Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||See Languages of Nepal|
|Ethnic groups |
|Demonym(s)||Nepali (official), Nepalese|
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Bidhya Devi Bhandari|
|Nanda Kishor Pun|
|Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli|
|Cholendra Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana|
|Ganesh Prasad Timilsina|
|Agni Prasad Sapkota|
|House of Representatives|
|25 September 1768|
|18 May 2006|
|28 May 2008|
|20 September 2015|
|147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi) (93rd)|
• Water (%)
• 2018 estimate
• 2011 census
|180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) (62nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2010)|| 32.8|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.579|
medium · 147th
|Currency||Nepalese rupee Rs (Nepali: रू) (NPR)|
|Time zone||UTC+05:45 (Nepal Standard Time)|
|DST not observed|
|ISO 3166 code||NP|
Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south, east and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the capital and the largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic country with Nepali as the official language.
The name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, and was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala. The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the establishment of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.
The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, affirms Nepal as a secular federal parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia; it is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Biodiversity
- 5 Politics and government
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Society and culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Before the unification of Nepal, the Kathmandu valley was known as Nepal Rajya.[a] The precise origin of the term Nepāl is uncertain. A number of plausible theories are found in religious as well as academic texts. Nepal appears in ancient Indian literary texts dated as far back as the fourth century BC. However, an absolute chronology can not be established, as even the oldest texts may contain anonymous contributions dating as late as the early modern period. On the other hand, academic attempts to provide a plausible theory suffer from lack of a complete picture of history, and insufficient understanding of linguistics or of relevant Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman languages.
According to Hindu mythology, Nepal derives its name from an ancient Hindu sage called Ne, referred to variously as Ne Muni or Nemi. According to Pashupati Purana, as a place protected by Ne, the country in the heart of the Himalayas came to be known as Nepal.[b] According to Nepal Mahatmya,[c] Nemi was charged with protection of the country by Pashupati. According to Buddhist mythology, Manjushri Bodhisattva drained a primordial lake of serpents to create the Nepal valley and proclaimed that Adi-Buddha Ne would take care of the community that would settle it. As the cherished of Ne, the valley would be called Nepal. According to Gopalarajvamshavali, the genealogy of ancient Gopala dynasty compiled circa 1380s, Nepal is named after Nepa the cowherd, the founder of the Nepali scion of the Abhiras. In this account, the cow that issued milk to the spot, at which Nepa discovered the Jyotirlinga of Pashupatinath upon investigation, was also named Ne.
Norwegian Indologist Christian Lassen proposed that Nepala was a compound of Nipa (foot of a mountain) and -ala (short suffix for alaya which means abode), and therefore, Nepala meant "abode at the foot of the mountain". He considered Ne Muni to be a fabrication. Indologist Sylvain Levi found Lassen's theory untenable but had no theories of his own, only suggesting that either Newara is a vulgarism of sanskritic Nepala, or Nepala is Sanskritisation of the local ethnic. Levi's view has some support in later works. The idea that Nepal is a polished form of Newar, the name of the indigenous people of Kathmandu valley, may be gaining support, but it leaves the question of etymology unanswered. One theory proposes that Nepa is a Tibeto-Burman stem consisting of Ne (cattle) and Pa (keeper), which alludes to the fact that early inhabitants of the valley were Gopalas (cowherds) and Mahispalas (buffalo-herds). Suniti Kumar Chatterji thought that 'Nepal' originated from Tibeto-Burman roots- Ne, of uncertain meaning (as multiple possibilities exist), and pala or bal, whose meaning is lost entirely.
Nepal is mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa and in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. Nepal is also mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja and the regional text "Nepal Mahatmya" which claims to be a part of Skanda Purana. The Gopal Bansa were likely one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley. The earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas (Kirata Kingdom), peoples often mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings ruling over 16 centuries.
Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who later renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, and came to be known as Gautama Buddha (traditionally dated 563–483 BCE). By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and later became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have ruled Nepal after the Kirat monarchical dynasty. The context that "Suryavansi Kshetriyas had established a new regime by defeating the Kirats" can be found in some genealogies and Puranas. It is not clear yet when the Lichhavi dynasty was established in Nepal. According to the opinion of Baburam Acharya, the prominent historian of Nepal, Lichhavies established their independent rule by abolishing the Kirati state that prevailed in Nepal around 250 CE.
The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late 8th century, and was followed by a Newar or Thakuri era. Thakuri kings ruled over the country up to the middle of the 12th century CE; King Raghav Dev is said to have founded the ruling dynasty in October 869 CE. King Raghav Dev also started the Nepal Sambat.
In the early 12th century, leaders emerged in far western Nepal whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla ("wrestler"). These kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200 years, until the kingdom splintered into two dozen petty states. Another Malla dynasty beginning with Jayasthiti emerged in the Kathmandu valley in the late 14th century, and much of central Nepal again came under a unified rule. In 1482, the realm was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur.
Unification of Nepal
In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present-day Nepal. He embarked on his mission by securing the neutrality of the bordering mountain kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur, he managed to conquer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. A detailed account of Prithvi Narayan Shah's victory was written by Father Giuseppe, an eyewitness to the war.
The Gorkha control reached its height when the North Indian territories of the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms in the west to Sikkim in the east came under Nepalese control. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Qing Emperor of China to start the Sino-Nepali War compelling the Nepali to retreat and pay heavy reparations to Peking.
Rivalry between the Kingdom of Nepal and the East India Company over the control of states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepali War (1815–16). At first, the British underestimated the Nepali and were soundly defeated until committing more military resources than they had anticipated needing. Thus began the reputation of Gurkhas as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Sugauli Treaty, under which Nepal ceded recently captured lands as well as the right to recruit soldiers. Madhesis, having supported the East India Company during the war, had their lands gifted to Nepal.
Rana autocratic regime
Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of instability. In 1846, a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Bahadur Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot massacre; armed clashes between military personnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Jung Bahadur Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana dynasty, later known as Jung Bahadur Rana. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (and later in both World Wars). Some parts of the Terai region populated with non-Nepali peoples were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture because of her military help to sustain British control in India during the rebellion. In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship that superseded the Sugauli Treaty of 1816.
In the late 1940s, newly emerging pro-democracy movements and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy. Meanwhile, with the invasion of Tibet by China in the 1950s, India sought to counterbalance the perceived military threat from its northern neighbour by taking pre-emptive steps to assert more influence in Nepal. India sponsored both King Tribhuvan (ruled 1911–1955) as Nepal's new ruler in 1951 and a new government, mostly comprising the Nepali Congress, thus terminating Rana hegemony in the kingdom.
After years of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra (ruled 1955–1972) scrapped the democratic experiment in 1959, and a "partyless" Panchayat system was made to govern Nepal until 1989, when the "Jan Andolan" (People's Movement) forced King Birendra (ruled 1972–2001) to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament that took seat in May 1991. In 1991–92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 Bhutanese citizens of Nepali descent, most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since.
In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal started a violent bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people's republic. This led to the long Nepali Civil War and more than 12,000 deaths. On 1 June 2001, there was a massacre in the royal palace. King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and seven other members of the royal family were killed. The alleged perpetrator Crown Prince Dipendra, who allegedly committed suicide shortly thereafter, was briefly declared king for three days while he was in coma. Following the carnage, King Birendra's brother Gyanendra inherited the throne. On 1 February 2005, King Gyanendra dismissed the elected government and legislature, assuming full executive powers to quash the violent Maoist movement. But this initiative was unsuccessful because a stalemate had developed in which the Maoists were firmly entrenched in large expanses of countryside but could not yet dislodge the military from numerous towns and the largest cities. In September 2005, the Maoists declared a three-month unilateral ceasefire to negotiate.
In response to the 2006 democracy movement, King Gyanendra agreed to relinquish sovereign power to the people. On 24 April 2006 the dissolved House of Representatives was reinstated. Using its newly acquired sovereign authority, on 18 May 2006 the House of Representatives unanimously voted to curtail the power of the king and declared Nepal a secular state, ending its time-honoured official status as a Hindu Kingdom. On 28 December 2007, a bill was passed in parliament to amend Article 159 of the constitution – replacing "Provisions regarding the King" by "Provisions of the Head of the State" – declaring Nepal a federal republic, and thereby abolishing the monarchy. The bill came into force on 28 May 2008.
Following the declaration of the federal republic, an election was held for the Constituent Assembly that would draft a new constitution. A period of instability followed; with changing governments, and various nationalist movements and popular protests demanding for ethnic autonomy; the political deadlock meant the constituent assembly failed to adopt a constitution within the stipulated time. The Constituent Assembly was dissolved in May 2012. A second election for a new Constituent Assembly was held in 2013 under a non-partisan government led by former Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi. On 25 April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal followed by a 7.3 magnitude aftershock two weeks later, causing a combined death toll of 8,500, about 21,000 injuries and material loss amounting to a third of the country's annual Gross Domestic Product. The Constitution of Nepal, passed with a 90% majority was announced in 20 September 2015 making Nepal a federal democratic republic divided into seven unnamed provinces. It was, however, rejected by the Madhesi nationalist parties, who intensified their protests, leading to an unofficial economic blockade by the Government of India. By February 2016, an amendment had been agreed between India and Nepal, and the Madhesis slowly backed down after it was passed by parliament. The elections for the local, provincial and federal levels of government were held in 2017 and Nepal Communist Party emerged as the ruling party with a strong majority at the federal level, as well as six of the seven provinces.
Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal shape, about 800 kilometres (500 mi) long and 200 kilometres (120 mi) wide, with an area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi). It lies between latitudes 26° and 31°N, and longitudes 80° and 89°E. Nepal's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east. Simultaneously, the vast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate. These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas. Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Nepal lies almost completely within this collision zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi)-long Himalayas, with a small strip of southernmost Nepal stretching into the Indo-Gangetic plain and two districts in the northwest stretching up to the Tibetan plateau.
Nepal is divided into three principal physiographic belts known as Himal-Pahad-Terai.[d] Himal is the mountain region containing snow and situated in the Great Himalayan Range; it makes up the northern part of Nepal. It contains the highest elevations in the world including 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) height Mount Everest (Sagarmāthā in Nepali) on the border with China. Seven other of the world's "eight-thousanders" are in Nepal or on its border with China: Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Kangchenjunga, Dhaulagiri, Annapurna and Manaslu. Pahad is the mountain region that does not generally contain snow. The mountains vary from 800 to 4,000 metres (2,600 to 13,100 ft) in altitude, with progression from subtropical climates below 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) to alpine climates above 3,600 metres (11,800 ft). The Lower Himalayan Range, reaching 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900 to 9,800 ft), is the southern limit of this region, with subtropical river valleys and "hills" alternating to the north of this range. Population density is high in valleys but notably less above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and very low above 2,500 metres (8,200 ft), where snow occasionally falls in winter. The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Terai is the lowland region containing some hill ranges. The plains were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan rivers: the Koshi, the Narayani, and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline. This region has subtropical to tropical climate. The outermost range of the foothills called Sivalik Hills or Churia Range, cresting at 700 to 1,000 metres (2,300 to 3,280 ft), marks the limits of the Gangetic Plain; however broad, low valleys called Inner Terai Valleys (Bhitri Tarai Upatyaka) lie north of these foothills in several places.
The Indian plate continues to move north relative to Asia at about 50 mm (2.0 in) per year. This makes Nepal an earthquake prone zone, and periodic earthquakes that have devastating consequences present a significant hurdle to development. Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows to the Indian Ocean. Saptakoshi, in particular, carries huge amount of silt out of Nepal but sees extreme drop in Gradient in Bihar, causing severe floods and course changes, and is therefore, known as the sorrow of Bihar. Severe flooding and landslides cause deaths and disease, destroy farmlands and cripple the transport infrastructure of the country, during the monsoon season each year.
Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical zones lie below 1,200 metres (3,900 ft), the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 metres (3,900 to 7,900 ft), the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 metres (7,900 to 11,800 ft), the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 metres (11,800 to 14,400 ft), and the Arctic zone above 4,400 metres (14,400 ft). Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. The Himalayas block cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and form the northern limits of the monsoon wind patterns.
Nepal contains a disproportionately large diversity of plants and animals, relative to its size. Nepal, in its entirety, forms the western portion of the eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, with notable biocultural diversity. The dramatic differences in elevation found in Nepal (60 m from sea level in the Terai plains, to 8,848 m Mount Everest) result in a variety of biomes. Eastern half of Nepal is richer in biodiversity as it receives more rain, compared to western parts, where arctic desert-type conditions are more common at higher elevations. Nepal is a habitat for 4.0% of all mammal species, 8.9% of bird species, 1.0% of reptile species, 2.5% of amphibian species, 1.9% of fish species, 3.7% of butterfly species, 0.5% of moth species and 0.4% of spider species. In its 35 forest-types and 118 ecosystems,[e] Nepal harbours 2% of the flowering plant species, 3% of pteridophytes and 6% of bryophytes.
Nepal's forest cover is 59,624 km2 (23,021 sq mi), 40.36% of the country's total land area, with an additional 4.38% of scrubland, for a total forested area of 44.74%, an increase of 5% since the turn of the millennium. In the southern plains, Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion contains some of the world's tallest grasses as well as Sal forests, tropical evergreen forests and tropical riverine deciduous forests. In the lower hills (700 m – 2,000 m), subtropical and temperate deciduous mixed forests containing mostly Sal (in the lower altitudes), Chilaune and Katus, as well as subtropical pine forest dominated by Chir pine are common. The middle hills (2,000 m – 3,000 m) are dominated by Oak and Rhododendron. Subalpine coniferous forests cover the 3,000 m to 3,500 m range, dominated by Oak (particularly in the west), Eastern Himalayan fir, Himalayan pine and Himalayan hemlock; Rhododendron is common as well. Above 3,500 m in the west and 4,000 m in the east, coniferous trees give way to Rhododendron-dominated alpine shrubs and meadows.
Among the notable trees, are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine, and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepal, which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro, and under which Gautam Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment. Rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal.
Most of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of the lower himalayan region is descended from the tethyan tertiary flora. As the Indian plate collided with Eurasia forming and raising the Himalayas, the arid and semi-arid mediterranean flora was pushed up and adapted to the more alpine climate over the next 40–50 million years. The Himalayan biodiversity hotspot was the site of mass exchange and intermingling of the Indian and Eurasian species in the neogene. One mammal species (Himalayan field mouse), two each of bird and reptile species, nine amphibian, eight fish and 29 butterfly species are endemic to Nepal.[f]
Nepal contains 107 IUCN-designated threatened species, 88 of them animal species, 18 plant species and one species of "fungi or protist" group. These include the endangered Bengal tiger, the Red panda, the Asiatic elephant, the Himalayan musk deer, the Wild water buffalo and the South Asian river dolphin, as well as the critically endangered Gharial, the Bengal florican, and the White-rumped Vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Nepali wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1973 with the enactment of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973, was substantially expanded. Vulture restaurants coupled with a ban on veterinary usage of diclofenac has seen a rise in the number of white-rumped vultures. The community forestry program which has seen a third of the country's population directly participate in managing a quarter of the total forested area, has helped the local economies while reducing human-wildlife conflict. The breeding programmes coupled with community-assisted military patrols, and a crackdown on poaching and smuggling, has seen poaching of critically endangered tigers and elephants as well as vulnerable rhinos, among others, go down to effectively zero, and their numbers have steadily increased. Nepal has ten national parks, three wildlife reserves, one hunting reserve, three conservation areas and eleven buffer zones, covering a total area of 28,959.67 km2 (11,181.39 sq mi), or 19.67% of the total land area, while ten wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.
Politics and government
Nepal is a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. It has four political parties recognised in the federal parliament: Nepal Communist Party (NCP), Nepali Congress (NC), Samajbadi Party Nepal (SPN) and Rastriya Janata Party Nepal (RJPN). While all major parties officially espouse democratic socialism, NCP is considered leftist while Nepali Congress is considered centrist, with most considering it center-left and some center-right. The minor party SPN is leftist and RJPN is center-right to right-wing. During most of the brief periods of democratic exercise in the 1950s as well as the 1990s, Nepali Congress held a majority in parliament. Following the entry of the Maoists into the political process, they were the largest party in the first constituent assembly and Nepali Congress was the largest in the second, with no party winning a majority. In the aftermath of the 2017 elections, the first one according to the new constitution, NCP has become the ruling party at the federal level as well as six out of seven provinces. While Nepali Congress has a significantly reduced representation, it is the only major opposition to the ruling communist party in all levels of government.
Early politics in the Kingdom of Nepal was characterised by factionalism, conspiracies and murders, including two major massacres.[g] After almost a century of power-wrangling among the prominent Basnyat, Pande and Thapa families, a fast-rising military leader Bir Narsingh Kunwar[h] emerged on top in the aftermath of the Kot massacre, and established the Rana autocratic regime which consolidated powers of the King as well as prime minister and reigned for another century, with a policy of oppression and isolationism. By the 1930s, Nepali expatriates in India had started smuggling in writings on political philosophies, which gave birth to a vibrant underground political movement in the capital, birthing Nepal Praja Parishad in 1939, which was dissolved only two years later, following the execution of the four great martyrs. Around the same time, Nepalis involved in the Indian Independence Movement started organising into political parties, leading to the birth of Nepali Congress and Communist Party of Nepal. Following Indian Independence, Nepali Congress was successful in overthrowing the Rana regime with support from the Indian government and cooperation from the king. While communism was still trying to find its footing, Nepali Congress enjoyed overwhelming support of the electorate. Following a brief ten-year exercise in democracy, another partyless autocracy was initiated, this time by the King, who deposed the democratically elected government of Nepali Congress, imposed or exiled prominent leaders and issued a ban on party politics.
Many political parties and their leaders remained underground or in exile for the next 30 years of partyless politics in Nepal. BP Koirala was released from prison in 1968 and went into exile in Benaras, returning in 1976 only to immediately be put in house arrest. Although an armed insurgency launched by the major communist faction called the Jhapa movement had failed comprehensively by 1971, it formed the foundation for the dominant communist power, CPN ML, that was officially launched in 1978. A general referendum was held in 1980, which saw the CPN ML campaign for the option of multi-party democracy, along with Nepali Congress, but the Panchayat System was declared the winner to significant controversy. The Panchayat rule saw governments led by a group of monarchy loyalists taking turns, with Surya Bahadur Thapa, Tulsi Giri and Kirti Nidhi Bista becoming prime minister three times each, among others. It introduced a number of reforms, built infrastructures and modernised the country, while significantly curtailing political freedom, imposing the Nepali language and khas culture to the oppression of all others, and spreading Indophobic propaganda the effects of which are experienced to the present day.
In 1990, the joint civil resistance launched by the United left front and Nepali Congress was successful in overthrowing the Panchayat, and the country became a constitutional monarchy. The United Left Front became CPN UML. The Panchayat loyalists formed National Democratic Party which emerged as the third major party. While Nepali Congress ran the government for most of the next ten years of democracy that followed, democracy was mostly a disappointment owing to the immature democratic culture and political infighting in the capital, as well as the civil war that followed the guerrilla insurgency launched by the Maoist Party. Following a four-year autocratic rule by King Gyanendra that failed to defeat the Maoists, a mass civil protest was launched by a coalition of the maoists and the political parties in 2006, which forced the king to stepped down, brought the maoists to the peace process, and established a democratic republic by 2008.
Following the political consensus to draft the new constitution of the Republic via a constituent assembly, Nepali politics saw a rise of nationalist groups and ideologies. While the political power-wrangling caused continuous instability, maintaining the established average of nine months per government, this period saw two constituent assembly elections and the rise of Madhesi nationalist parties, especially in the Eastern Terai region. By 2015, the new constitution had been promulgated and Nepal became "a federal democratic republic striving towards democratic socialism". In 2017, a series of elections were held according to the new constitution, which established Nepal Communist Party (NCP) (formally united after the election) as the ruling party at the federal level as well as six of the seven provinces, Nepali Congress as the only significant opposition in federal and provincial levels, while the Madhesi coalition formed the provincial government in Province No. 2, but boasts negligible presence in the rest of the country.
Nepal is governed according to the Constitution of Nepal, which came into effect on 20 September 2015. It defines Nepal as having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural characteristics with common aspirations of people living in diverse geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a bond of allegiance to the national independence, territorial integrity, national interest, and prosperity of Nepal. All Nepali people collectively constitute the state.
- Executive: The form of governance of Nepal is a multi-party, competitive, federal democratic republican parliamentary system based on plurality. The executive power of Nepal rests with the Council of Ministers in accordance with the Constitution and Nepali law. The President appoints the parliamentary party leader of the political party with the majority in the House of Representatives as a Prime Minister, and a Council of Ministers is formed in his/her chairmanship. The executive power of the provinces, pursuant to the Constitution and laws, is vested in the Council of Ministers of the province. The executive power of the province shall be exercised by the province Head in case of absence of the province Executive in a State of Emergency or enforcement of Federal rule. Every province has a ceremonial Head as the representative of the Federal government. The President appoints a Governor for every province. The Governor exercises the rights and duties as specified in the constitution or laws. The Governor appoints the leader of the parliamentary party with the majority in the Provincial Assembly as the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers are formed under the chairpersonship of the Chief Minister.
- Legislature: The Legislature of Nepal, called Federal Parliament, consists of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the National Assembly. The term of House of Representatives is five years. The House of Representatives consists of 275 members: 165 members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies; 110 elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency. The National Assembly is a permanent house. The tenure of members of National Assembly is six years. The National Assembly consists of 59 members: 56 members elected from an Electoral College, comprising members of provincial Assembly and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each province, including at least three women, one Dalit, and one person with a disability or a member of a minority. Three members, including at least one woman, are to be nominated by the President on the recommendation of the Government of Nepal. A Provincial Assembly is the unicameral legislative assembly for a federated province. The term for the Provincial Assembly is five years.
- Judiciary: Powers relating to justice in Nepal are exercised by courts and other judicial institutions in accordance with the provisions of the constitution, other laws, and recognised principles of justice. Nepal has a unitary three-tier independent judiciary that comprises the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Nepal, 7 High Courts, and a large number of trial courts. The supreme court is the highest court in the land. The high court is the highest court in each province. There are district courts, one in each district below the high courts. The local governments may convene local judicial bodies to resolve disputes and render non-binding verdicts on cases not involving actionable crime. The actions and proceedings of the local judicial bodies may be guided and countermanded by the district courts.
Nepal is a federal republic comprising 7 provinces. Each province is composed of 8 to 14 districts. The districts, in turn, comprise local units known as urban and rural municipalities. There is a total of 753 local units which includes 6 metropolitan municipalities, 11 sub-metropolitan municipalities and 276 municipalities for a total of 293 urban municipalities, and 460 rural municipalities. Each local unit is composed of wards. There are 6,743 wards in total.
The local governments enjoy executive and legislative as well as limited judicial powers in their local jurisdiction. The provinces have unicameral parliamentary westminster system of governance. The local and provincial governments exercise some absolute powers and some powers shared with provincial and federal governments as applicable, as listed in the constitution of Nepal. The laws enacted by local governments may not contradict existing laws at the provincial and federal levels or the national constitution. Similarly, provincial legislature may not enact laws contradicting federal laws or the national constitution. The powers not listed in the constitution are exercised by the federal government. The district coordination committee, a committee composed of all elected officials from the local governments in the district, has a very limited role.
|1||Province No. 1||Biratnagar||14||25,905 km2||4,534,943||175|
|2||Province No. 2||Janakpur||8||9,661 km2||5,404,145||559|
|3||Bagmati Pradesh||Hetauda||13||20,300 km2||5,529,452||272|
|4||Gandaki Pradesh||Pokhara||11||21,504 km2||2,413,907||112|
|5||Province No. 5||Butwal||12||22,288 km2||4,891,025||219|
|6||Karnali Pradesh||Birendranagar||10||27,984 km2||1,168,515||41|
|7||Sudurpashchim Pradesh||Godavari||9||19,539 km2||2,552,517||130|
Laws and law enforcement
The Constitution of Nepal is the supreme law of the land, and any other laws contradicting it are automatically invalid to the extent of the contradiction. The specific legal provisions are codified as Civil Code and Criminal Code, accompanied by Civil Procedure Code and Criminal Procedure Code respectively. Other laws may be enacted by the parliament at all levels of government to supplement but not supersede these laws and other laws enacted by the higher level parliaments, as applicable. The Supreme Court is the highest authority in the interpretation of laws and it can direct the parliament to amend or enact new laws as required. Nepali laws are considered generally more progressive compared to other third world countries, and in some instances, even some countries of the first world. Nepal has abolished the death penalty. It also has made progress in LGBT rights and gender equality. It recognises marital rape and supports abortion rights; however because of the rise in sex-selective abortion, constraints have been introduced. Nepal is a signatory to the Geneva Convention, Conventions/Treaties on the prohibition of Biological, Chemical and Nuclear weapons, International Labour Organisation Fundamental Conventions, Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as the Paris climate accord. Some legal provisions that are guided by socio-economic, cultural and religious sensibilities remain discriminatory. There is gender based discrimination against foreign nationals married to Nepali citizens.[i] Paternal lineage of a person is valued and required in legal documents. Many laws remain unenforced in practice.
Nepal Police is the primary law enforcement agency of Nepal. It is an independent organisation under the command of the Inspector General of Police, who is appointed by and reports to the Home ministry. Nepal police is responsible for maintaining law and order in the country. It is also responsible for traffic management in the country, which is done by the special subdivision, the Nepal traffic police force. Nepal Armed Police Force, a separate paramilitary police organisation works in cooperation with Nepal police, assisting the latter in maintaining checkpoints, border security, patrols, crowd control in case of violent protests, security of vital assets, counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism actions, as well as any other internal security matter that requires use of force. The Crime Investigation Department is the special branch of Nepal Police that specialises in criminal investigation and forensic analysis, which maintains an investigative team in every district of the country and is called in when normal police procedures and investigations prove insufficient in resolving a case. The National Investigation Department of Nepal is an independent intelligence organisation which gathers intelligence relevant to internal security and law enforcement, as part of its mandate. The Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority is an independent investigative agency that investigates and prosecutes cases related to corruption and bribery, in addition to the abuse of authority by government officials and officeholders. Nepal is ranked 76 out of 163 countries in Global Peace Index (GPI) as of 2019.
Foreign economic and strategic relations
Nepal pursues a policy of "balanced relations" with the two giant immediate neighbours, India and China, even though it shares an unparalleled socio-cultural ties with India and the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between two provides for a much closer relationship between them. Nepal and India share an open border with free movement of people, religious, cultural and marital ties, and each boasts Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimages widely visited by citizens of the other. Nepal's currency is permanently pegged to the Indian currency and most of the third-country trade of Nepal is carried out via Indian ports. Millions of people from Nepal reside in India for education and work, and vice versa. India is Nepal's largest trading partner, and Nepal imports all of its oil and gas, and almost all of a number of other essential supplies including medicine, from India. Nepalis, prominently, participated in the Indian Independence Movement, and India closely monitors and seeks to influence Nepal's internal politics, which has led to India playing indispensable roles in all of Nepal's democratic movements, while on some occasions, India's unwelcome interventions in Nepal's politics has given rise to a significant skepticism regarding India's intentions and strengthened anti-India sentiment in Nepal. Nepalis serve in the Gurkha battalions of the Indian army and have fought in India's wars. Nepalis can own property in India, while Indians are free to live and work in Nepal. While Nepal votes independently in international forums, and India and Nepal often disagree in such votes, Nepal has made a commitment to seek India's approval on any purchase of military weapons from third countries, while India unilaterally considers smaller countries in South Asia including Nepal as under its security sphere, requiring military protection. Nepal's long-term grievances against India stem from India's interference in Nepal's internal politics, the 1950 treaty that is seen as unfair to Nepal, alleged border encroachment and harassment by Indian border security force, flooding caused by river dams controlled by India, and India's willingness to blockade Nepal to force its agenda. India has expressed concern with Nepal's apathy toward alleged cross-border terrorism carried out by Pakistani terrorists based in Nepal, Nepal's refusal to acknowledge support for India during India-China conflict and Nepal's recognition of Chinese claim over Tibet, and the alleged use of anti-India propaganda by Nepali politicians for political gain, among others.
Nepal established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China on 1 August 1955, signing the Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1960, and relations since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Nepal has always maintained neutrality in conflicts between China and India. It remains firmly committed to the One China Policy, and is known to curb anti-China activities from the Tibetan refugees in Nepal. Citizens of both countries can cross the border and travel as far as 30 km without a visa. China is viewed favorably in Nepal because of the latter's assistance in infrastructure development, absence of any border disputes or serious interference in internal politics, aid during natural disasters, and favorability has increased since 2015, when China helped Nepal during the economic blockade imposed by India. Since then, Nepal and China have moved closer on trade and connectivity, with China granting Nepal access to its ports for third country trade, and Nepal joining China's ambitious Belt and Road Initiative with plans for expansive road and railway projects.
Nepal emphasizes greater cooperation in the South Asia region and actively pushed for the establishment of SAARC, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, the permanent secretariat of which, is hosted in Kathmandu. Nepal was one of the first countries to recognise an independent Bangladesh, and the two countries seek to enhance greater cooperation, on trade and water management; seaports in Bangladesh which are closer to Nepal, are seen as viable alternatives to India's monopoly on Nepal's third country trade. Nepal's relationship with Bhutan has become acrimonious since Bhutan carried out an ethnic cleansing against its citizens of Nepali origin in the early 1990s, most of whom have been resettled in third countries after decades of efforts to repatriate them failed. Nepal was the first South Asian country to establish diplomatic relations with Israel, and the countries enjoy a strong relationship. However, Nepal also recognises the rights of the Palestinians, and has voted in favor of recognising Palestine at the UN and against the recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital. Other countries that Nepal maintains a close relationship with, includes countries that are the most generous donors and development partners of Nepal, namely, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Japan and Norway, among others.
The President is the supreme commander of the Nepalese Army, although its routine management is handled by the Ministry of Defence. Nepal's military expenditure for 2018 was $398.5 million, around 1.4% of its GDP. The age of qualification for the military service which is voluntary, is 18 years. Nepal Army, an almost exclusively ground infantry force, which numbers at less than one hundred thousand, has few aircraft, mainly helicopters, primarily used for transport, patrol and search and rescue. Directorate of Military Intelligence is the military intelligence agency under Nepal Army, while National Investigation Department is the independent intelligence agency tasked with national and international intelligence gathering. As the military of an underdeveloped small country sandwiched between two superpowers, Nepal Army is not maintained as a national defence force against foreign aggression, but rather for routine security of critical assets, anti-poaching activities in national parks, internal security in times of crisis, like civil war, terrorism, etc. and for search and rescue during natural disasters. Nepal Army also undertakes construction projects. While there are no officially sanctioned discriminatory policies on recruitment, except on the basis of physical or mental fitness and age, but reservations for marginalised groups instead, the army is dominated by the elite Pahari warrior castes, women form an abysmal minority and there are allegations of discrimination against sexual minorities, in practice. Nepal mainly depends on diplomacy for national defence. Nepal has always maintained a policy of neutrality between its neighbours, has amicable relations with other countries in the region, and has pursued a policy of non-alignment at the global stage. In addition to the SAARC and the UN, Nepal is also a member of WTO, BIMSTEC and ACD, among others. It conducts joint military exercises with China, India and the United States. Nepal has bilateral diplomatic relations with 167 countries and the EU, has embassies in 30 countries and six consulates, while 25 countries maintain their embassies in Nepal, and more than 80 other countries maintain non-residential diplomatic missions. Nepal is one of the major contributors to the UN Peacekeeping Missions having contributed more than 119,000 personnel to 42 missions since 1958. Nepali people have a reputation for honesty, loyalty and bravery, which has led to Nepalese citizens serving as the legendary Gurkha warriors in the Indian and British armies for the last 200 years, who have fought in both world wars, India-Pakistan wars as well as being deployed in both Afghanistan and Iraq, even though Nepal was not directly involved in any of those conflicts, and winning the highest military awards including the Victoria Cross and the Param Vir Chakra. Many Nepali migrant workers are recruited as security guards, while Singapore Police Force also maintains a Gurkha contingent of Nepali recruits, owing to the same legendary reputation of the Nepali people.
Nepal's gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018 was estimated at $28.8 billion. With an annual growth rate calculated at 6.3% in 2018, and expected to reach 7.1% in 2019, Nepal is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. However, the country ranks 165th in the world[j] in nominal GDP per capita and 162nd[k] in GDP per capita at PPP. Nepal has been a member of WTO since 23 April 2004.
The 16.8-million-worker Nepali labour force is the 37th largest in the world, as of 2017. The primary sector makes up 27.59% of GDP, the secondary sector 14.6%, and the tertiary sector 57.81%. Nepal's foreign exchange remittances of US$8.1 billion in 2018, the 19th largest in the world and constituting 28.0% of GDP, were contributed to its economy by millions of workers primarily in India, the middle east and East Asia, almost all of them unskilled labourers. Major agricultural products include cereals (barley, maize, millet, paddy and wheat), oilseed, potato, pulses, sugarcane, jute, tobacco, milk and water buffalo meat. Major industries include tourism, carpets, textiles, cigarettes, cement, brick, as well as small rice, jute, sugar and oilseed mills. Nepal's international trade greatly expanded in 1951 with the establishment of democracy; liberalisation began in 1985 and picked up pace after 1990. By the fiscal year 2016/17, Nepal's foreign trade amounted Rs 1.06 trillion, a twenty-three folds increase from Rs 45.6 billion in 1990/91. More than 60% of Nepal's trade is with India. Major exports include readymade garment, carpet, pulses, handicrafts, leather, medicinal herbs, and paper products, which account for 90% of the total. Major imports include various finished and semi-finished goods, raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemical fertilizers, electrical and electronic devices, petroleum products, gold, and readymade garments. Inflation was at 4.5% in 2019. Foreign exchange reserves were at US$9.5 billion in July 2019, equivalent to 7.8 months of imports.
Nepal has made significant progress in poverty reduction bringing the population below the international poverty line (US$1.90 per person per day) from 15% in 2010 to just 9.3% in 2018, although vulnerability remains extremely high, with almost 32% of the population living on between US$1.90 and US$3.20 per person per day. Nepal has made improvement in sectors like nutrition, child mortality, electricity, improved flooring and assets. If the progress of reducing poverty continues at this rate, then it is predicted that Nepal will halve the current poverty rate and eradicate it within the next 20 years. The income distribution remains grossly uneven. The agriculture sector is particularly vulnerable as it is highly dependent on the monsoon rains, with just 28% of the arable land being irrigated, As of 2014[update]. Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18%, and manufacturing and craft-based industry 6%. Private investment, consumption, tourism and agriculture are the principal contributors to economic growth.
The government's budget is about $13.71 billion (FY 2019/20), but expenditure of infrastructure development budget usually fails to meet the target, and most of the development budget is hurriedly spent in the last months of the fiscal year when the monsoon and hurried work results in sub-par quality of construction. The Nepali rupee has been tied to the Indian rupee at an exchange rate of 1.6 for many years. Since the loosening of exchange rate controls in the early 1990s, the black market for foreign exchange has all but disappeared. A long-standing economic agreement underpins a close relationship with India. The country receives foreign aid from the UK, India, Japan, the US, the EU, China, Switzerland, and Scandinavian countries. Per capita income is $1,004. The distribution of wealth among the Nepalis is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the national wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%. European Union (EU) (46.13%), the US (17.4%), and Germany (7.1%) are its main export partners. The European Union has emerged the largest buyer of Nepali ready-made garments (RMG). Exports to the EU accounted for "46.13 percent of the country's total garment exports". Nepal's import partners include India (47.5%), the United Arab Emirates (11.2%), China (10.7%), Saudi Arabia (4.9%), and Singapore (4%).
Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tangible natural resources and poor infrastructure, the ineffective post-1950 government and the long-running civil war are also factors in stunting the country's economic growth and development. Debt bondage even involving debtors' children has been a persistent social problem in the western hills and the Terai, with an estimated 234,600 people or 0.82% of the population considered as enslaved, by The Global Slavery Index in 2016.
Tourism is one of the largest industries in Nepal, employing more than a million people and contributing 7.9% of the total GDP. It is also one of the fastest-growing. The number of international visitors crossed one million in 2018 for the first time (not counting Indian tourists arriving by land), a 59% increase from 736,000 in the Nepal Tourism Year 2011, despite setbacks from the devastating 2015 earthquake. Domestic tourism has witnessed a sharp increase since the earthquake, contributing 56% of the total tourism earnings in 2018. Nepal is home to four world heritage sites: Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, Sagarmatha National Park which includes Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, seven monuments in the Kathmandu Valley collectively listed as one, and Chitwan National Park. Most of the country's tourism is confined to these destinations, in addition to Pokhara, the Annapurna trekking circuit, and other Himalayan mountains which attract mountaineers and sightseers from around the world. Although Nepal is home to eight of the fourteen eight-thousanders, all among the ten tallest mountains in the world, most of Nepal's mountaineering earnings comes from Mt Everest, which is more accessible from the Nepalese side. Despite a vast potential for spiritual and cultural as well as mountaineering and eco-tourism, Nepal's share of foreign tourists visiting South Asia is only about 6%, and tourists spend much less on average, with Nepal sharing only 1.7% of the total tourism earnings of South Asia. The largest contributors of foreign tourists to Nepal are India (16%), China (12%), the United States (8%), Sri Lanka (7%) and the United Kingdom (6%).[l]
Nepal's tourism sector officially opened for westerners in 1951 but remained seriously hindered by a lack of proper planning and investment, continuous political instability. Once a popular final destination at the end of the hippie trail with legalised marijuana and hashish shops in Kathmandu, Nepali tourism was at its lowest during the civil war in the 1990s. Enthused by the upsurge since the peace process began, Nepal aims to welcome two million tourists in 2020, double the 2018 figures, via the concerted Visit Nepal 2020 initiative. With a lack of proper facilities for high-end tourism termed the "infrastructure bottleneck", the flag carrier in shambles and blacklisted by the developed countries, and with only a small number of popular destinations properly developed and marketed, the goal is considered too ambitious. The home-stay tourism, in which cultural and eco-tourists stay as paying guests in the homes of indigenous people, considered a more equitable and viable means of developing the sector, has seen some success. Lumbini and other Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimages including Pashupati temple, Swayambhu and Boudhanath in Kathmandu, Muktinath in Mustang, and Janakpurdham, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Videha and home to goddess Sita, are among the premier destinations for the development of spiritual, religious and cultural tourism. Diversifying eco-tourism by developing and marketing less popular national parks, trekking routes and mountains are considered essential for the growth of the industry.
The rate of unemployment and underemployment exceeds half of the working-age population. Thus, many Nepali citizens move to other countries in search of work. Destinations include India, the GCC countries, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan. In addition, thousands of well-educated people migrate to developed countries, like the United States, Australia and the UK for higher studies and work, half of whom never return. Most of the workers employed in India, the middle east and East Asia are unskilled labourers from very poor families. Many of them are swindled by the manpower companies and sent to exploitative employers or war-ridden countries under fraudulent contracts, in breach of government restrictions. In an extreme such case, in 2004, 12 Nepalese migrant workers travelling to an American base in Iraq through a third country, were kidnapped by terrorists and executed on video. Nepalese workers have their passports seized upon arrival by their employer and only returned when they are allowed to return by the employer's consent. Due to Nepal's failure to secure rights for its workers, most Nepalese don't get paid minimum wage, and many are forced to return without being paid all or part of the wages. Many Nepalese work in extremely unsafe conditions; an average of two Nepalese workers die each day. The proportion of women participation in foreign employment is increasing. Due to restrictions placed on women, many are forced to depend on traffickers to get out of the country, and end up victims of violence and abuse. Many Nepalese are believed to be working under slavery-like conditions, and Nepal spends billions of rupees rescuing stranded workers, on remuneration to the indebted families of the dead and legal costs for those who get jailed in foreign countries.
Foreign employment is the largest source of foreign exchanges for Nepal. Due to millions of missing men, women have been left to attend to the farm and livestock, take care of the families, and raise children, all by themselves. Nepal's population growth rate has remained lower than projected, in part, due to the same. Although millions of families have been raised out of poverty by foreign employment, due to a lack of entrepreneurial skills, the earnings that workers bring back to Nepal are mostly spent on real estate and consumption.
The bulk of energy in Nepal comes from biomass (80%) and imported fossil fuels (16%). Most of the final energy consumption goes to the residential sector (84%) followed by transport (7%) and industry (6%), but the transport and industry sectors have been expanding rapidly in recent years. Except for some lignite deposits, Nepal has no known oil, gas or coal deposits. All commercial fossil fuels (mainly oil, LPG and coal) are imported, spending 129% of the country's total export revenue. Only about 1% of the energy need is fulfilled by electricity. The perennial nature of Nepali rivers and the steep gradient of the country's topography provide ideal conditions for the development of hydroelectric projects. Estimates put Nepal's economically feasible hydropower potential at approximately 42,000 MW. However, Nepal has been able to exploit only about 1,100 MW. As most of it is generated from run-of-river (ROR) plants, the actual power produced is much lower in the dry winter months when peak demand can reach as high as 1,200 MW, and Nepal needs to import as much as 650 MW from India to meet the demands. Nepal aims to bring enough hydropower projects into operation by the end of 2019 to go into surplus, but major hydropower projects have continued to suffer delays and setbacks. Nepal's electrification rate (76%) is comparable to that of other countries in the region but there is significant disparity between the rural (72%) and urban (97%) areas. The position of the power sector remains unsatisfactory because of high tariffs, high system losses, high generation costs, high overheads, over staffing, and lower domestic demand.
Nepal remains isolated from the world's major land, air and sea transport routes although, within the country, aviation is in a better state, with 47 airports, 11 of them with paved runways; flights are frequent and support a sizeable traffic. The hilly and mountainous terrain in the northern two-thirds of the country has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. As of 2016[update], there were just over 11,890 km (7,388 mi) of paved roads, and 16,100 km (10,004 mi) of unpaved roads, and just 59 km (37 mi) of railway line in the south. As of 2018[update], all district headquarters (except Simikot) had been connected to the road network. Most of the rural roads are not operable during the rainy season; even national highways regularly become inoperable. Nepal depends almost entirely on foreign assistance from countries like China, India and Japan, for building, maintenance and expansion of the road network. The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Kolkata in West Bengal state of India. The national carrier, Nepal Airlines, is in poor shape due to mismanagement and corruption, and has been blacklisted by the EU. Internally, the poor state of development of the road system makes access to markets, schools, and health clinics a challenge.
According to the Nepal Telecommunication Authority MIS August 2019 report, voice telephony subscription rate was at 2.70% of total population for fixed phones and 138.59% for mobile; 98% of all voice telephony was through mobile phones. Similarly, while an estimated 14.52% had access to fixed broadband, an additional 52.71% were accessing the internet using their mobile data subscriptions; almost 15 million of them with 3G or better. The mobile voice telephony and broadband market was dominated by two telecommunications companies, the state-owned Nepal Telecom (55%) and the private multinational, Ncell (40%). Of the 21% market share enjoyed by fixed broadband, around 25% was again shared by Nepal Telecom, with the rest going to the private Internet Service Providers. Although there is high disparity in penetration rate between the rural and urban areas, mobile service has reached 75 districts of the country covering 90% of land area, and broadband access is expected to reach 90% of the population by 2020.
As of 2019[update], the state operates three television stations as well as national and regional radio stations. There are 117 private TV channels and 736 FM radio stations licensed for operation, at least 314 of them, community radio stations. According to the 2011 census, the percentage of households possessing radio was 50.82%, television 36.45%, cable TV 19.33%, and computer 7.23%. According to the Press Council Nepal classification, as of 2017[update] of the 833 publications producing original content, ten national dailies and weeklies are rated A+ class. In 2019, Reporters Without Borders ranked Nepal at 106th in the world in terms of press freedom.
The citizens of Nepal are known as Nepali or Nepalese. The Nepali are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet and North Burma, and the Chinese province of Yunnan via Assam. Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of the eastern region, Newars of the Kathmandu Valley, aboriginal Tharus of the Terai plains and the Khas Pahari people of the far-western hills. Despite the migration of a significant section of the population to the Terai in recent years, the majority of Nepalese still live in the central highlands, and the northern mountains are sparsely populated.
Nepal is a multicultural and multiethnic country, home to 126 distinct ethnic groups, speaking 123 different mother tongues and following a number of indigenous and folk religions in addition to Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. According to the 2011 census, Nepal's population was 26.5 million, almost a threefold increase from nine million in 1950. From 2001 to 2011, the average family size declined from 5.44 to 4.9. The census also noted some 1.9 million absentee people, over a million more than in 2001; most are male labourers employed overseas. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio from 94.41 as compared to 99.80 for 2001. The annual population growth rate was 1.35% between 2001 and 2011, compared to an average of 2.25% between 1961 and 2001; also attributed to the absentee population.
Nepal is one of the ten least urbanised, and the ten fastest urbanising countries in the world. As of 2014[update], an estimated 18.3% of the population lived in urban areas. Urbanisation rate is high in the Terai, doon valleys of the inner Terai and valleys of the middle hills, but low in the high Himalayas. Similarly, the rate is higher in central and eastern Nepal compared to further west. The capital, Kathmandu, nicknamed the "City of temples", is the largest city in the country and the cultural and economic heart. Other large cities in Nepal include Pokhara, Biratnagar, Lalitpur, Bharatpur, Birgunj, Dharan, Hetauda and Nepalgunj. Congestion, pollution and drinking water shortage are some of the major problems facing the rapidly growing cities, most prominently the Kathmandu Valley.
Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage stems from three major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as native language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali (44.6%), Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Nepal Bhasa (3.2%), Bajjika (3%) and Magar (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%), Awadhi (1.89%), and Sunwar. Nepal is home to at least four indigenous sign languages.
Descendent of Sanskrit, Nepali is written in Devanagari script. It is the official language and serves as lingua franca among Nepali of different ethnolinguistic groups. The regional languages Maithili, Awadhi and Bhojpuri are spoken in the southern Terai region; Urdu is common among Nepali Muslims. Varieties of Tibetan are spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Tibetan is widely understood by those with religious education. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet.
The 2011 census reported that the religion with the largest number of followers in Nepal was Hinduism (81.3% of the population), followed by Buddhism (9%); the remaining were Islam (4.4%), Kirant (3%), Christianity (1.3%) and other folk religions (0.4%). The prevalence of irreligion was reported to be at 0.5%. By percentage of population, Nepal has the largest population of Hindus in the world. Nepal was officially a Hindu Kingdom until recently, and Shiva was considered the guardian deity of the country. Although many government policies throughout history have disregarded or marginalised minority religions, Nepalese societies generally enjoy religious tolerance and harmony among all religions, with only isolated incidents of religiously-motivated violence.
Nepal entered modernity in 1951 with a literacy rate of 5% and about 10,000 students enrolled in 300 schools. By 2017, there were more than seven million students enrolled in 35,601 schools. The overall literacy rate (for population age 5 years and above) increased from 54.1% in 2001 to 65.9% in 2011. The male literacy rate was 75.1% compared to the female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate was reported in Kathmandu district (86.3%) and lowest in Rautahat (41.7%). While the net primary enrolment rate was 74% in 2005; it had reached 97% by 2017. However, increasing access to secondary education (grades 9 –12) remains a major challenge, as evidenced by the low net enrolment rate of 57.5% at this level. Tertiary gross enrolment rate was only 12.4% As of 2018[update]. By 2017, females had overtaken males in enrolment at all levels, compared to ten years earlier when male enrolment at the tertiary level was almost double that of females. As of 2017[update], Nepal had eleven universities and four independent science academies. Lack of proper infrastructures and teaching materials and a high student-to-teacher ratio, as well as politicisation of school management committees and partisan unionisation among both students and teachers, present a significant hurdle to progress. Free basic education is guaranteed in the constitution but the programme lacks funding for effective implementation. Government has scholarship programs for girls, disabled and children of martyrs, of marginalised communities and the extremely poor. The government also provides various scholarships for the students of marginalised communities, the poor and the meritorious, for higher education including medical and engineering studies. Tens of thousands of Nepali students leave the country every year in search of better education and work, with half of them never returning.
Health and sanitation
Public health and health care services in Nepal are provided by both the public and private sectors. Tap water is the main source of drinking water for 47.78% of households, tube well/hand pump is the main source of drinking water for about 35% of households, while spout, uncovered well/kuwa, and covered well/kuwa are the main source for 5.74%, 4.71%, and 2.45% respectively. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 71 years as of 2017, 153rd highest in the world, up from 54 years in the 1990s. Two-thirds of all deaths are due to non-communicable diseases, 9% due to injuries and 25% due to communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases. Heart disease is the leading cause of death; other major causes are injuries, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory diseases and intracerebral haemorrhage. HIV AIDS is the seventeenth leading cause of death. Of the 32,000 HIV infected, only 13,000 are receiving antiretroviral treatment, As of 2018[update]. Diabetes and kidney disease are highly prevalent as well. Sedentary lifestyle, imbalanced diet and malnutrition, consumption of tobacco and alcohol, and poor sanitation are among the driving forces behind poor health in Nepal. Nepal has made tremendous progress in maternal and child health. 95% of children have access to iodised salt, and 86% of children aged 6 – 59 months receive Vitamin A prophylaxis. Stunting has been reduced to 36% in 2016 from 57% in the 1996; underweight was reduced to 27% from 42%, and wasting to 10% from 15%, in the same period; however, malnutrition, at 43% among children under five, is extremely high. Anaemia in women and children increased between 2011 and 2016, reaching 41% and 53% respectively. Low birth weight is at 27% while breastfeeding is at 65%. Nepal has reduced maternal mortality rate to 229 from 901 in 1990, but is expected to fall short of the targeted 125 per 100,000 live births by 2020. Infant mortality per thousand live births is down to 32.2 compared to 139.8 in 1990. Contraceptive prevalence rate is 53% but the disparity rate between rural and urban areas is high due to a lack of awareness and easy access.
Progress in health is driven by strong government initiative in cooperation with NGOs and INGOs. Public health centres provide 72 essential medicines free of cost. In addition, the public health insurance plan initiated in 2016 which covers health treatments of up to Rs 50,000 for five members of a family, for a premium of Rs 2500 per year, has seen limited success, and is expected to expand. By paying stipends for four antenatal visits to health centers and hospitalised delivery, Nepal decreased home-births from 81% in 2006 to 41% in 2016. School meal programs have improved education as well as nutrition metrics among children. Toilet building subsidies under the ambitious "one household-one toilet" program which aims to make the country open defecation free has seen toilet prevalence rate reach 99% in 2019, from just 6% in 1990.
Immigrants and refugees
Nepal has a long tradition of accepting migrants and refugees. In modern times, Tibetans and Bhutanese have constituted a majority of refugees in Nepal. Tibetan refugees began arriving in Nepal in 1959, and many more cross into Nepal every year. The Bhutanese Lhotsampa refugees began arriving in Nepal in the 1980s and had reached more than 110,000 by the 2000s. Most of them have been resettled into third countries. At the end of 2018, Nepal had a total of 20,800 confirmed refugees, 64% of them Tibetan and 31% Bhutanese. Recent arrivals among the refugees and asylum seekers, who are termed "urban refugees" as they live in apartments in the cities instead of refugee camps, include Ahmaddiya Muslims of Pakistan and Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar, but also some immigrants from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia and other African countries, and Sri Lanka. Nepal does not recognise refugees other than the Bhutanese and Tibetans, terming them "illegal immigrants". However, the government facilitates third-country settlement for them, in cooperation with international partners.
About two thousand immigrants applied for work permit in Nepal in 2018/19, half of them Chinese. Nepal does not have a record of the number of Indian immigrant workers in Nepal as they do not require work permits to live and work in Nepal. Indian government puts the number of non-resident Indians in Nepal at 600,000.
Society and culture
Folklore is an integral part of Nepali society. Traditional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles, culture, and beliefs. Many Nepali folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music.
Most houses in the rural lowlands of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow-dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs.
With 15 days a year, Nepal is the country that enjoys the least number of public holidays in the world. The Nepali year begins in 1st of Baisakh in official Hindu Calendar of the country, the Bikram Sambat, which falls in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the Martyr's Day (18 February), and a mix of Hindu and Buddhist festivals such as Dashain in autumn, Tihar in mid-autumn and Chhath in late autumn. During Swanti, the Newars perform the Mha Puja ceremony to celebrate New Year's Day of the lunar calendar Nepal Sambat. Being a Secular country Nepal has holiday on main festivals of minority religions too.
Nepal's national colour is crimson. Rhododendron in the national flower. Himalayan monal is the national bird and cow is the national animal. Volleyball is the national sport. Nepali is the national language. The Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka is the national anthem.
The emblem of Nepal depicts the snowy Himalayas, the forested hills, and the fertile Terai, supported by a wreath of rhododendrons, national flag at the crest and in the foreground, a plain white map of Nepal with a man's(right) and woman's(left) right hands joining to signify gender equality just below it. At the bottom is the national motto of Nepal, a Sanskrit quote of patriotism attributed in Nepal folklore to Lord Rama, written in Devanagari script, which reads "Mother and motherland are greater than heaven".
The constitution of Nepal contains instructions for a geometric construction of the flag. According to its official description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also the colour of the rhododendron. The flag's blue border signifies Nepalese people's desire for peace. The moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepali, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepali warriors. The national flag was adopted in 1928 and then the sun and the moon had faces. In 1962 the faces were removed from both triangles.
The president is the symbol of national unity. The martyrs are the symbols of patriotism, prominent among them, four great martyrs- Gangalal Shrestha, Dharmabhakta Mathema, Sukraraj Shastri and Dasharath Chand. King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of modern Nepal, is held in high regard and considered "Father of the Nation" by many.
Nepali commanders of the Anglo-Nepal war, Amar Singh Thapa, Bhakti Thapa, Balbhadra Kunwar and Ujir Singh Thapa are considered war heroes. A special designation of "National hero" has been conferred to 16 people from Nepalese history who made exceptional contributions to the prestige of Nepal; those include such diverse figures as Gautam Buddha, Sita, King Janaka, Araniko, Motiram Bhatta, Mahaguru Falgunanda and Pasang Lhamu Sherpa.
Writers, especially poets, are venerated in Nepal and conferred special titles, such as first poet, great poet, national poet and poet par excellence, among others.
Art and architecture
Historical kingdoms that existed in the Kathmandu valley are found to have made use of some clever technologies in numerous areas such as architecture, agriculture, civil engineering, water management, etc. The Gopals and Abhirs, who ruled the valley up until c. 1000 BC, used temporary materials for construction such as bamboo, hay, timber, etc. The Kirat period (700 BC – 110 AD) employed the technology of brick firing as well as produced quality woolen shawls. Similarly, stupas, idols, canals, self-recharging ponds, reservoirs, etc. constructed during the Lichhavi era (110–879 AD) are intact to this day, which manifests the ingenuity of traditional architecture. Moreover, the Malla period (1200–1768 AD) saw an impressive growth in architecture, on par with its advanced contemporaries. An archetypal example of Malla architecture is Nyatapola, a five-storied, 30-metre tall temple in Bhaktapur, which has strangely survived at least four major earthquakes, including the April 2015 Nepal earthquake.
Literature and the performing arts
Nepal's literature was closely intertwined with that of the rest of South Asia until its unification into a modern kingdom. Literary works, which were written in Sanskrit by Brahmin priests educated and sometimes also based in Varanasi, included religious texts and other fantasies involving kings, gods and demons. The oldest extant Nepali language text is dated to the 13th century but except for the epigraphic material, Nepali language literature older than the 17th century haven't been found. However, Newar literature dates back almost 500 years. The modern history of Nepali literature begins with Bhanubhakta Acharya (1814-1868), who for the first time composed major and influential works in Nepali, the language accessible to the masses, most prominently, the Bhanubhakta Ramayana, a translation of the ancient Hindu epic. By the end of the nineteenth century, Motiram Bhatta had published print editions of the works of Acharya, and through his efforts, single-handedly popularised and propelled Nepali language literature into modernity. By the mid-twentieth century, Nepali literature was no longer limited to the Hindu literary traditions. Influenced by western literary traditions, writers in this period started producing literary works addressing the contemporary social problems, while many others continued to enrich Nepali poetic traditions with authentic Nepali poetry. Newar literature also emerged as a premier literary tradition. After the advent of democracy in 1951, Nepali literature flourished. Literary works in many other languages began to be produced. Nepali literature continued to modernise, and in recent years, has been strongly influenced by the post civil-war Nepali experience as well as global literary traditions.
Nepali film industry is known as "Kollywood".
Nepal Academy is the foremost institution for the promotion of arts and culture in Nepal, established in 1957.
The most widely worn traditional dress in Nepal, for both women and men, from ancient times until the advent of modern times, was draped. For women, it eventually took the form of a sari, a single long piece of cloth, famously six yards long, and of width spanning the lower body. The sari is tied around the waist and knotted at one end, wrapped around the lower body, and then over the shoulder. In its more modern form, it has been used to cover the head, and sometimes the face, as a veil, particularly in the Terai. It has been combined with an underskirt, or the petticoat, and tucked in the waistband for more secure fastening. It is worn with a blouse, or cholo, which serves as the primary upper-body garment, the sari's end, passing over the shoulder, now serving to obscure the upper body's contours, and to cover the midriff. Cholo-sari has become the attire of choice for formal occasions, official environs and festive gatherings. In its more traditional form, as part of traditional dresses and as worn in daily life while performing household chores or labour, it takes the form of a fariya or gunyu, usually shorter than a sari in length as well as breadth, and all of it wrapped around the lower body.
For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower-body garment. It too is tied around the waist and wrapped. Among the Aryans, it is also wrapped once around each leg before being brought up through the legs to be tucked in at the back. Dhoti or its variants, usually worn over a langauti, constitute the lower-body garment in the traditional clothing of Tharus, Gurungs and Magars as well as the Madhesi people, among others. Other forms of traditional apparel that involve no stitching or tailoring are the Patukas (a length of cloth wrapped tightly over the waist by both sexes as a waistband, a part of most traditional Nepali costumes, usually with a Khukuri tucked into it when worn by men), scarves like Pachhyauras and majetros and shawls like the Newar Ga and Tibetan khata, Ghumtos (the wedding veils) and various kinds of turbans (scarves worn around the head as a part of a tradition, or to keep off the sun or the cold, called a Pheta, Pagri or Sirpau).
Until the beginning of the first millennium CE, the ordinary dress of people in South Asia was entirely unstitched. The arrival of the Kushans from Central Asia, circa 48 CE, popularised cut and sewn garments in the style of Central Asia. The simplest form of sewn clothing, Bhoto (a rudimentary vest), is a universal unisex clothing for children throughout Nepal, and traditionally the only clothing children wear until they come of age and are given adult garb, sometimes in a ceremonial rite of passage, such as the gunyu-choli ceremony for Hindu girls. Men continue to wear bhoto through adulthood. Upper body garment for men is usually a vest such as the bhoto, or a shirt similar to the Kurta, most prominent of which is Daura, a closed-necked double-breasted long shirt with five pleats and eight strings that serve to tie it around the body. Suruwal, simply translated as a pair of trousers, is an alternative to and, more recently, replacement for dhoti, kachhad (Magars) or Lungi (Tharus); it is traditionally much wider above the knees but tapers below the knees to fit tightly at the ankles, is tied to the waist with a drawstring and does not use the modern inventions like elastic waistband, zippers, hooks or buttons. Modern cholos worn with sarees are usually half-sleeved, and single-breasted fastened in the front or front-covering tied at the back; they usually do not cover the midriff. The traditional one called the chaubandi cholo, similar to the daura, is full-sleeved, double-breasted with pleats and strings to tie it around the body, and extends down to cover the midriff, usually reaching up to or covering the patuka.
Daura-Suruwal and Gunyu-Cholo were the national dresses of Nepal for men and women respectively until 2011 when they were removed to eliminate favouritism. Traditional dresses of many pahari ethnic groups comprise Daura-Suruwal or similar, with patuka, a dhaka topi and a coat for men, and Gunyu-cholo or similar, with patuka and with or without some kind of scarf for women. For many other groups, men's traditional dresses consist of a shirt or a vest, paired with a dhoti, kachhad or lungi. In the high himalayas, the traditional dresses are largely influenced by Tibetan culture. Sherpa women wear the chuba with the pangi (apron) apron, while Sherpa men wear shirts with stiff high collar and long sleeves called tetung under the chuba. Tibetan Xamo Gyaise hats of the Sherpas, dhaka topi of pahari men and tamang round caps are among the more distinctive headwears, while many ethnic groups wear some kind of scarf on their head. The bhangra, worn over the coat by the Gurung people is designed to function as a rucksack. Surke thaili, a small cloth purse with drawstring mechanism, usually accompanies the traditional dresses, as most of them lack pockets.
Men wear minimal jewellery. Married Hindu women wear tika, sindur, pote and red bangles. Jewellery of gold and silver are common; precious stones are also used. Gold jewellery includes Mangalsutras and tilaharis worn with the pote by the Hindus, Samyafung (a huge gold flower worn on the head) and Nessey (huge flattened gold earrings) worn by the Limbus, and Sirphuli, Sirbandhi and Chandra worn by the Magars, among others. Tharu women can wear as much as six kilos of silver in jewellery at a time, which includes Mangiya worn on the head, tikuli the forehead, and kanseri and tikahamala worn around the neck. Among some indigenous groups, particularly women, traditionally, tattoo their bodies and sometimes their faces.
In the last 50 years, fashions have changed a great deal in Nepal. Increasingly, in urban settings, the sari is no longer the apparel of everyday wear, transformed instead into one for formal occasions. The traditional kurta suruwal is rarely worn by younger women, who increasingly favour jeans. The dhoti has largely been reduced to the liturgical vestment of shamans and Hindu priests.
Nepalese cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other, using locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruit. Nepali foodways have been influenced by religion, in particular Hindu and Buddhist cultural choices and traditions. The Columbian exchange had brought the potato, the tomato, maize, peanuts, cashew nuts, pineapples, guavas, and most notably, chilli peppers, to South Asia. Each became staples of use. The cereals grown in Nepal, their choice, times, and regions of planting, correspond strongly to the timing of Nepal's monsoons, and the variations in altitude. Rice and wheat are mostly cultivated in the terai plains and well-irrigated valleys, and maize, millet, barley and buckwheat in the lesser fertile and drier hills.
The foundation of a typical Nepali meal is a cereal cooked in plain fashion, and complemented with flavorful savory dishes. The latter includes lentils, pulses and vegetables spiced commonly with ginger and garlic, but also more discerningly with a combination of spices that may include coriander, cumin, turmeric, cinnamon, cardamon, jimbu and others as informed by culinary conventions. In an actual meal, this mental representation takes the form of a platter, or thali, with a central place for the cooked cereal, peripheral ones, often in small bowls, for the flavorful accompaniments, and the simultaneous, rather than piecemeal, ingestion of the two in each act of eating, whether by actual mixing—for example of rice and lentils—or in the folding of one—such as bread—around the other, such as cooked vegetables. Dal-bhat, centred around steamed rice, which is accompanied by lentil soup, vegetable curries, chutneys and pickle, as well as dairy and sometimes meat, is the most common and prominent example. The unleavened flat bread made from wheat flour called chapati occasionally replaces the steamed rice, particularly in the Terai, while Dhindo, prepared by boiling corn, millet or buckwheat flour in water, continuously stirring and adding flour until thick, almost solid consistency is reached, is the main substitute for rice in the hills and mountains. Tsampa, flour made from roasted barley and naked barley, is the main staple in the high himalayas. Fermented, then sun-dried, leafy greens called Gundruk are both a delicacy and a vital substitute for fresh vegetables in the winter for many, throughout Nepal.
A notable feature of Nepali food is the existence of a number of distinctive vegetarian cuisines, each a feature of the geographical and cultural histories of its adherents. The appearance of ahimsa, or the avoidance of violence toward all forms of life in many religious orders early in South Asian history, especially Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, is thought to have been a notable factor in the prevalence of vegetarianism among a segment of Nepal's Hindu and Buddhist populations, as well as among Jains. Among these groups, strong discomfort is felt at thoughts of eating meat. Though per capita meat consumption is low in Nepal, the proportion of vegetarianism is not high as that of India, due to the prevalence of Shaktism, of which animal sacrifice is a prominent feature.
Although overshadowed by the Indian and Tibetan cuisines in the global consciousness, Nepali cuisines possess their own distinctive qualities to distinguish these hybrid cuisines from both their northern and southern neighbours. Nepali cuisines, with generally tomato-based, leaner curries, are lighter than their cream-based Indian counterparts, and Nepali momo dumplings are heavily spiced compared to their northern counterparts. Newar cuisine, one of the richest and most influential in Nepal, is more elaborate and diverse than most, as Newar culture developed in the highly fertile Kathmandu valley, and Newar people have historically been more well-travelled and affluent than others. A typical Newar cuisine can comprise more than a dozen dishes of cereals, meat, vegetable curries, chutneys and pickles. Kwanti (sprouted beans soup), chhwela (ground beef), chatamari, (rice flour crepe), bara (fried lentil cake), kachila (marinated raw minced beef), samaybaji (centred around flattened rice), lakhaamari and yomuri are among the more widely recognised. Juju dhau, a sweet yoghurt originating in Bhaktapur, is also famous. Thakali cuisine is another well-known food tradition which seamlessly melds the Tibetan and the Indian with variety in ingredients, especially the herbs and spices. Thukpa, a ramen dish originating in Tibet, is enlivened with beef and vegetables and spiced with Garam masala and chili peppers. In the Terai, Bagiya is a rice flour dumpling with sweets inside, popular among the Tharu and Maithil people. Various communities in the Terai make sidhara (sun-dried small fish mixed with taro leaves) and biriya (lentil paste mixed with taro leaves) to stock for the monsoon floods. Selroti, kasaar, fini and chaku are among the sweet delicacies. Rice pulau or sweet rice porridge called kheer are usually the main dish in feasts. Tea and buttermilk (fermented milk leftover from churning butter from yoghurt) are common non-alcoholic drinks. Almost all janajati communities have their own traditional methods of brewing alcohol. Raksi (traditional distilled alcohol), jaand (rice beer), tongba (millet beer) and chyaang are the most well-known. In the hilly regions, various janajatis hunt stream-frogs known as Pahas. In the eastern hills, Kirat people make yangben faska by cooking lichen known as yangben with pork. In the Terai, Tharu cuisines includes dishes of rats, mussels and snails. Rats are also hunted and eaten by the Musahar community in the Terai, whose name literally translates to rat-eaters.
Sports and recreation
Nepali indigenous sports, like dandi biyo and kabaddi which were considered the unofficial national sports until recently, are still popular in rural areas. Despite various efforts, standardisation and development of dandi biyo has not been achieved, while Kabaddi, as a professional sport, is still in its infancy in Nepal. Bagh-chal, an ancient board game that's thought to have originated in Nepal, can be played on chalk-drawn boards, with pebbles, and is still popular today. Ludo, snakes and ladders and carrom are popular pastimes. Chess is also played. Volleyball was declared as the national sport of Nepal in 2017. Popular children's games include versions of tag, knucklebones,[m] hopscotch,[n] Duck, duck, goose and lagori, while marbles, top,[o] hoop rolling and gully cricket are also popular among boys. Rubber bands, or ranger bands cut from bike tyres, make a multi-purpose sporting equipment for Nepali children, which may be bunched or chained together, and used to play dodgeball, cat's cradle, jianzi[p] and a variety of skipping rope games.
Football and cricket are popular professional sports. Nepal is competitive in football in the South Asia region but has never won the SAFF championships, the regional tournament. It usually ranks in the bottom quarter in the FIFA world rankings. Nepal has had success in cricket and holds the elite ODI status, consistently ranking in the Top 20 in the ICC ODI and T20I rankings. Nepal has had some success in athletics and martial arts, having won many medals at the South Asian Games and some at the Asian games. Nepal has never won an olympic medal. Sports like basketball, volleyball, futsal, wrestling, competitive bodybuilding and badminton are also gaining in popularity. Women in football, cricket, athletics, martial arts, badminton and swimming have found some success. Nepal also fields players and national teams in several tournaments for the differently abled, most notably in men's as well as women's blind cricket.
The only international stadium in the country is the multi-purpose Dasarath Stadium where the men and women national football teams play their home matches. Since the formation of the national team, Nepal has played its home matches of cricket at Tribhuvan University International Cricket Ground. Nepal police, Armed police force and Nepal army are the most prolific producers of national players, and aspiring players are known to join armed forces, for the better sporting opportunities they can provide. Nepali sports is hindered by a lack of infrastructure, funding, corruption, nepotism and political interference. Very few players are able to make a living as professional sportspeople.
- The entire territory controlled by the monarch seated in Kathmandu at any given time would also be referred to as Nepal. Thus, at times, only the Kathmandu valley was considered Nepal while at other times, Nepal would encompass an area comparable to and largely overlapping with the modern state of Nepal
- The word pala in Pali language means to protect. Consequently, Nepala translates to protected by Ne.
- Nepalamahatmya, of 30 chapters about the Nepal Tirtha (pilgrimage) region, is a regional text that claims to be a part of the Skanda Purana, the largest Mahāpurāṇa.
- This trichotomy is a prominent feature of Nepali discourse and is represented in the Emblem of Nepal, with blue and white peaks signifying Himal, green hills below them signifying Pahad and the yellow strip at the bottom signifying the Terai belt.
- 198 ecological types were first proposed in 1976, which was further revised and reduced to 118, which was further reduced by IUCN to 59 in 1998, which was further reduced to 36 in 2002. As this issue has yet to be settled, the 35-forest-type classification is generally preferred to the ecological categorisation.
- According to the 2019 IUCN red list, two species of mammals, one bird species and three amphibian species are endemic to Nepal.
- See Kot massacre and Bhandarkhal massacre
- later known as Janga Bahadur Rana
- On the flip side, same sex marriage with foreign nationals occurring in a jurisdiction that recognises same-sex marriage is now recognised in Nepal, for eligibility to obtain a "non-tourist visa" as dependent of a Nepali citizen, by verdict of the Supreme Court in 2017, as the laws don't make sex-specific distinction in provisions relating to the rights of foreign nationals married to Nepali citizens.
- October 2019, IMF update, excludes Somalia and Syria
- October 2019, IMF update; excludes Somalia, Syria and Venezuela
- India's actual contribution is much higher as the statistics do not take into account Indian tourists crossing the border by land, as they do not require a visa to enter the country.
- It's called gatta/gatti in Nepali and is usually played with five pebbles. Other variants use seven or nine pebbles to increase difficulty. A much simpler pebble game usually with ten pebbles per player is also played.
- Commonly known as ghwai or dhyakar, it has multiple variants based on court design and size as well as requirement of skill, time and number of players.
- Young boys in villages often fashion their own tops by carving a piece of wood and driving an iron nail through it.
- Commonly known as chungi.
- "2011 Nepal Census Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2013.
- Shrestha, Khadga Man (2005). "Religious Syncretism and Context of Buddhism in Modern Nepal". Voice of History. 20 (1): 51–60. doi:10.3126/voh.v20i1.85.
- "Newly elected HoR Speaker Agni Sapkota takes oath of office". The Himalayan Times. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
- "Nepal5". Royalark.net. Archived from the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Vote to curb Nepal king's powers". BBC. 18 May 2006. Archived from the original on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
- ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- "National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics (Nepal). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- "Nepal". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2019" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
- "The World Factbook: Rank order population". CIA. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Shaha (1992), p. 1.
- Saartje Verbeke (22 March 2013). Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages. De Gruyter. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-11-029267-1.
- Lawoti, Mahendra; Hangen, Susan (2013). Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-78097-1.
- Paul, T. V. (2010). South Asia's Weak States: Understanding the Regional Insecurity Predicament. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804778534. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- Acharya, Baburam (2013). The Bloodstained Throne: Struggles for Power in Nepal (1775–1914). Penguin UK. p. 215. ISBN 978-93-5118-204-7.
- "Timeline: Nepal's rocky road from monarchy to democracy". Reuters. 26 November 2017. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
- नेपालको संविधान २०७२ [Constitution of Nepal 2015] (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2019, retrieved 16 July 2019 – via Official website of Nepal Law Commission
- "UK and Nepal celebrate 200 years of friendship". GOV.UK. 16 December 2015. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "SINO-NEPALESE TREATY OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP". Human Rights Server. 28 April 1960. Archived from the original on 5 January 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- Singh, Upinder (2008). A history of ancient and early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Longman. p. 477. ISBN 9788131716779.
- Malla, Kamal P. (1983). Nepāla: Archaeology of the Word (PDF). 3rd PATA International Tourism & Heritage Conservation Conference (1–4 November). The Nepal Heritage Society Souvenir for PATA Conference. Kathmandu. pp. 33–39. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- Prasad, Ishwari (1996). The Life and Times of Maharaja Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana of Nepal. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House. ISBN 817024756X – via Google Books.
- Hasrat, Bikram Jit (1970). History of Nepal: As told by its own and contemporary chroniclers. Hoshiarpur. p. 7.
- Lassen, Christian (1847–61). Indische Alterthumskunde [Indian Archaeology].
- Levi, Sylvain (1905). Le Nepal : Etude Historique d'Un Royaume Hindou. 1. Paris: Ernest Leroux. pp. 222–223.
- Majupuria, Trilok Chandra; Majupuria, Indra (1979). Glimpses of Nepal. Maha Devi. p. 8.
- Turner, Ralph L. (1931). "A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language". London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- Hodgson, Brian H. (1874). Essays on the Languages, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet. London: Trübner & Co. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2011. Page 51.
- Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1974). Kirata-Jana-Krti: The Indo-Mongoloids: Their Contribution to the History and Culture of India (2 ed.). Calcutta: The Asiatic Society. p. 64.
- Krishna P. Bhattarai (2009). Nepal. Infobase publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0523-9. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- P. 17 Looking to the Future: Indo-Nepal Relations in Perspective By Lok Raj Baral
- Sudarshan Raj Tiwari (2001). The Ancient Settlements of the Kathmandu Valley. Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University. p. 17. ISBN 978-99933-52-07-5.
- Nepal Antiquary. Office of the Nepal Antiquary. 1978. p. 7.
- Klaus K. Klostermaier. A Survey of Hinduism: Second Edition. SUNY Press. p. 482. ISBN 978-1-4384-0933-7.
- Kunal Chakrabarti; Shubhra Chakrabarti (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis. Scarecrow Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8108-8024-5.
- "Nepal Monarchy: Thakuri Dynasty". royalnepal.synthasite.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "Nepal Monarchy: Thakuri Dynasty". royalnepal.synthasite.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- Isabelle Duquesne (2011). Nepal, Zone of Peace: A Revised Concept for the Constitution. Harmattan. p. 45. ISBN 978-2-296-54948-7.
- Giuseppe, Father (1799). "Account of the Kingdom of Nepal". Asiatick Researches. London: Vernor and Hood. p. 308. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- lawrence, harris, george; division, library of congress. federal research; matles, savada, andrea. "Nepal and Bhutan : country studies". Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Tucci, Giuseppe. (1952). Journey to Mustang, 1952. Trans. by Diana Fussell. 1st Italian edition, 1953; 1st English edition, 1977. 2nd edition revised, 2003, p. 22. Bibliotheca Himalayica. ISBN 99933-0-378-X (South Asia); ISBN 974-524-024-9 (Outside of South Asia).
- Dietrich, Angela (1996). "Buddhist Monks and Rana Rulers: A History of Persecution". Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- Lal, C.K. (16 February 2001). "The Rana resonance". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Timeline: Nepal". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2005.
- "Nepal votes to end monarchy". CNN Asia report. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- "Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". BBC News. 28 May 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- The Carter Center. "Activities by Country: Nepal". Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
- "CA dissolved without promulgating constitution". Jagaran Nepal. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
- "Home Page". Official Page of Constituent Assembly of Nepal. Government of Nepal. Archived from the original on 21 January 2014.
- "Nepal Peace Reports". The Carter Center. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Corinne Cathcard; Emily Shapiro (25 April 2015). "Nepal Earthquake: Death Toll Jumps Over 1,800". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- "Nepal earthquake death toll reaches 8,635, over 300 missing". The Indian Express. 23 May 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "Nepal: Madhesi community rejects constitutional amendment as 'incomplete'". The Indian Express. 24 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 June 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- "Nepal's steps to resolve Madhesi crisis: India's 'positive' response helps". The Indian Express. 22 December 2015. Archived from the original on 29 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- Diplomat, Kamal Dev Bhattarai, The. "Nepal Has a New Prime Minister. Now Comes the Hard Part". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- Ali, J. R.; Aitchison, J. C. (2005), "Greater India", Earth-Science Reviews, 72 (3–4): 170–173, Bibcode:2005ESRv...72..169A, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2005.07.005
- Dikshit, K. R.; Schwartzberg, Joseph E., "India: Land", Encyclopædia Britannica, pp. 1–29, archived from the original on 8 May 2015, retrieved 18 July 2019
- Prakash, B.; Kumar, S.; Rao, M. S.; Giri, S. C. (2000), "Holocene Tectonic Movements and Stress Field in the Western Gangetic Plains" (PDF), Current Science, 79 (4): 438–449, archived (PDF) from the original on 4 May 2011, retrieved 18 July 2019
- Beek van der Peter, Xavier Robert, Jean-Louis Mugnier, Matthias Bernet, Pascale Huyghe and Erika Labrin, "Late Miocene- Recent Exhumation of the Central Himalaya and Recycling in the Foreland Basin Assessed by Apatite Fission-Track Thermochronology of Siwalik Sediments, Nepal", Basic research, 18, 413–434, 2006.
- Berger Antoine, Francois Jouanne, Riadm Hassani and Jean Louis Mugnier, "Modelling the Spatial Distribution of Present day Deformation in Nepal: how cylindrical is the Main Himalayan Thrust in Nepal?", Geophys.J.Int., 156, 94–114, 2004.
- Bilham Roger and Michael Jackson,"Constraints on Himalayan Deformation inferred from Vertical Velocity Fields in Nepal and Tibet," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 99, 897–912, 10 July 1994.
- Chamlagain Deepak and Daigoro Hayashi, "Neotectonic Fault Analysis by 2D Finite Element Modeling for Studying the Himalayan Fold and Thrust belt in Nepal", University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 1–16, 14 July 2006.
- F. Jouanne et al., "Current Shortening Across the Himalayas of Nepal", Geophys.J.Int., 154, 1–14, 2004.
- Pandey M.R, R.P. Tandukar, J.P. Avouac, J. Vergne and Th. Heritier, "Seismotectonics of the Nepal Himalaya from a Local Seismic Network", Journal of Asian Earth Sciences,17, 703–712,1999.
- Bilham et al., 1998; Pandey et al., 1995.
- Summerfield & Hulton, 1994; Hay, 1998.
- Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash (15 January 2015). "Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal". Journal of Environmental Management. Land Cover/Land Use Change (LC/LUC) and Environmental Impacts in South Asia. 148: 82–90. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.047. PMID 25181944.
- "The Status of Nepal's Mammals: The National Red List Series | WWF". www.wwfnepal.org. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Kindlmann, Pavel (2012). "An Overview of the Biodiversity in Nepal". Himalayan Biodiversity in the Changing World. pp. 1–40. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1802-9_1. ISBN 978-94-007-1801-2.
- O'Neill, A. R.; Badola, H.K.; Dhyani, P. P.; Rana, S. K. (2017). "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 13 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/s13002-017-0148-9. PMC 5372287. PMID 28356115.
- Jha, Sasinath (2008). "Status and Conservation of Lowland Terai Wetlands in Nepal". Our Nature. 6 (1): 67–77. doi:10.3126/on.v6i1.1657. ISSN 2091-2781.
- "Forest cover has increased in Nepal of late". The Himalayan Times. 13 May 2016. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- Stainton, J. D. A. (1972). Forests of Nepal. Hafner Publishing Company.
- Goyal, Anupam (2006), The WTO and International Environmental Law: Towards Conciliation, Oxford University Press, p. 295, ISBN 978-0-19-567710-2 Quote: "The Indian government successfully argued that the medicinal neem tree is part of traditional Indian knowledge. (page 295)"
- Hughes, Julie E. (2013), Animal Kingdoms, Harvard University Press, p. 106, ISBN 978-0-674-07480-4,
At same time, the leafy pipal trees and comparative abundance that marked the Mewari landscape fostered refinements unattainable in other lands.
- Ameri, Marta; Costello, Sarah Kielt; Jamison, Gregg; Scott, Sarah Jarmer (2018), Seals and Sealing in the Ancient World: Case Studies from the Near East, Egypt, the Aegean, and South Asia, Cambridge University Press, pp. 156–7, ISBN 978-1-108-17351-3 Quote: ""The last of the centaurs has the long, wavy, horizontal horns of a markhor, a human face, a heavy-set body that appears bovine, and a goat tail ... This figure is often depicted by itself, but it is also consistently represented in scenes that seem to reflect the adoration of a figure in a pipal tree or arbor and which may be termed ritual. These include fully detailed scenes like that visible in the large "divine adoration" seal from Mohenjo-daro."
- Paul Gwynne (2011), World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, p. 358, ISBN 978-1-4443-6005-9 Quote: "The tree under which Sakyamuni became the Buddha is a peepal tree (Ficus religiosa). page 358"
- "Rhododendron facing existential crisis in Ilam highlands". The Himalayan Times. 18 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Sun, Hang (2002). "Tethys retreat and Himalayas-Hengduanshan Mountains uplift and their significance on the origin and development of the sino-himalayan elements and alpine flora". Acta Botanica Yunnanica. 24 (3): 273–288. ISSN 0253-2700. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- USGS (5 May 1999). "The Himalayas: Two continents collide". Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Karanth, K. P. (25 March 2006), "Out-of-India Gondwanan Origin of Some Tropical Asian Biota" (PDF), Current Science, 90 (6): 789–792, archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2019, retrieved 18 May 2011
- IUCN, "Table 8a: Total endemic and threatened endemic species in each country (totals by taxonomic group): VERTEBRATES" (PDF), IUCN Red List version 2019–21, retrieved 25 August 2019
- "National bird on verge of disappearance". The Himalayan Times. 16 April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Table 5: Threatened species in each country (totals by taxonomic group)" (PDF), IUCN Red List version 2019-2, retrieved 25 August 2019
- IUCN Nepal, Red List of Mammal Species of Nepal (jpg), retrieved 25 August 2019
- Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Nepal, BENGAL FLORICAN CONSERVATION ACTION PLAN, archived from the original on 19 August 2019, retrieved 25 August 2019 – via birdlifenepal.org
- "Conservation of white-rumped vultures in progress in Nepal". The Himalayan Times. 16 March 2018. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Chitwan National Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Mahottari declared 58th diclofenac-free district". The Himalayan Times. 8 August 2017. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Community forest value untapped". The New Humanitarian. 26 September 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
- Ojha, Hemant; Persha, Lauren; Chhatre, Ashwini (November 2009). "Community Forestry in Nepal: A Policy Innovation for Local Livelihoods" (PDF). International food policy research institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2019. Cite journal requires
- "The Terai Arc Landscape Project (TAL) – Gharial Breeding Centre | WWF". www.wwfnepal.org. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "'Joint Patrol' for wildlife conservation in CNP". The Himalayan Times. 22 March 2018. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Nepal celebrates 'zero poaching year' for rhino, tiger and elephant". IUCN. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 November 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Nepalnature.com (Organization); International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal; Nepal Ministry of Environment, Science, and Technology (1 October 2007). "Protected Areas of Nepal". Nepal biodiversity resource book: Protected areas, Ramsar sites, and World Heritage sites. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. p. 41.
- "Nepal | Ramsar". www.ramsar.org. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- "Nepal elections explained". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "Is Nepal headed towards a communist state?". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "Political polarisation in Nepal ahead of major elections". Zee News. 5 October 2017. Archived from the original on 17 August 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- Khadka, Narayan (1993). "Democracy and Development in Nepal: Prospects and Challenges". Pacific Affairs. 66 (1): 44–71. doi:10.2307/2760015. ISSN 0030-851X. JSTOR 2760015.
- Kaphle, Anup (7 July 2010). "Long stalemate after Maoist victory disrupts life in Nepal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- "NCP to announce party department chiefs today". The Himalayan Times. 21 July 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Nepali Congress in the Opposition". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 18 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- "The misunderstood queen". kathmandupost.ekantipur.com.np. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Basnyat, Prem Singh. "War changed everything". My Republica. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Ramachandran, Shastri; Ramachandaran, Shastri (2003). "Nepal as Seen from India". India International Centre Quarterly. 30 (2): 81–98. ISSN 0376-9771. JSTOR 23006108.
- Adhikari, Dipendra. "Recalling Pushpa Lal". My Republica. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- M. D. Gurung (1977). "Communist Movement in Nepal". Economic and Political Weekly. 12 (44): 1849–1852. JSTOR 4366057.
- P, Ashok R.; January 30, ey; May 15, 2014 ISSUE DATE; November 24, 1980UPDATED; Ist, 2014 16:07. "Panchayat system or multiparty system of govt: Nepal in throes of political crisis". India Today. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- "Nepali Times | The Brief » Blog Archive » RK Mainali rejoins UML". Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- Rawal, Bhim Bahadur. Nepalma samyabadi andolan: udbhab ra vikas. Kathmandu: Pairavi Prakashan. p. 83-84.
- Bell, Thomas (28 May 2008). "Nepal abolishes monarchy as King Gyanendra given fortnight to vacate palace". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
- "Is Nepal headed towards a communist state?". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
- "Nepal's election The Maoists triumph". The Economist. 17 April 2008. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- "Baburam Bhattarai elected prime minister of Nepal". BBC News. 28 August 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Nepal PM calls new elections after constitution failure". CBC News. 28 May 2012. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Nepal's new constitution endorsed through Constituent Assembly — Xinhua | English.news.cn". news.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "UML wins mayor, deputy mayor in Pokhara Lekhnath metropolis". Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Nepali Communists win landslide, but face big obstacles to win change". Green Left Weekly. 5 January 2018. Archived from the original on 26 July 2019. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "UML to get 4 chief ministers, Maoist Centre 2". Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "CA approves ceremonial prez, bicameral legislature". Kanptipur Media Group. 16 September 2015. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
Provincial parliaments will be unicameral. "The CA also approved a mixed electoral system for parliamentary election with 60 percent directly elected and 40 percent proportionally elected."
- Australian Government-The Asia Foundation Partnership on Subnational Governance in Nepal, Diagnostic Study of Local Governance in Federal Nepal 2017 (PDF), The Asia Foundation, archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2019, retrieved 20 July 2019
- Republica. "Govt registers amendment bill to review 56 laws in bulk". My Republica. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: The Modified Criminal And Civil Codes". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Death Penalty Focus". Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Treaties, States parties, and Commentaries – Nepal". ihl-databases.icrc.org. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "निर्णय नं. ९९२१ - उत्प्रेषण / परमादेश".
- Newman, Graeme (2010). Crime and Punishment around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-313-35134-1.
- "NEPAL: Corruption in Nepal – Curse or Crime?". Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "INTERPOL Kathmandu". Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "The Impact of Organized Crime on Governance in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nepal" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- "Nepal Institute for Strategic Studies". Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Global Peace Index 2019". Retrieved 9 January 2020.
- "The Rising Nepal: Nepal's Ties With India, China". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- Dahal, Girdhari (2018). "Foreign Relation of Nepal with China and India". Journal of Political Science. XVIII: 46–61 – via Nepjol.info.
- "Is it the end of India's special relationship with Nepal?". Hindustan Times. 8 March 2018. Archived from the original on 1 June 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- Diplomat, Biswas Baral, The. "Is This the End of India's Influence Over Nepal?". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Reviewing The Treaty Of 1950". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Reviewing The Treaty Of 1950". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- Suhrwardy, Zahir (1996). "India's Relations with Nepal". Pakistan Horizon. 49 (1): 35–54. ISSN 0030-980X. JSTOR 41393550.
- "India's expanding security sphere". Policy Forum. 25 March 2018. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Tibet's Road Ahead: Tibetans lose a haven in Nepal under Chinese pressure". Los Angeles Times. 6 August 2015. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Haviland, Charles (17 April 2008). "Nepal Arrests Tibetan Protesters". BBC News. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- "China urged to let Nepalis work in Taklakot". The Himalayan Times. 7 June 2019. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Diplomat, Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan, The. "Why Nepal's Access to China Ports Matters". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 31 October 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "Belt and Road Initiative: Nepal's concern and commitment". The Himalayan Times. 23 April 2019. Archived from the original on 24 April 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Iqbal, Muhammad Jamshed (2006). "SAARC: Origin, Growth, Potential and Achievements" (PDF). Pakistan Journal of History & Culture. XXVII/2: 127–40. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Nepal, Bangladesh Can Become Better Trade Partners". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 11 November 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth; York, 34th Floor | New; t 1.212.290.4700, NY 10118-3299 USA | (1 February 2008). "Bhutan's ethnic cleansing". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Diplomat, Maximillian Mørch, The. "Bhutan's Dark Secret: The Lhotshampa Expulsion". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 25 August 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "No solution yet for 8,500 Bhutanese refugees in Nepal". kathmandupost.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Republica. "Marking the diplomatic ties between Nepal and Israel". My City. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "UNGA vote 'consistent with Nepal's position on Israel, Palestine'". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- Khadka, Narayan (1997). "Foreign Aid to Nepal: Donor Motivations in the Post-Cold War Period". Asian Survey. 37 (11): 1044–1061. doi:10.2307/2645740. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2645740.
- "Military expenditure (current USD) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Military expenditure (% of GDP) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "South Asia :: Nepal – The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Raghavan, V. R. (2013). Nepal as a Federal State: Lessons from Indian Experience. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789382652014.
- "New chief faces daunting task rebuilding Nepal Army's image". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Thapa to take charge of Nepali Army as acting CoAS". The Himalayan Times. 9 August 2018. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Nepali Army launches new helicopters". The Himalayan Times. 23 June 2015. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Adhikari, Indra (2015). Military and Democracy in Nepal. Routledge. ISBN 9781317589068.
- Republica. "Army to rescue". My Republica. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Dolpa HQ connected to national road network". The Himalayan Times. 18 November 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nepal Military Personnel". www.globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Pariyar, Kamal. "Women promoted to major for first time in NA infantry". My Republica. Archived from the original on 1 June 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Bhakti Shah – the fight for gay and transgender rights in Nepal". www.saferworld.org.uk. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Bilateral Relations – Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal MOFA". Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Embassy of Nepal – Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal MOFA". Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Consulates General of Nepal – Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal MOFA". Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "NON-RESIDENTIAL DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS – Ministry of Foreign Affairs Nepal MOFA". Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Nepalese Peacekeepers receive UN Medal". United Nations Peacekeeping. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- Gill, Peter. "The Nepalis Fighting America's Wars". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "The Big Question: Who are the Gurkhas and what is their contribution". The Independent. 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "21 Param Vir Chakra Winners Every Indian Should Know And Be Proud Of". indiatimes.com. 15 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Gurkhas to guards: Poverty driving Nepalis to take up dangerous jobs abroad". Hindustan Times. 21 June 2016. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Specialist and Line Units". Singapore Police Force. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "Malaysian cabinet to discuss Nepali workers' issue on Friday". The Himalayan Times. 1 August 2018. Archived from the original on 29 August 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- "GDP (current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "GDP growth (annual %) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "Overview". World Bank. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "WTO | Accessions: Nepal". www.wto.org. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "National Accounts of Nepal 2018/19" (PDF). Central Bureau of Statistics Nepal. 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
- "Nepal is 19th largest receiver of remittances with $8.1 billion". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "Unskilled workers dominate Nepali labour force abroad". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "More Nepalis going abroad for employment". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "South Asia :: Nepal — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- Chaudhary, Deepak (1 November 2018). "Agricultural Policies and Rural Development in Nepal: An Overview". Research Nepal Journal of Development Studies. 1 (2): 34–46. doi:10.3126/rnjds.v1i2.22425. ISSN 2631-2131.
- Acharya, Khubi Ram (5 July 2019). "Nepalese Foreign Trade: Growth, Composition, and Direction". NCC Journal. 4 (1): 91–96. doi:10.3126/nccj.v4i1.24741. ISSN 2505-0788.
- "Bangladesh, Nepal, Rwanda top India in reducing poverty – study". Reuters India. 19 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- McVeigh, Tracy (17 March 2013). "World poverty is shrinking rapidly, new index reveals". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 February 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Mercantile Communications Pvt. Ltd". Nepalnews.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Nepal: Irrigation and Water Resource Management". World Bank. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "World Bank: Nepal- Country Overview 2012". World Bank. 2012. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Nepali gov't presents 13.71 bln USD budget for next fiscal year - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- Setopati, Setopati. "Finance Minister Khatiwada worried as ministries fail to spend development budget". Setopati. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "DFID's bilateral programme in Nepal". The International Development Committee of the House of Commons. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "UK should cut aid to Nepal if "endemic" corruption persists: report". Reuters. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "Per capita income to reach $1,400 by 2023-24". The Himalayan Times. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 5 April 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- "EU as Nepal's largest exporter". ktm2day. 11 October 2011. Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Nepal: Economy". MSN Encarta. p. 3. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
- "Development Failure: A Critical Review of Three Analyses of Development in Nepal". Archived from the original on 17 August 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "A Development Failure: The Development-Conflict Nexus". Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Kevin Bales; et al. "Nepal". The Global Slavery Index 2016. The Minderoo Foundation Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- "Nepal tourism generated Rs240b and supported 1m jobs last year: Report". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- Ghimire, Dandu Raj; et al., eds. (May 2018). "Nepal Tourism Statistics 2017" (PDF). Government of Nepal, Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Civil Aviation, Planning & Evaluation Division, Research & Statistical Section. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
- "Nepal has enough opportunities to tap tourists who visit other South Asian nations". The Himalayan Times. 6 November 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- Sunuwar, Muna. "Homestay registration on the rise". My Republica. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "Nepal's unemployment rate estimated at 11.4 percent". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- Tavernise, Sabrina (1 September 2004). "12 Hostages From Nepal Are Executed in Iraq, a Militant Group Claims". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- Sharma, Bhadra. "He narrowly escaped the 2004 Iraq massacre of 12 Nepalis". My Republica. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "Basic minimum wage eludes Nepali migrant workers". The Himalayan Times. 9 May 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "Nepali migrant workers returning home from labour destination countries without wages". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "Nepal receiving two dead migrant workers every day for past seven years: Report". The Himalayan Times. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "Nepalese Labor Migration—A Status Report". The Asia Foundation. 6 June 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "The plight of Nepal's migrant workers". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "Labour migration in Nepal (ILO in Nepal)". www.ilo.org. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- Mishra, Surya Nath. "Sorrows of Nepali migrant workers". My Republica. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- NEPAL ENERGY SECTOR ASSESSMENT, STRATEGY, AND ROAD MAP (PDF) (Report). ADB. March 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- Rai, Om Astha. "From a fossil past to an electric future". Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- Times, Nepali. "More than half of Nepal's electricity imported from India". Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "NEA to build 10 new hydropower projects". The Himalayan Times. 26 August 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "Power generation to increase by 750 MW". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "Nepal fails to meet energy sector targets in the current fiscal". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "Energy sector in Nepal". Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
- "South Asia :: Nepal — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Connecting Nepal's Rural Poor to Markets". Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- "The rise and fall of Nepal Airlines". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Nepal Telecommunications Authority MIS Report Shrawan, 2076 (pdf) (Report). Nepal Telecommunications Authority. August 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "Press Council Nepal classifies 833 newspapers, magazines". The Himalayan Times. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nepal retains its position in press freedom rankings, states RSF report". The Himalayan Times. 19 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Population situation analysis of Nepal" (PDF). UNFPA. 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Bakrania, S. (2015). Urbanisation and urban growth in Nepal (GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report 1294) (Report). University of Birmingham, Birmingham: UK:GSDRC.
- "Hindu Demographics & Denominations (Part One)". Religion 101. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- Anthologia anthropologica. The native races of Asia and Europe; by James George Frazer, Sir; Robert Angus Downie
- KHADKA, UPENDRA LAMICHHANE and BASANT. "Eid highlights Nepal's religious tolerance". My Republica. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- "NEPAL-2018-INTERNATIONAL-RELIGIOUS-FREEDOM-REPORT" (PDF). US Embassy Nepal. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
- Deepak Raj Parajuli , Tapash Das. "Performance Of Community Schools In Nepal : A Macro Level Analysis" (PDF). International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Education in figures 2017 (pdf) (Report). Ministry of Education, Nepal. 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Human Development Report 2010 – Nepal". Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
- "Education". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nepal". uis.unesco.org. 27 November 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Community-based School Management The Role Politics Plays". therisingnepal.org.np. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Minister Pokhrel urges teachers to be loyal to their schools". The Himalayan Times. 15 September 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Free education to cost threefold". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Types of scholarships provided to Nepalese students by government of Nepal". Edusanjal. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Medical colleges charging extra fees even from govt scholarship holders". The Himalayan Times. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Sharma, Nirjana (3 July 2015). "More students seeking 'no objection' to study abroad". Republica. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Tsering, Dolker (17 July 2015). "Losing our young". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nepal ranks second in lung ailment deaths". The Himalayan Times. 12 August 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC), Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP) and Monitoring Evaluation and Operational Research (MEOR) (2019). Nepal Burden of Disease 2017: A Country Report based on the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study (pdf) (Report). Kathmandu, Nepal: NHRC, MoHP, and MEOR. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Over 32,000 HIV infected in Nepal". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Study reveals high prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Nepal". The Himalayan Times. 5 August 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nutrition". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Awale, Sonia. "Nearly half of Nepali children still malnourished". Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Maternal mortality reduction target hard to meet for Nepal: Officials". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "WHO | Reaching Nepal's mothers in time". WHO. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) - Nepal | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Bhattarai, Sewa. "Nepal far from hitting contraceptive target". Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Health insurance plan yet to cover 38 districts in Nepal". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "The Current State of Maternal Health in Nepal". Maternal Health Task Force. 29 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "USDA, WFP to provide school meals". The Himalayan Times. 4 February 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Government has been trying to eliminate open defecation for over a decade. Here's why it hasn't worked". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Nepal". UNHCR. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "A State Within a State: Tibetans in Nepal". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Tibet's Road Ahead: Tibetans lose a haven in Nepal under Chinese pressure". Los Angeles Times. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "UNHCR | Refworld | Nepal: Bhutanese refugees find new life beyond the camps". 8 October 2012. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nepal | Global Focus". reporting.unhcr.org. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "700 illegals set for 3rd-country resettlement". The Himalayan Times. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Bleak outlook for Nepal's urban refugees". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Hansen, Jan Møller. "State of statelessness | Nepali Times". archive.nepalitimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Nepal's government has been quietly facilitating urban refugee resettlement for years". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "नेपालमा अमेरिकादेखि उत्तरकोरियासम्मका कामदार". Online Khabar. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Population of Overseas Indians" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs (India). 31 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- "Regular breaks". Nepal Government. 15 March 2019.
- "Festivals of Nepal". Nepalhomepage.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- "Flag Description". Archived from the original on 10 April 2011.
- compare this copy of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal Archived 1 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "A brief history of Nepali flag and national symbols". "Fantastic Routes" [fantasticroutes.com].
- "११ वर्षपछि राष्ट्रिय एकता दिवस". 11 January 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Hutt, Michael J. (29 July 1991). Himalayan Voices: An Introduction to Modern Nepali Literature. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07048-6.
- Dayananda Bajracharya; Dinesh Raj Bhuju; Jiba Raj Pokhrel (2006). "Science, Research and Technology in Nepal" (PDF). unesco.org. UNESCO. pp. 3–6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Maitra, Kiran Shankar (1982). "The First Poet of Nepali Literature". Indian Literature. 25 (5): 63–71. ISSN 0019-5804. JSTOR 23331113.
- Sharma, V. (1992). "B. P. Koirala: A Major Figure in Modern Nepali Literature". Journal of South Asian Literature. 27 (2): 209–218. ISSN 0091-5637. JSTOR 40874126.
- "Nepali literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Conflict-period Nepali literature ho lds importance for awareness". www.therisingnepal.org.np. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Riccardi, Theodore (1993). "Review of Himalayan Voices: An Introduction to Modern Nepali Literature". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 56 (1): 157–158. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00002007. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 620321.
- "Changing winds in Kollywood". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
- Tarlo, Emma (1996), Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, p. 26, ISBN 978-0-226-78976-7
- Tarlo, Emma (1996), Clothing Matters: Dress and Identity in India, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, pp. 26–28, ISBN 978-0-226-78976-7
- Cite error: The named reference
Rahman-Alkazi2002was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "गुन्यू–चोलो तथा फरिया जोगाउने अभियान". narimag.com.np (in Nepali). Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Last of Tharu jewellry?". The Himalayan Times. 11 August 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- "Defining our food culture". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- D Balasubramanian (16 October 2008). "Potato: historically important vegetable". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Sen, Colleen Taylor (2014), Feasts and Fasts: A History of Food in India, Reaktion Books, pp. 164–165, ISBN 978-1-78023-391-8
- Pathak, Jyoti (2007). Taste of Nepal. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-1121-7.
- Davidson, Alan (2014), The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University Press, p. 409, ISBN 978-0-19-967733-7
- marsh, jenni (16 December 2016). "Momos to Thali: What to eat in Kathmandu". CNN Travel. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Davidson, Alan (2014), The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford University Press, p. 410, ISBN 978-0-19-967733-7
- Sahakian, Marlyne; Saloma, Czarina; Erkman, Suren (2016), Food Consumption in the City: Practices and patterns in urban Asia and the Pacific, Taylor & Francis, p. 50, ISBN 978-1-317-31050-1
- Heaton, Thomas. "Could Nepali cuisine go global?". Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Rai, Jay. Curry Cookbook - Nepal Cuisine. Springwood emedia. ISBN 978-1-4760-4069-1.
- "Why do we need to save frogs? – OnlineKhabar". Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- Upadhyaya, Nagendra. "Surkhet's first homestay to welcome guests from October". My Republica. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "It's official: Volleyball is the national sport of Nepal". English.onlinekhabar.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- "More than just child's play". The Himalayan Times. 25 February 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Nepal's' 'national sport' we never had: Five things you didn't know about dandi-biyo – OnlineKhabar". Online Khabar. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Republica. "Dandi Biyo Championship in Dhading". My Republica. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Nepal announces 12-member men's kabaddi squad for Asian Games 2018". www.sportskeeda.com. 6 August 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Jin, L.Y.; Nievergelt, J., Tiger and goats is a draw (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2019, retrieved 22 July 2019
- Iida, Hiroyuki; Agarwal, Sakshi (1 October 2018). "Analyzing Thousand Years Old Game Tigers and Goats is Still Alive". Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia. 7 (2). Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019 – via ejournals.ukm.my.
- "KUNA : Carrom... Traditional game widely loved in Gulf region – Society – 16/08/2018". www.kuna.net.kw. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Fans, frolic, frenzy await Nepal's Lord's visit". ESPNcricinfo. 29 July 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Cricket-mad Nepal faces infrastructure challenges". Cricinfo. 18 March 2014. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Football at the heart of the Himalayas". FIFA.com. 5 March 2009. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Saff Championship: Nepal eye historic final". kathmandupost.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "Nepal crash out of SAFF C'ship after 3–0 defeat to Maldives". The Himalayan Times. 12 September 2018. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking - Ranking Table - FIFA.com". www.fifa.com. Archived from the original on 7 September 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Nepal make cricket history after securing ODI status". The Week UK. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "'Biggest day in Nepal cricket history' – Khadka". ESPNcricinfo. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
- "ICC Ranking for ODI teams International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "ICC Ranking for T20 teams International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "The Rising Nepal: Current priorities of sports: Hosting SAG, winning medals". therisingnepal.org.np. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- Shah, Rajan. "Will she quench Nepal's thirst for Olympic medals?". My Republica. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- "Malik overall winner, Afghanistan bag team c'ship". The Himalayan Times. 21 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "Cricket, football dominate nominations". The Himalayan Times. 26 June 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "Blind cricketers' horrible journey to WC". The Himalayan Times. 22 January 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- "Nepal defeat Pakistan, seal women's blind cricket series". The Himalayan Times. 4 February 2019. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Katwal, Prabin Bikram. "Renovation of Dasharath Stadium takes forever, hurts nation's football". My Republica. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- "Grounds in Nepal". Cricket Archive. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Adhikari, Bipulendra. "Khawas passes second lieutenant test". My Republica.
- "APF athletes Parki, Koju win 5,000m races". The Himalayan Times. 26 December 2016. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "National Games conclude with concerns over maintenance and upgradation of infrastructure". kathmandupost.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "ICC suspends Cricket Association of Nepal". Cricinfo. 26 April 2016. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "ICC's suspension of CAN continues". My Republica. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- Shaha, Rishikesh (1992). Ancient and Medieval Nepal. New Delhi: Manohar Publications. ISBN 978-81-85425-69-6.
- Tiwari, Sudarshan Raj (2002). The Brick and the Bull: An account of Handigaun, the Ancient Capital of Nepal. Himal Books. ISBN 978-99933-43-52-3.
- "India Nepal Open Border". Nepal Democracy. Archived from the original on 18 October 2005. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
- "Football at the heart of the Himalaya". FIFA. Archived from the original on 9 September 2005. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
- "Nepal: Information Portal". Explore Nepal. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
- Haven, Cynthia (24 August 2010). "The Best Memoir You Never Heard Of: "Shadow Over Shangri-La"". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "Nepal: A state under siege". The South Asian: Featured Articles. Archived from the original on 31 December 2004. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
- "Nepal: Basic Fact Sheet". Nepal homepage. Archived from the original on 24 May 2005. Retrieved 23 September 2005.
- Sharma, Sushil (29 August 2005). "Jailed ex-PM in Nepal court plea". BBC News. Retrieved 29 September 2005.
- "Nepal's new emblem". Citizen Journalism Nepal. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
- Hagmuller, Gotz (2003). Patan Museum: The Transformation of a Royal Palace in Nepal. London: Serindia. ISBN 978-0-906026-58-8.
- Dixit, Kunda (2006). A people war: Images of the Nepal conflict 1996–2006. Kathmandu: nepa-laya.
- Crossette, Barbara (1995). So Close to Heaven: The Vanishing Buddhist Kingdoms of the Himalayas. New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-74363-7.
- Dor Bahadur Bista (1967). People of Nepal. Department of Publicity, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Nepal. ISBN 978-99933-0-418-0.
- Whelpton, John (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80470-7.
- Michael Hutt, ed., Himalayan 'people's war' : Nepal's Maoist rebellion, London: C. Hurst, 2004
- Matthiessen, Peter (1993). The Snow Leopard. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-00-272025-0.
- Simpson, Joe (1997). Storms of Silence. Mountaineers Books. ISBN 978-0-89886-512-7.
- Upadhyay, Samrat (2001). Arresting God in Kathmandu. Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-618-04371-2.
- Joseph R. Pietri (2001). The King of Nepal. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Creative Arts. ISBN 978-0-615-11928-1.
- Herzog, Maurice (1951). Annapurna. The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-55821-549-8.
- Murphy, Dervla (1968). The Waiting Land: A Spell in Nepal. Transatlantic Arts. ISBN 978-0-7195-1745-7.
- Rishikesh Shaha (2001). Modern Nepal: A Political History. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. ISBN 978-81-7304-403-8.
- Jane Wilson-Howarth (2012). A Glimpse of Eternal Snows: a family's journey of love and loss in Nepal. Bradt Travel Guides, UK. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-84162-435-8.
- Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in Nepal. – International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, March 2011
- Nepal from the BBC News
- "Nepal". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Nepal from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Nepal at Curlie
- Nepal Encyclopædia Britannica entry
- Wikimedia Atlas of Nepal
- Geographic data related to Nepal at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Nepal from International Futures