Siege of Shaizar  • Siege of Syracuse (877–878)  • Siege of Tyana  • Solomon (Byzantine general)  • Staurakios (eunuch)  • Stephen Lekapenos  • Stylianos Zaoutzes  • Syrgiannes Palaiologos  • Theodore Synadenos  • Theodosius (son of Maurice)  • Theophylact (son of Michael I)  • Theoktistos  • Treaty of Gallipoli  • Turahan Bey  • Type of Constans  • Tzachas  • Umar al-Aqta  • Uprising of Ivaylo  • Vandalic War  • Walls of Constantinople

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