Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors."
Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner's personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.
The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.
The United States Assay Commission were an agency of the United States government from 1792 to 1980. Its function was to supervise the annual testing of the gold, silver, and (in its final years) base metal coins produced by the United States Mint to ensure that they met specifications. Although some members were designated by statute, for the most part the commission, which was freshly appointed each year, consisted of prominent Americans, including numismatists. Appointment to the Assay Commission was eagerly sought after, in part because commissioners received a commemorative medal. These medals, different each year, are extremely rare, with the exception of the 1977 issue, which was sold to the general public.
The Mint Act of 1792 authorized the Assay Commission. Beginning in 1797, it met in most years at the Philadelphia Mint. Each year, the President of the United States appointed unpaid members, who would gather in Philadelphia to ensure the weight and fineness of silver and gold coins issued the previous year were to specifications. In 1971, the commission met, but for the first time had no gold or silver to test, with the end of silver coinage. Beginning in 1977, President Jimmy Carter appointed no members of the public to the commission, and in 1980, he signed legislation abolishing it.
Bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion (£494bn). The burden of corruption falls disproportionately on the bottom billion people living in extreme poverty who cannot afford to pay and who thus receive sub-standard treatment from officials.
"That is just what happened in 1893. Wall Street expected it and was ready with actual cash to buy in at nominal prices what the public was forced by the panic to sacrifice.
The banks got their share of the plunder, the repeal of the silver purchasing clause, and increase of Govemtnent currency was stopped. But Wall Street had to wait for its share, the gold standard. The banks, however, were loyal to the conspiracy. They stood with Wall Street in the campaign of 1896, and on March 14, 1900, Wall Street and its foreign bond-holding clients got their share of the plunder, the adoption by Congress of the single gold standard.
Writer is not hereby attacking the gold standard or advocating its repeal. That law is an accomplished fact. Nor is he favoring free and unlimited coinage of silver at sixteen to one. He is a republican, and never believed free silver coinage to be the proper remedy. But he is trying plainly to state without political bias certain historic facts and seemingly fair deductions of great significance because such facts have a most important bearing tending to reveal the true character and methods of the national banking system and Wall Street and throw a flood of needed light upon the present attempt of these interests to still further increase their profits and power at the expense of the people."
- —Alfred Owen Crozier, U.S. Money Vs. Corporation Currency, "Aldrich Plan.", 1930
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