is a form of government regulation
which subjects banks
to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, designed to create market transparency
between banking institutions and the individuals and corporations
with whom they conduct business, among other things. As regulation focusing on key actors in the financial markets, it forms one of the three components of financial law
, the other two being case law and self-regulating market practices.
Given the interconnectedness of the banking industry and the reliance that the national (and global) economy
hold on banks, it is important for regulatory agencies to maintain control over the standardized practices of these institutions. Another relevant example for the interconnectedness is that the law of financial industries or financial law focuses on the financial (banking), capital, and insurance markets. Supporters of such regulation often base their arguments on the "too big to fail
" notion. This holds that many financial institutions (particularly investment banks
with a commercial
arm) hold too much control over the economy to fail without enormous consequences. This is the premise for government bailouts
, in which government financial assistance is provided to banks or other financial institutions who appear to be on the brink of collapse. The belief is that without this aid, the crippled banks would not only become bankrupt, but would create rippling effects throughout the economy leading to systemic failure
. Compliance with bank regulations is verified by personnel known as bank examiners
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