Parental alienation

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Parental alienation is the process, and the result, of psychological manipulation of a child into showing unwarranted fear, disrespect or hostility towards a parent and/or other family members.[1][2][3] It is a distinctive form of psychological abuse and family violence,[4][5][6] towards both the child and the rejected family members,[7][8][9] that occurs almost exclusively in association with family separation or divorce, particularly where legal action is involved.[10][11][12] The most common cause is one parent wishing to exclude the other parent from the life of their child, though family members or friends, as well as professionals involved with the family (including psychologists, lawyers and judges), may contribute to the process.[2][13][14] Parental alienation often leads to the long-term, or even lifelong, estrangement of a child from one parent and other family members[15][16] and, as a significant adverse childhood experience and form of childhood trauma, results in significantly increased lifetime risks of both mental and physical illness.[17][15][18]


The term parental alienation is derived from parental alienation syndrome, a term introduced by Gardner in 1985 to describe a distinctive suite of behaviors, which he had observed consistently in children exposed to family separation or divorce, whereby children rejected and showed unwarranted feelings towards one of their parents.[19][20] Given some objections to the use or medical validity of the term ‘syndrome’, as well as more ideological objections to the entire concept, academics in the 1990s increasingly began using the truncated form ‘parental alienation’,[1][21][22] some in a manner synonymous with the original formulation of parental alienation syndrome (namely, the signs observable in child victims),[3] others to describe the process or tactics by which this occurs,[6] and yet others to describe the outcomes for parents and others who had become victims of unwarranted rejection.[23]

The phenomenon itself, however, has a much longer history. The idea that children may be turned against one of their parents, or may reject a parent unjustifiably during family breakdown, has been recognised for centuries (see History). The fact that many family estrangements result from such a process of psychological manipulation, undue influence or interference by a third party (rather than from genuine interactions between the estranged parties themselves) is generally less well-recognized.[24]

Parental alienation versus parental estrangement[edit]

When children reject a parent, the causes can be divided into two broad categories:[25][26]

  • Parental alienation, in which the child strongly allies with one parent and rejects the other without legitimate justification. The rejected parent may not be perfect, but the key concept is that the rejection is out of proportion to anything that the rejected parent has done.
  • Justified parental estrangement, due to the rejected parent's harmful or abusive behaviors, substance abuse, neglect or abandonment.

While there is some confusion in terminology, "most writers ... use 'estrangement' to refer to warranted rejection of a parent and 'alienation' to refer to unwarranted rejection".[26] The former is an understandable refusal by a child to see an abusive parent, while the latter is unjustified and emotionally harmful.[27] In parental alienation, the child typically views the two parents in extremely positive versus extremely negative terms, while a child usually view an abusive or neglectful parent in an ambivalent manner.[25]


Parental alienation is the unwarranted breakdown of attachment and/or contact between a child and one of his or her parents, when there is no justification for that breakdown. It is usually caused by alienating behavior by the other parent. When defining the characteristics of parental alienation, one may emphasize the role of an alienating parent, sometimes called the "programming" or "embittered-chaotic parent", and his or her relationship dynamics with the child.[28] Alternatively, one may focus on the alienated child, and the relationship dynamics between the child and the alienated parent.[27][29]


Alienating parent[edit]

One conception of parental alienation theorizes that alienation is driven by a specific parent who experienced feelings of inadequacy or abandonment in their own childhood, and has those feelings re-triggered by a divorce or breakup. In response, that parent may reenact[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] a false narrative related to their own childhood, where the child's other parent symbolizes an inadequate or abusive parent, the child symbolizes a victim of the other parent, and the parent using harmful parenting practices symbolizes a good parent ostensibly trying to protect their child.[39] The role of the bystander such as friends, therapists, and judges is to confirm the delusion for the parent, which was already partially confirmed for them by the child acting like a victim[30][40][41][32] However, in reality, the other parent is neither inadequate nor abusive; rather, the parent using the harmful parenting practices is abusive.[30][31][40] In effect, the parent who fears inadequacy or abandonment is able to project their fears onto the other parent[30] because "all can plainly see" that it is the other parent who is rejected and abandoned by the child and who is "inadequate".[42]

Another theory is that a parent who uses harmful parenting practices may suffer from borderline personality disorder or narcissistic personality disorder,[43][30][42][44][40][39] related to an experience of feeling inadequate or abandoned while growing up. This feeling can be re-triggered by a divorce or breakup, causing them to decompensate into persecutory delusions.[31][44][39][45][46] These parents may believe that they do not need to follow social norms of fairness,[43][42] and they may "parentify their own children",[47] "excessively bind their children to themselves",[47] "demand absolute, unlimited control over their children while threatening rejection",[47] project their own fears onto the other parent,[47] abandon their spouse in favor of their children,[47] and revive their own childhood attachment trauma after a difficult experience.[47] The clinical psychologist Craig Childress has argued that a parent's early disorganized attachment leads to narcissistic or borderline personality characteristics which in turn cause alienating behaviors [48]; this view and other similar views of sources of children's refusal of contact with parents have been critiqued in articles in professional journals.[49]


A survey of literature suggests that alienating behaviors demonstrated by both parents are common in high-conflict divorces.[28] Rejected parents may lose a sense of warmth and empathy with the child. As a result, the rejected parent may become passive, depressed, anxious, and withdrawn – characteristics that may encourage further rejection. The parent that the child aligns with (the aligned parent) may engage in alienating behaviors, including undermining the other parent. These behaviors may be conscious and deliberate or may reflect a lack of awareness of the effect of the actions on the children. Direct alienating behaviors occur when one parent actively undermines the other parent, such as making derogatory remarks about the other parent, telling the child that the other parent is responsible for the separation, or telling the child that the other parent is the cause of financial difficulties. Indirect alienation behaviors occur when one parent fails to support access or contact with the other parent or tacitly accepts the child's negative behaviour and comments towards the other parent.[28][27]

The techniques of harmful parenting may be subtle and "genuine".[43][30][39] A parent can triangulate the child into the marital conflict[50] by encouraging the child to make even minor complaints about the other parent and then "enthusiastically validating" them. This signals to the child that the other parent is dangerous[42][51][medical citation needed] and insensitive.[42][51] This encouragement to complain manipulates the child into the role of victim without the child's awareness,[44][51] allowing the parent to move into the protector role, forcing the other parent into the "inadequate" parent role, and leaving no trace of what happened for bystanders who only see the child acting as a "victim".[42][40][41] Over time, the combined effects of growing closer to the alienating parent through this complaining process[42] and growing further from the rejected parent as the result of focusing on negative things about the other parent cause the child to reject their other parent as being inadequate.

A parent may also mix in lies,[42] partial lies,[51][unreliable medical source?] and exaggerations,[42] particularly ones that the child may not be able to verify or where only the true part of the partial lie is easy to verify.[52] As the result of being encouraged to act as judge of their rejected parent,[42] the child then feels superior to their rejected parent, leading to the symptoms of grandiosity, entitlement, and haughty arrogance. This feeds the delusion of the parent, that they are protecting the child from an inadequate parent.[40] The child then begins to adopt this delusion also.[30][42][41]

Because the child and parent are from different generations, this qualifies as a perverse triangle,[53][54] further complicated by enmeshment,[55][56][57][58][59][medical citation needed] and made even worse because a member of the perverse triangle has a personality disorder,[43][30][42][40] climaxed by the splitting dynamic of the parent with the personality disorder that requires the ex-spouse to also become the ex-parent of the child.[31] Finally, the child may be led to misinterpret the grief they experience from the loss of a parent as pain that means the rejected parent is abusive, since they mainly experience it in the presence of the rejected parent.[44]


Behaviors that may be displayed by a child that, among other possible causes, may be associated with parental alienation include:

  • The child engages in a pattern of denigration against a parent for unjustified reasons and uses frivolous rationalizations that are disproportionate to the circumstances.[43]
  • The child may display a complete lack of ambivalence wherein the rejected parent is viewed as "all bad" and the favored parent is viewed as "all good."[42] This lack of ambivalence is associated with "splitting",[41] a primitive division of the ego into "all good" and "all bad" objects to prevent the generalization of anxiety.[60]
  • The child may display reflexive support for the parent they favor during disagreements between the rejected parent and the favored parent.[61]
  • The child may use borrowed scenarios that involve making disparaging comments about the rejected parent that are identical to those made by the favored parent.[1]
  • The child may display an independent thinker phenomenon that involves comments by the child that their decision to reject a parent was arrived at without any influence from the favored parent.[62]
  • The child may display an absence of guilt regarding their denigration of the rejected parent.[63]
  • The child's vilification of the rejected parent may spread to extended family members.[61]


When parental alienation is identified, the success of restoring the child's attachment to their parent requires that the child be protected from harmful parenting.[30][40] There is no generally recognized treatment protocol for parental alienation.[64]

According to one theory, when symptoms of alienation are present, structured intervention is likely to be more effective than traditional counseling. Structured intervention often involves supportive temporary structural change in the family system. The process may also involve a period of court-ordered separation from the favored parent.[64][55] One critic of structured intervention has "concluded that PA advocates have failed to provide empirical support for the safety and effectiveness of their [treatment] methods and that custody proceedings should take these facts into consideration."[65]


First described in 1976 as "pathological alignment"[66], parental alienation refers to a situation in which a child unreasonably rejects a non-custodial parent.[28] Richard A. Gardner proposed parental alienation syndrome in the 1980s based on his clinical experience with the children of divorcing parents. Parental alienation lacks a single definition and its existence, cause and characteristics have been the subject of debate. Gardner's concept of a syndrome has failed to gain acceptance. Some empirical research has been performed, though the quality of the studies vary widely and research in the area is still developing.[67] One complicating factor for research is that high numbers of parents involved in high conflict custody disputes engage in alienating or indoctrinating behaviors, but only a small proportion children become alienated.[68]

Parental alienation syndrome[edit]

Another approach for severe cases of parental alienation involves defining the set of psychological symptoms in a child and proposing a psychological explanation for how those symptoms were caused by harmful parenting practices and why a parent would employ those parenting practices.[43][30][42][31][55][44] In this model, the phenomenon is seen simply as a combination of psychological problems, each of which psychologists understand and recognize.[40] According to this theoretical formulation, "the pathology traditionally called ‘parental alienation' are manifestations of well-established forms of existing pathologies.”[31][40]

A 2009 survey of mental health and legal professionals found broad skepticism of the concept of parental alienation syndrome, and caution in relation to the concept of parental alienation.[28]

Mental health professionals are reluctant to recognize so-called parental alienation syndrome.[28] The American Psychological Association[69] has noted that there is a lack of data to support the concept of parental alienation syndrome, but takes no official position on the syndrome.[70]

In anticipation of the DSM-5, the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which was released by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013, William Bernet argued for the inclusion of parental alienation disorder, a diagnosis related to parental alienation. His conception makes reference to parental alienation and a variety of other descriptions of behaviors he believes represent the underlying concept of parental alienation disorder.[71] Despite lobbying by proponents,[72] in December 2012, the proposal was rejected.[73]

Some argue that elements of parental alienation are covered in the DSM-5 under the diagnosis: "Parent-Child Relational Problem".[74] For example, the child's perception of an alienated parent "may include negative attributions of the other's intentions, hostility toward or scapegoating of the other (parent), and unwarranted feelings of estrangement".[75][76]

Family courts[edit]

The history of parental alienation reflects an evolution of its acceptance by professionals involved in custody cases.


In England, the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) was formed to promote the welfare of children and families involved family court cases.[77] Cafcass recognizes the possibility of parental alienation in family separation cases.[78] Cafcass has developed a Child Impact Assessment Framework (CIAF) that is focused on understanding the child's personal experience of parental separation as a tool to help courts make more informed decisions about the best interests of the children. Alienation is specifically identified and assessed within that framework.[79]


Brazil has passed a law prohibiting parental alienation, which it defines as "as the interference with the psychological formation of a child or adolescent that promotes repudiation of a parent or damage to the establishment or maintenance of ties with a parent, when such an act is practiced by a parent, grandparent, those who have the child or adolescent under their authority, custody, or supervision." A judge who finds that parental alienation has occurred may issue a warning, may modify the custody arrangement in favor of the alienated parent, may order counseling, or may place the alienated child in an interim residence.[80]


In the Federal District of Mexico, an area that is officially equivalent to Mexico City, 323 Septimus of the Civil Code prohibits a family member from transforming the conscience of a minor so as to prevent, hinder or interfere with the minor's relationship with one of the minor's parents. If a court finds that such acts have occurred and are of mild or moderate nature, and that the person responsible for the alienation is the father, the court must transfer custody to the other parent. If the court finds that the degree of parental alienation attributable to the father is severe, all contact with the father of the child must be suspended, and that the child must receive counseling.[81]

United States[edit]

In an informal survey at the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts in 2010, 98% of the 300 respondents agreed with the question, "Do you think that some children are manipulated by one parent to irrationally and unjustifiably reject the other parent?".[1] However, parental alienation refers not to the acts of manipulation, but rather to the child's rejection of a parent that results from alienating behavior.

Some courts recognize parental alienation as a form of child abuse with long-term effects and serious outcomes for the child. Some jurisdictions, including Brazil[82] and Mexico, have enacted parental alienation as a criminal offense.[83] Other jurisdictions may suspend child support in cases where parental alienation occurs. For example, in New York, in Matter of Robert Coull v. Pamela Rottman, No. 2014-01516, 2015 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 6611 (September 2, 2015), where the father was prevented from seeing his son by the child's mother through a "pattern of alienation", child support was suspended.[84] Some United States courts have also tried to address the issue through mandated reunification therapy; but no federal or state laws regulating parental alienation currently exist in the United States[85] Due to the nature of allegations of parental alienation, many courts require that a qualified expert witness testify in support of allegations of parental alienation or in association with any allegation that a parent has a mental health disorder.[86]

While states have broadly rejected parental alienation syndrome as a concept that may be presented in a child custody case, it remains possible to argue that parental alienation has occurred, and to demonstrate how a parent's alienating behaviors should be considered by a court when evaluating a custody case.[87] Behaviors that result in parental alienation may reflect other mental health disorders, both on the part of the alienating parent and the rejected parent, that may be relevant to a custody determination.[88] The behavior of the alienated child may also be a relevant factor.[89]


In Israel, parental alienation is known as "nikor horim", and the courts have begun to recognize it. In family cases, the welfare of the child is always paramount and previously where the child was settled with one parent, even where there had been parental alienation, the court was reluctant to act. However the courts have recognized parental alienation as being harmful to the child.[90] In an article in the Jerusalem Post Hadassah Fidler[91] explained "Recently, there have been changes to the procedures in the courts in Tel Aviv where, when a case of parental alienation is recognized, it is expedited to avoid the deepening the rift between the child and the alienated parent".

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Lorandos, D., W. Bernet and S.R. Sauber (2013). Overview of Parental Alienation. In Lorandos, Demosthenes; Bernet, William; Sauber, S. Richard (2013). Parental Alienation: The Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Charles C Thomas Publisher. ISBN 978-0398087500. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b Warshak, Richard A. (2009). Divorce Poison. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0061984235. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  3. ^ a b William Bernet, Parental Alienation, Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology, 2015.
  4. ^ Harman, Jennifer J.; Kruk, Edward; Hines, Denise A. (2018). "Parental alienating behaviors: An unacknowledged form of family violence". Psychological Bulletin. 144 (12): 1275–1299. doi:10.1037/bul0000175. ISSN 1939-1455. PMID 30475019.
  5. ^ Duhaime's Law Dictionary, Parental Alienation Definition
  6. ^ a b Baker, Amy J. L.; Ben-Ami, Naomi (2011). "To Turn a Child Against a Parent Is To Turn a Child Against Himself: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Exposure to Parental Alienation Strategies on Self- Esteem and Well-Being". Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 52 (7): 472–489. doi:10.1080/10502556.2011.609424.
  7. ^ REAY, KATHLEEN M (2015). "Family reflections: A promising therapeutic program designed to treat severely alienated children and their family system". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 43 (2): 197–207. doi:10.1080/01926187.2015.1007769.
  8. ^ Baker, Amy J. L. (2009). "Adult Recall of Parental Alienation in a Community Sample: Prevalence and Associations With Psychological Maltreatment". Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 51 (1): 16–35. doi:10.1080/10502550903423206.
  9. ^ Poustie, Clare; Matthewson, Mandy; Balmer, Sian (2018). "The forgotten parent: The targeted parent perspective of parental alienation". Journal of Family Issues. 39 (12): 3298–3323. doi:10.1177/0192513X18777867.
  10. ^ Baker, AJL (2014). The High-Conflict Custody Battle: Protect Yourself and Your Kids from a Toxic Divorce, False Accusations, and Parental Alienation. Oakland, USA: New Harbinger. ISBN 9781626250734.
  11. ^ Harman, Jennifer J.; Leder-Elder, Sadie; Biringen, Zeynep (2016). "Prevalence of parental alienation drawn from a representative poll". Children and Youth Services Review. 66: 62–66. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.04.021.
  12. ^ KOPETSKI, LEONA M. (1998). "Identifying Cases Of Parent Alienation Syndrome — Part I" (PDF). Colorado Lawyer. 27 (2): 65–68.
  13. ^ Warshak, R.A. (2015). "Parental Alienation: Overview, Management, Intervention, and Practice Tips" (PDF). Journal of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  14. ^ Braver, Sanford L. Braver; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Cohen, Bruce R. (2002). "Experiences of Family Law Attorneys With Current Issues in Divorce Practice". Family Relations. 51 (4): 325–334. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2002.00325.x.
  15. ^ a b BEN-AMI, NAOMI; BAKER, AMY J. L. (2012). "The Long-Term Correlates of Childhood Exposure to Parental Alienation on Adult Self-Sufficiency and Well-Being". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 40 (2): 169–183. doi:10.1080/01926187.2011.601206.
  16. ^ Baker, Amy, J.L. (2007). Adult Children of Parental Alienation: Breaking the Ties that Bind. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0393705195.
  17. ^ Verrocchio, Maria Christina; Baker, Amy J. L.; Marchetti, Daniela (2018). "Adult report of childhood exposure to parental alienation at different developmental time periods". Journal of Family Therapy. 40 (4): 602–618. doi:10.1111/1467-6427.12192.
  18. ^ Garber, Benjamin D. (2011). "Parental alienation and the dynamics of the enmeshed parent-child dyad: Adultification, parentification and infantilization". Family Court Review. 49 (2): 322–335. doi:10.1111/j.1744-1617.2011.01374.x.
  19. ^ Gardner, Richard (1985). "Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation". Academy Forum. 29 (2): 3–7.
  21. ^ BERNET, WILLIAM; VON BOCH-GALHAU, WILFRID; BAKER, AMY J. L.; MORRISON, STEPHEN L. (2010). "Parental Alienation, DSM-V, and ICD-11". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 38 (2): 76–187. doi:10.1080/01926180903586583.
  22. ^ BERNET, WILLIAM; BAKER, AMY J. L. (2013). "Parental Alienation, DSM-V, and ICD-11: Response to Critics". The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. 41 (1): 98–104. PMID 23503183. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  23. ^ Poustie, Clare; Matthewson, Mandy; Balmer, Sian (2018). "The Forgotten Parent: The Targeted Parent Perspective of Parental Alienation". Journal of Family Issues. 39 (12): 3298–3323. doi:10.1177/0192513X18777867 – via SAGE.
  24. ^ Agllias, Kylie (2017). Family Estrangement: a matter of perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781472458612.
  25. ^ a b Bernet, William; Nilgun, Gregory; Reay, Kathleen M.; Rohner, Ronald P. (May 2018). "An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance – Rejection Questionnaire" (PDF). Journal of Forensic Sciences. 63 (3): 776–783. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.13625. PMID 28833110. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  26. ^ a b Demosthenes Lorandos, William Bernet, S. Richard Sauber, Overview of Parental Alienation, In Lorandos D, Bernet W, Sauber SR (editors), Parental alienation: The Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 2013.
  27. ^ a b c Bala, N; Fidler B; Goldberg D; Houston C (2007). "Alienated Children and Parental Separation: Legal Responses from Canada's Family Courts". Queens Law Journal. 33: 79–138.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Bow, JN; Gould JW; Flens JR (2009). "Examining Parental Alienation in Child Custody Cases: A Survey of Mental Health and Legal Professionals" (PDF). The American Journal of Family Therapy. 37 (2): 127–145. doi:10.1080/01926180801960658.
  29. ^ Jaffe, PG; Lemon NKD; Poisson SE (2002). Child Custody & Domestic Violence. SAGE Publications. pp. 52–54. ISBN 978-0-7619-1826-4.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bertholdo, Stephanie (2013-08-15). "Parental Alienation: What happens when ex-spouses wage war with children on the front line". Thousand Oaks Acorn. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Pingitore, Marco. "Parental Alienation, Interview with Craig Childress". Italian Society of Forensic Science. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  32. ^ a b Pearlman, Laurie (2005). "Clinical Applications of the Attachment Framework: Relational Treatment of Complex Trauma" (PDF). Journal of Traumatic Stress. 18 (5): 449–459. doi:10.1002/jts.20052. PMID 16281242.
  33. ^ Levy, Michael (1998). "A Helpful Way to Conceptualize and Understand Reenactments". The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. 7 (3): 227–235. PMC 3330499. PMID 9631344.
  34. ^ Benjamin Sadock PhD (2008). Kaplan & Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry. LWWW. pp. 216. ISBN 978-0781787468.
  35. ^ van der Kolk, B.A. (1987). "The psychological consequences of overwhelming life experiences". Psychological Trauma. 7 (3): 5.
  36. ^ van der Kolk, B.A. (2005). "Developmental Trauma Disorder: Towards a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories" (PDF). Psychiatric Annals. 35 (5): 401–408. doi:10.3928/00485713-20050501-06.
  37. ^ Reyes, Gilbert; Elhai Jon (2000). The Encyclopedia of Psychological Trauma. Wiley. pp. 0. ISBN 978-0470110065.
  38. ^ van der Kolk, BA. "The compulsion to repeat the trauma". The Leadership Council on Child Abuse & Interpersonal Violence : The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  39. ^ a b c d Barbara Jo Fidler (2012-09-13). Children Who Resist Postseparation Parental Contact: A Differential Approach for Legal and Mental Health Professionals. Oxford University Press. pp. 30. ISBN 978-0199895496.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i Greenfield, Beth. "The Controversial Therapy That's Shaping Custody Battles". Yahoo Parenting. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  41. ^ a b c d Bernet, William; Gregory, Nilgun; Reay, Kathleen M.; Rohner, Ronald P. (2018). "Bernet et al. (2017). An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire. Journal of Forensic Sciences. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13625". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 63 (3): 776–783. doi:10.1111/1556-4029.13625. PMID 28833110.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Gardner, R. A. (1985). Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation. Academy Forum, 29(2), 3-7" (PDF). Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  43. ^ a b c d e f "Lorandos et al. (2013). Parental Alienation: The Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas". Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  44. ^ a b c d e Stines, Sharie (2015-11-02). "Narcissism and Parental Alienation Syndrome". Psych Central. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  45. ^ Theodore Million (2011). Disorders of Personality:Introducing a DSM / ICD Spectrum from Normal to Abnormal 3rd Edition. Wiley. pp. 407–408. ISBN 978-0470040935.
  46. ^ James Masterson, M.D. (1981). The Narcissistic and Borderline Disorders: An Integrated Developmental Approach. Routledge. pp. 38. ISBN 978-0876302927.
  47. ^ a b c d e f Oldham, John M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S. (2007). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 364. ISBN 978-1585626625. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  48. ^ Childress, Craig (2015). An attachment based model of parental alienation. Claremont, CA: Oaksong Press.
  49. ^ Jean Mercer, Are intensive parental alienation treatments safe or effective for children and adolescents? Journal of Child Custody, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/15379418.2018.1557578
  50. ^ Gartland, Fiona. "Jail time for parental alienation not in best interests of children". Irish Times. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
  51. ^ a b c d Baker, Amy. "Surviving Parental Alienation, Part 2: The parental alienation tipping point". Psychology Today. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  52. ^ Baker, Amy (2014). Coparenting with a Toxic Ex. New Harbinger Publications. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1608829583.
  53. ^ Linda Gottlieb (2012). THE PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME: A Family Therapy and Collaborative Systems Approach to Amelioration. Charles C Thomas. pp. 4, 87, 180, 214, 222, 249, 254, 258, 259. ISBN 978-0398087364.
  54. ^ Amy J. L. Baker PhD (2013). WORKING WITH ALIENATED FAMILIES A Clinical Guidebook. Routeledge. pp. 200, 230, 238. ISBN 978-0415518031.
  55. ^ a b c Ludmer, Brian. "Structured intervention trumps therapy in child estrangement cases". Advocate Daily. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  56. ^ Mark Goldstein (2015-08-17). Handbook of Child Custody. Springer. pp. 186, 194, 267. ISBN 978-3319139418.
  57. ^ Kruk, Edward. "Parent-Child Reunification After Alienation: Strategies to Reunite Alienated Parents and Their Children". Psychology Today. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  58. ^ Baker, A.J.L. (2007). Adult Children of Parental Alienation Syndrome: Breaking the Ties That Bind. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393705195.
  59. ^ Philip A. Cowan (1993). Family, Self, and Society: Toward A New Agenda for Family Research. Routledge. pp. 206. ISBN 978-0805809992.
  60. ^ Kernberg, O. F. (1995). Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism (Reissue ed.). Princeton, NJ: Jason Aronson, Inc. 1995. ISBN 9780876681770.
  61. ^ a b "Lorandos, D. (2016). "Criteria for the Diagnosis of Parental Alienation."". Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  62. ^ Baker, Amy J. L.; Damall, Douglas C. (2007). "Baker, J. L. & Darnall, D. C. (2007). A Construct Study of the Eight Symptoms of Severe Parental Alienation Syndrome. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 47(1-2)". Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 47 (1–2): 55–75. doi:10.1300/J087v47n01_04.
  63. ^ "Gardner, R. A. (2002). The Empowerment of Children in the Development of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20(2), 5-29". Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  64. ^ a b Templar, Kate; Matthewson, Mandy; Haines, Janet; Cox, Georgina R. (September 2016). "Recommendations for best practice in response to parental alienation: findings from a systematic review: Best practice responses to parental alienation". Journal of Family Therapy. doi:10.1111/1467-6427.12137. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  65. ^ Mercer, Jean (January 21, 2019). "Are intensive parental alienation treatments effective and safe for children and adolescents?". Journal of Child Custody: 1–47. doi:10.1080/15379418.2018.1557578.
  66. ^ Meier, J. S. (2009). "A historical perspective on parental alienation syndrome and parental alienation". Journal of Child Custody. 6 (3–4): 232–257. doi:10.1080/15379410903084681. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  67. ^ Hands, A. J.; Warshak, R. A. (2011). "Parental Alienation Among College Students". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 39 (5): 431–443. doi:10.1080/01926187.2011.575336.
  68. ^ Kelly, Joan B.; Johnston, Joan R. (15 March 2005). "The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome" (PDF). Family Court Review. 39 (3): 249. doi:10.1111/j.174-1617.2001.tb00609.x. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  69. ^ "Statement on Parental Alienation Syndrome". American Psychological Association. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  70. ^ 'Parental Alienation, DSM-5, and ICD-11: Response to Critics' William Bernet, MD and Amy J. L. Baker, PhD (2013)
  71. ^ Bernet, W (2008). "Parental Alienation Disorder and DSM-V". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 36 (5): 349–366. doi:10.1080/01926180802405513.
  72. ^ Rotstein, Gary (February 15, 2010). "Mental health professionals getting update on definitions". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
  73. ^ "American Psychiatric Association Board of Trustees Approves DSM-5-Diagnostic manual passes major milestone before May 2013 publication". American Psychiatric Association. 1 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
  74. ^ Bernet, William; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.; Narrow, William E. (July 2016). "Child Affected by Parental Relationship Distress". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 55 (7): 571–579. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.04.018. PMID 27343884. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  75. ^ Kay, B. (2013). Barbara Kay: Teaching children to hate the ex Archived 2013-06-16 at National Post, May 23, 2013.
  76. ^ Franklin, R. (2013). Limited Definition of parental alienation syndrome included in the DSM-V. National Parent's Organization, May 26, 2013.
  77. ^ "About Cafcass". Cafcass. Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  78. ^ "Parental alienation". Cafcass. Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  79. ^ "Child Impact Assessment Framework (CIAF)". Cafcass. Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  80. ^ Soares, Eduardo (2 September 2010). "Brazil: Parental Alienation Criminalized". Library of Congress. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  81. ^ Núñez, María del Carmen Montenegro (September 2017). "La alienación parental: un dilema ético". Alegatos (in Spanish). Universidad Autónoma de Metropolitana. 32 (7): 661, 668. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  82. ^ "Brazil: Parental Alienation Criminalized". Library of Congress. 2 September 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  83. ^ Hill, Amelia (14 July 2016). "Programme aims to help people affected by 'parental alienation'". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  84. ^ Denney, Andrew (9 September 2015). "Father Not Obligated to Pay Child Support, Panel Finds". New York Law Journal.
  85. ^ [1], "Should Parental Alienation Be A Crime?" - Wallin & Klarich Family Law
  86. ^ Novotney, Amy (July 2008). "Custody collaborations". Monitor on Psychology. 39 (7): 48. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  87. ^ Larson, Aaron (24 February 2016). "Parental Alienation in Child Custody Cases". Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  88. ^ Kelly, Joan B.; Johnston, Janet R. (July 2001). "The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome". Family Court Review. 39 (3): 249–266. doi:10.1111/j.174-1617.2001.tb00609.x.
  89. ^ Baker, Amy J.L.; Eichler, Amy (2016). "The Linkage Between Parental Alienation Behaviors and Child Alienation". Journal of Divorce and Remarriage. 57 (7): 475–484. doi:10.1080/10502556.2016.1220285.
  90. ^ "ניכור הורי". גירושין - הורות משותפת = טובת הילד (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  91. ^ "When one parent is left out in the cold - Israel News - Jerusalem Post". Retrieved 2019-06-13.

Further reading[edit]

  • Adult Children of Parental Alienation Syndrome: Breaking the Ties That Bind by Amy J. L. Baker
  • Brainwashing Children by John Thomas Steinbeck (2011)
  • Co-parenting with a Toxic Ex: What to Do When Your Ex-Spouse Tries to Turn the Kids Against You (2014) by Amy J. L. Baker and Paul R Fine
  • Divorce Poison: How to Protect Your Family from Bad-mouthing and Brainwashing, by Richard Warshak (2010, updated edition)
  • Parental Alienation, DSM-5, and ICD-11, by William Bernet (Author, Editor) (2010)
  • An Attachment-Based Model of Parental Alienation: Foundations, by Craig Childress, (2015)

External links[edit]