Lotus International Character Set

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The Lotus International Character Set (LICS) is a proprietary single-byte character encoding introduced in 1985 by Lotus Development Corporation. It is based on the 1983 DEC Multinational Character Set (MCS) for VT220 terminals. As such, LICS is also similar to two other descendants of MCS, the ECMA-94 character set of 1985[1] and the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set of 1987.

LICS was first introduced as the character set of Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2 for DOS in 1985.[2][3][4][5] It is also utilized by 2.01,[3][4][5] 2.2,[6][7][8][5] 2.3 and 2.4[9][10][11][12] as well as by Symphony. It was also utilized in a number of third-party spreadsheet products emulating the file format. LICS was superseded by the Lotus Multi-Byte Character Set (LMBCS) introduced by Lotus 1-2-3 Release 3 in 1989.[12]

Character set[edit]

Codepoints 20hex (32) to 7Fhex (127) are identical to ASCII (as well as to LMBCS).[12] For some characters the table also lists dedicated Lotus 1-2-3 compose key sequences to ease character input beyond the Alt Numpad input method.

Lotus International Character Set[8][13]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_ NUL
0000
 
SOH
0001
 
STX
0002
 
ETX
0003
 
EOT
0004
 
ENQ
0005
 
ACK
0006
 
BEL
0007
 
BS
0008
 
HT
0009
 
LF
000A
 
VT
000B
 
FF
000C
 
CR
000D
 
SO
000E
 
SI
000F
 
1_ DLE
0010
 
DC1
0011
 
DC2
0012
 
DC3
0013
 
DC4
0014
 
NAK
0015
 
SYN
0016
 
ETB
0017
 
CAN
0018
 
EM
0019
 
SUB
001A
 
ESC
001B
 
FS
001C
 
GS
001D
 
RS
001E
 
US
001F
 
2_ SP
0020
 
!
0021
 
"
0022
 
#
0023
++
$
0024
 
%
0025
 
&
0026
 
'
0027
 
(
0028
 
)
0029
 
*
002A
 
+
002B
 
,
002C
 
-
002D
 
.
002E
 
/
002F
 
3_ 0
0030
 
1
0031
 
2
0032
 
3
0033
 
4
0034
 
5
0035
 
6
0036
 
7
0037
 
8
0038
 
9
0039
 
:
003A
 
;
003B
 
<
003C
 
=
003D
 
>
003E
 
?
003F
 
4_ @
0040
aa
A
0041
 
B
0042
 
C
0043
 
D
0044
 
E
0045
 
F
0046
 
G
0047
 
H
0048
 
I
0049
 
J
004A
 
K
004B
 
L
004C
 
M
004D
 
N
004E
 
O
004F
 
5_ P
0050
 
Q
0051
 
R
0052
 
S
0053
 
T
0054
 
U
0055
 
V
0056
 
W
0057
 
X
0058
 
Y
0059
 
Z
005A
 
[
005B
((
\
005C
//
]
005D
))
^
005E
vv
_
005F
 
6_ `
0060
 
a
0061
 
b
0062
 
c
0063
 
d
0064
 
e
0065
 
f
0066
 
g
0067
 
h
0068
 
i
0069
 
j
006A
 
k
006B
 
l
006C
 
m
006D
 
n
006E
 
o
006F
 
7_ p
0070
 
q
0071
 
r
0072
 
s
0073
 
t
0074
 
u
0075
 
v
0076
 
w
0077
 
x
0078
 
y
0079
 
z
007A
 
{
007B
(-
|
007C
^/
}
007D
)-
~
007E
--
DEL/
007F/2592
 
8_ `
xxxx?
`SP
´
xxxx?
'SP
^
xxxx?
^SP
"
xxxx?
"SP
~
xxxx?
~SP
9_ `
xxxx?
SP`
´
xxxx?
SP'
^
xxxx?
SP^
"
xxxx?
SP"
~
xxxx?
SP~
ı
0131
iSP
‗?
2017?
_SP

25B2
ba

25BC
ea
NBSP
00A0
SP SP

2190
mg
A_ ƒ
0192
ff
¡
00A1
!!
¢
00A2
c/
£
00A3
l-

201C
"^
¥
00A5
y-

20A7
pt
§
00A7
so
¤
00A4
xo
©
00A9
co
ª
00AA
a_
«
00AB
<<
Δ
0394
dd
π
03C0
pi

2265
>=
÷
00F7
:-
B_ °
00B0
^0
±
00B1
+-
²
00B2
^2
³
00B3
^3

201E
"v
µ/μ
00B5/03BC
/u

00B6
!p
·
00B7
^.

2122
tm
¹
00B9
^1
º
00BA
o_
»
00BB
>>
¼
00BC
14
½
00BD
12

2264
=<
¿
00BF
??
C_ À
00C0
A`
Á
00C1
A'
Â
00C2
A^
Ã
00C3
A~
Ä
00C4
A"
Å
00C5
A*
Æ
00C6
AE
Ç
00C7
C,
È
00C8
E`
É
00C9
E'
Ê
00CA
E^
Ë
00CB
E"
Ì
00CC
I`
Í
00CD
I'
Î
00CE
I^
Ï
00CF
I"
D_ Ð
00D0
D-
Ñ
00D1
N~
Ò
00D2
O`
Ó
00D3
O'
Ô
00D4
O^
Õ
00D5
O~
Ö
00D6
O"
Œ
0152
OE
Ø
00D8
O/
Ù
00D9
U`
Ú
00DA
U'
Û
00DB
U^
Ü
00DC
U"
Ÿ
0178
Y"
Þ
00DE
P-
ß
00DF
ss
E_ à
00E0
a`
á
00E1
a'
â
00E2
a^
ã
00E3
a~
ä
00E4
a"
å
00E5
a*
æ
00E6
ae
ç
00E7
c,
è
00E8
e`
é
00E9
e'
ê
00EA
e^
ë
00EB
e"
ì
00EC
i`
í
00ED
i'
î
00EE
i^
ï
00EF
i"
F_ ð
00F0
d-
ñ
00F1
n~
ò
00F2
o`
ó
00F3
o'
ô
00F4
o^
õ
00F5
o~
ö
00F6
o"
œ
0153
oe
ø
00F8
o/
ù
00F9
u`
ú
00FA
u'
û
00FB
u^
ü
00FC
u"
ÿ
00FF
y"
þ
00FE
p-

  Letter   Number   Punctuation   Symbol   Other  Undefined   Differences from ISO-8859-1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Standard ECMA-94: 8-bit Single-Byte Coded Graphic Character Set (PDF) (1 ed.). European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). March 1985 [1984-12-14]. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-01. […] Since 1982 the urgency of the need for an 8-bit single-byte coded character set was recognized in ECMA as well as in ANSI/X3L2 and numerous working papers were exchanged between the two groups. In February 1984 ECMA TC1 submitted to ISO/TC97/SC2 a proposal for such a coded character set. At its meeting of April 1984 SC decided to submit to TC97 a proposal for a new item of work for this topic. Technical discussions during and after this meeting led TC1 to adopt the coding scheme proposed by X3L2. Part 1 of Draft International Standard DTS 8859 is based on this joint ANSI/ECMA proposal. […] Adopted as an ECMA Standard by the General Assembly of Dec. 13–14, 1984. […]
  2. ^ Schemenaur, P. J. (1986-10-27). "Firm to Debut Clone Version of Lotus 1-2-3 - Program Offers 2.0 Compatibility". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2016-11-29. […] Twin Release 2 keeps the IBM extended character set of Version 1A, rather than Release 2.0's Lotus International Character Set, which […] causes problems with commercial templates designed for Lotus 1-2-3, Release 1A. […]
  3. ^ a b Attia, Zayn 'Utbah (2015-03-11). "ASCII graphic characters, range names". Computer Tips. Archived from the original on 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2016-11-29. […] Release 1A's capability to use extended graphics characters to dress up a screen was an undocumented feature. These characters allowed you to draw boxes and add special symbols on the screen. With Release 2, Lotus has assigned different meanings to these characters, the Lotus International Character Set, LICS. Any these extended characters must be erased or replaced with regular keyboard characters before the character can appear acceptable on an Release 2 screen. Release 2.01 offers an install option to use extended characters rather than LICS characters. […]
  4. ^ a b Cobb, Douglas; Cobb, Steven (1988-10-31). "Spreadsheet clinic: How to adjust SuperCalc's financial functions to analyze annuities due, create flashing screen messages in 1-2-3, and access upper-level ASCII characters in Quattro and 1-2-3". PC Magazine: 411. Archived from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-01. […] Unlike 1-2-3, Quattro uses the ASCII character set. By default, 1-2-3, Release 2.01, uses the Lotus International Character Set (LICS) — the same character set that Release 2.0 always uses […] you can command Release 2.01 to use the ASCII character set, just as Quattro does. […] load the install program, and select Advanced Options […] select TextDisplay […] choose Universal Text Display — ASCII-No LICS […] Now, when you load 1-2-3 using the modified driver set, the @CHAR function will produce upper-level ASCII characters […] (NB. By "Upper-level ASCII", the authors actually meant the 8-bit OEM character set.)
  5. ^ a b c "Kapitel 4. Kompatibilität mit anderen 1-2-3 Versionen - Zeichensätze" [Chapter 4. Compatility with other 1-2-3 Versions - Character Sets]. Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.1 Upgrader's Handbuch [Upgrader's handbook] (in German) (1 ed.). Cambridge, MA, USA: Lotus Development Corporation. 1989. pp. 4–10 – 4–11. 302173.
  6. ^ "HP 95LX". InfoWorld: 72. 1991-12-16. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  7. ^ Matzkin, Jonathan (July 1991). "Hewlett-Packard Co. HP 95LX Palmtop PC". PC Magazine: 216, 220, 222. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  8. ^ a b HP 95LX User's Guide (PDF) (2 ed.). Corvallis, OR, USA: Hewlett-Packard Company, Corvallis Division. June 1991 [March 1991]. pp. E-1–E-3, F-1–F-7. F0001-90003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2016-11-27. All the HP 95LX applications use […] code page 850 […] except 1-2-3, which uses LICS, the Lotus International Character Set. Most LICS characters are included in code page 850; the few that are not will not display […] If your HP 95LX cannot display […] or if your printer cannot print a LICS character, the HP 95LX uses a fallback presentation for that character […]
  9. ^ Lee, Yvonne (1993-05-03). "HP 100LX rolled out as successor to palmtop". InfoWorld: 27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  10. ^ Marshall, Patrick (1993-08-23). "Hewlett-Packard makes a good thing better by packing 100LX with features". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  11. ^ "Questions and Answers about HP Palmtops: Q. What software is built into the 200LX ROM?". The HP Palmtop Paper Online. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  12. ^ a b c Kamenz, Alfred; Vonhoegen, Helmut (1992). Das große Buch zu Lotus 1-2-3 für DOS (in German) (1 ed.). Data Becker. pp. 131–132, 357–358. ISBN 3-89011-375-3.
  13. ^ "Anhang 2. Der Lotus Multibyte Zeichensatz (LMBCS)" [Appendix 2. The Lotus Multibyte Character Set (LMBCS)]. Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.1 Referenzhandbuch [Lotus 1-2-3 Version 3.1 Reference Manual] (in German) (1 ed.). Cambridge, MA, USA: Lotus Development Corporation. 1989. pp. A2–1 – A2–13. 302168. (While for Lotus 1-2-3 Release 3.1+ for DOS, the manual also contains a few notes on LICS.)

Further reading[edit]