Port Talbot English

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Port Talbot English
Native toUnited Kingdom
RegionPort Talbot
Latin (English alphabet)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone
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Port Talbot English (PTE) is a variety of Welsh English spoken in Port Talbot, generally by the working class.[1]

Phonetics and phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonants in Port Talbot English generally follow those of Received Pronunciation. Some phonological characteristics of consonants specific to PTE include:

  • Consonants can be geminated by any preceding vowel except long non-close vowels, which is most noticeable for fortis plosives and when they are in intervocalic positions. For instance, the plosives in these pairs are lengthened: loblobby, shuntshunting and sitcity. In clusters, the first of any fortis elements is selected: /t/ in shunting or /s/ in nasty or simply the first consonant when there is no fortis element, as in lovely in which {IPA|/v/}} is lengthened.[[#cite_note-FOOTNOTEConnolly1990[[Back_vowel|Back]]<span_style="font-size:85%;">rounded</span>126}_*_The_[[Voicelessness|voiceless]]_[[Stop_consonant|stops]]_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/p,_t,_k/</span>_have_considerable_strong_[[Aspiration_(linguistics)|aspiration]]_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">[pʰʰ,_tʰʰ,_kʰʰ]</span>,_often_as_a_weak_[[Affricate_consonant|affricate]]_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">['"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000002-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_bilabial_affricate|pɸ]],_'"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000003-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_alveolar_affricate|ts]],_'"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000004-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_velar_affricate|kx]]]</span>._That_is_especially_for_the_case_of_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/t/</span>.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000005-QINU`"'_*_[[T-glottalization]]_is_uncommon_but_may_occur_word-finally.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000006-QINU`"'_*_[[H-dropping]]_also_often_occurs.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000007-QINU`"'_*_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/tr,_dr/</span>_are_postalveolar_affricates_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">['"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000008-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_postalveolar_non-sibilant_affricate|t̠ɹ̠̊˔]],_'"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000009-QINU`"'[[:Voiced_postalveolar_non-sibilant_affricate|d̠ɹ̠˔]]]</span>,_as_in_RP.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000A-QINU`"'_*_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/r/</span>_is_more_often_a_tap_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Alveolar_tap|ɾ]]&#93;</span>_than_an_approximant_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Alveolar_approximant|ɹ]]&#93;</span>.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000B-QINU`"'_*_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/l/</span>_is_always_clear_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Alveolar_lateral_approximant|l]]&#93;</span>.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000C-QINU`"'_*_Consonants_from_Welsh_such_as_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Voiceless_alveolar_lateral_fricative|ɬ]]&#93;</span>_and_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Voiceless_uvular_fricative|χ]]&#93;</span>_are_encountered_in_local_Welsh_placenames.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000D-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000000E-QINU`"'_===Vowels===_====Monophthongs====_{-4|[4]]], at the end of a morpheme or word, are very commonly elided: not good and handbag /ˈhambaɡ/, the latter with the assimilation of the nasal with the b.[5]
  • The indefinite article an (before a vowel) may be reduced to a, as in a apple /ə ˈapəl/.[1]
  • The schwa /ə/ is often elided although but it is also very common to retain it.[5]
  • The sequence co(-)op, like in the rest of South Wales, is characteristically pronounced like cop /kɒp/.[5]
  • Elisions in the phrases isn't it? /ˈɪn ɪt/, never mind /ˈnɛː ˈmʌɪn/ and there you are /ˈdɛː ˈwaː/ are very common.[5]
  • Why + negative do, such as why don't, why doesn't or why didn't is also very commonly elided to /ˈwʌɪn/.[5]

Phonemic incidence[edit]

  • Like in most of Northern England and the Midlands, tooth is pronounced with the FOOT vowel, as in /tʊθ/.[6]
  • Mauve is pronounced with./ɒː/, instead of /oː/ or /oʊ/.[6]
  • Motor is pronounced /ˈmoːtoː/, and the strong form of their is pronounced /ˈðeɪə/.[6]
  • In an address, girl and man are pronounced with the STRUT vowel /ə/.[6]

The following features apply for only some speakers:[5]

  • Daunt and jaunt may be pronounced with /a/.
  • Hose and whole may be pronounced with /uː/ and area with /eː/.
  • Want may be pronounced with /ə/, instead of /ɒ/.

Prosody[edit]

  • Intonation in PTE is similar to Abercraf English. One prominent pattern is that the main pitch movement is not necessarily confined to the stressed syllable but can be spread further, to the end of the word.[7]
  • Like in other Welsh accents, PTE tends to avoid having double stress patterns, making words such as Bridgend or icecream lose their secondary stress.[5]

Grammar[edit]

  • Ain't commonly used as a negation.[8]
  • The Northern Subject Rule is used in present-tense verb forms and extends to personal pronouns: I goes to work, the birds sings and you says.[8]
  • Certain words have grammatical meaning unique to PTE, including after meaning 'later' and never as 'didn't'.[8]
  • Double negatives occur, much like in other vernacular English dialects.[8]
  • The prepositions on, by and for are used idiomatically, as is charecteristic for South Wales accent: by here/there. Phrasal examples include what is on this? (what's the matter with this), there's times on him/her (he/she is in a temper), what's the time by you (what's an appropriate time for you), you can't go by him/her (you can:t depend on him/her) and there's gratitude for you (you're appreciated).[9]

Vocabulary[edit]

  • ashman — bin man, dustman[9]
  • cam — a stride[8]
  • crachach — used everywhere in Wales; a derogatory term used to refer to members of the Establishment in the country.[10][11] It can simply refer to 'posh people'.[8]
  • lose — to miss (e.g. a bus)[8]
  • poin — to pester, to nag (from Welsh poeni)[8]
  • troughing — guttering[9]
  • venter — to bet (from Welsh fentro, a mutated form of mentro)[8]

Idioms[edit]

Examples of commonly-used idiomatic phrases in PTE:[9]

  • burnt to glory — burnt to the point of ashes[9]
  • gone home — said when a piece of clothing has worn out[9]
  • possible if — in PTE it specifically means 'surely it's not that case that...'[9]
  • sure to be — a phrase that represents 'certainly' or 'without a doubt'[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Connolly (1990), p. 121.
  2. ^ Connolly (1990), pp. 122, 125.
  3. ^ Wells (1982), p. 389.
  4. [[#cite_ref-FOOTNOTEConnolly1990[[Back_vowel|Back]]<span_style="font-size:85%;">rounded</span>126}_*_The_[[Voicelessness|voiceless]]_[[Stop_consonant|stops]]_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/p,_t,_k/</span>_have_considerable_strong_[[Aspiration_(linguistics)|aspiration]]_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">[pʰʰ,_tʰʰ,_kʰʰ]</span>,_often_as_a_weak_[[Affricate_consonant|affricate]]_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">['"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000002-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_bilabial_affricate|pɸ]],_'"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000003-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_alveolar_affricate|ts]],_'"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000004-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_velar_affricate|kx]]]</span>._That_is_especially_for_the_case_of_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/t/</span>.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000005-QINU`"'_*_[[T-glottalization]]_is_uncommon_but_may_occur_word-finally.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000006-QINU`"'_*_[[H-dropping]]_also_often_occurs.'"`UNIQ--ref-00000007-QINU`"'_*_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/tr,_dr/</span>_are_postalveolar_affricates_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">['"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000008-QINU`"'[[:Voiceless_postalveolar_non-sibilant_affricate|t̠ɹ̠̊˔]],_'"`UNIQ--nowiki-00000009-QINU`"'[[:Voiced_postalveolar_non-sibilant_affricate|d̠ɹ̠˔]]]</span>,_as_in_RP.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000A-QINU`"'_*_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/r/</span>_is_more_often_a_tap_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Alveolar_tap|ɾ]]&#93;</span>_than_an_approximant_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Alveolar_approximant|ɹ]]&#93;</span>.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000B-QINU`"'_*_<span_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)"_class="IPA">/l/</span>_is_always_clear_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Alveolar_lateral_approximant|l]]&#93;</span>.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000C-QINU`"'_*_Consonants_from_Welsh_such_as_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Voiceless_alveolar_lateral_fricative|ɬ]]&#93;</span>_and_<span_class="IPA_nowrap"_title="Representation_in_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet_(IPA)">&#91;[[:Voiceless_uvular_fricative|χ]]&#93;</span>_are_encountered_in_local_Welsh_placenames.'"`UNIQ--ref-0000000D-QINU`"''"`UNIQ--ref-0000000E-QINU`"'_===Vowels===_====Monophthongs====_{_4-0|^]] Connolly et al., p. 126} * The voiceless stops /p, t, k/ have considerable strong aspiration [pʰʰ, tʰʰ, kʰʰ], often as a weak affricate [, ts, kx]. That is especially for the case of /t/.[1] * T-glottalization is uncommon but may occur word-finally.[1] * H-dropping also often occurs.[1] * /tr, dr/ are postalveolar affricates [t̠ɹ̠̊˔, d̠ɹ̠˔], as in RP.[1] * /r/ is more often a tap [ɾ] than an approximant [ɹ].[1] * /l/ is always clear [l].[1] * Consonants from Welsh such as [ɬ] and [χ] are encountered in local Welsh placenames.[1][3] ===Vowels=== ====Monophthongs==== {.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  6. ^ a b c d Connolly (1990), p. 124.
  7. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 126.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Connolly (1990), p. 127.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Connolly (1990), p. 128.
  10. ^ Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna; Lynch, Peredur, eds. (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6.
  11. ^ Hitt, Carolyn (1 March 2006). "Just who are 'the crachach'?". BBC News.

Bibliography[edit]