List of countries by income equality

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This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income—and everyone else has no income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.[1][2]

UN and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indices[edit]

Click sorting buttons to sort alphabetically or numerically. Can sort in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left sorts independently from the columns to the right of it.

Key:
R/P 10%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.
R/P 20%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.
Gini: Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.
UN: Data from the United Nations Development Programme.
CIA: Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.

Country UN R/P World Bank Gini[3] CIA R/P[4] CIA Gini[5]
10%[6] 20%[7] % Year 10% Year % Year

 Afghanistan 27.8 2008
 Albania 7.2 4.3 29.0 2012 7.2 2004 26.9 2012 est.
 Algeria 9.6 4.0 27.6 2011 9.6 1995 35.3 1995
 Angola 9.0 42.7 2008
 Argentina 31.6 9.5 42.4 2016 35.0 2007 Jan.–Mar. 41.7 2017
 Armenia 8.0 5.1 32.4 2015 25.8 2004 30.3 2012
 Australia 12.5 5.8 34.7 2010 12.7 1994 30.3 2008
European Union Austria 6.9 4.9 30.5 2014 6.8 2004 26.3 2007
 Azerbaijan 9.7 2.3 31.8 2008 9.5 2001 33.7 2008
 Bahrain
 Bangladesh 7.5 4.8 32.0 2010 7.5 2000 est. 32.1 2010
 Belarus 6.9 3.8 26.7 2015 6.9 2002 26.5 2011
European Union Belgium 8.2 4.2 28.1 2014 8.3 2000 25.9 2013 est.
 Belize 28.8 26.6 53.3 1999 19.9 2013 49.8 2014
 Benin 9.4 16.3 47.8 2015 9.4 2003 36.5 2003
 Bhutan 6.9 38.7 2012 38.7 2012
 Bolivia 93.9 12.6 45.8 2015 157.3 2002 46.6 2012
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.4 5.3 33.1 2007 5.5 2001 36.2 2007
 Botswana 43.0 23.2 60.5 2009 63.0 1993
 Brazil 13.5 13.9 46.9 2017 13.3 2013 47.5 2013
European Union Bulgaria 7.0 7.3 37.4 2014 8.8 2005 35.4 2012
 Burkina Faso 11.6 5.3 35.3 2014 11.5 2003 39.5 2007
 Burundi 19.3 6.7 39.2 2013 19.3 1998 42.4 1998
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Cambodia 12.2 7.3 30.8 2012 12.0 2004 37.9 2008 est.
 Cameroon 15.7 11.5 46.5 2014 15.4 2001 44.6 2001
 Canada 9.4 6.2 34.0 2013 9.5 2000 32.1 2005
 Cabo Verde 10.7 47.2 2007
 Central African Republic 69.2 18.4 56.2 2008 68.1 1993 61.3 1993
 Chad 10.0 43.3 2011 43.3 2011 est.
 Chile 26.2 11.2 47.7 2015 32.1 2003 52.1 2009
 China 21.6 9.2 38.6 2015 21.8 2004 46.5 2016
 Colombia 60.4 14.3 50.8 2016 56.3 2008 53.5 2012
 Comoros 11.2 45.0 2013
 DR Congo 8.8 42.1 2012
 Congo, Republic of the 40.2 2011
 Costa Rica 23.4 12.9 48.7 2016 37.3 2003 50.3 2009
 Côte d'Ivoire 16.6 8.4 41.7 2015 17.0 2002 41.5 2008
European Union Croatia 7.3 5.2 32.2 2014 7.2 2003 est. 32.0 2010
 Cuba
European Union Cyprus 5.3 35.6 2014 32.4 2013 est.
European Union Czech Republic 5.2 3.7 25.9 2014 5.2 1996 24.9 2012
European Union Denmark 8.1 4.0 28.5 2014 12.0 2000 est. 24.8 2011 est.
 Djibouti 10.2 44.1 2013 40.9 2002
 Dominican Republic 25.3 10.4 45.3 2016 18.8 2012 45.7 2012 est.
 Ecuador 35.2 10.7 45 2016 17.5 2006 Oct.[8] 48.5 2013 Dec.[8]
 Egypt 8.0 4.6 31.8 2015 8.0 2000 30.8 2008
 El Salvador 38.6 7.9 40 2016 55.4 2002 46.9 2007
 Equatorial Guinea
European Union Estonia 10.8 5.4 34.6 2014 11.0 2003 32.9 2013
 Ethiopia 6.6 7.1 33.2 2010 6.5 2000 33.0 2011
 European Union 8.6 2015 est. 30.6 2012 est.
 Fiji 5.8 36.4 2013
European Union Finland 5.6 3.9 26.8 2014 5.7 2000 26.8 2008
European Union France 9.1 5.2 32.3 2014 8.3 2004 30.1 2013
 Gabon 8.4 38 2017
 The Gambia 20.2 5.9 47.3 2003 20.6 1998 50.2 1998
 Georgia 15.4 6.5 36.5 2016 15.2 2003 46.0 2011
European Union Germany 6.9 5.1 31.4 2013 6.9 2000 27.0 2006
 Ghana 14.1 8.9 42.8 2006 13.7 1999 42.3 2012–2013
European Union Greece 10.2 7.1 35.8 2014 10.4 2000 est. 34.4 2013 est.
 Guatemala 33.9 11.9 48.7 2014 48.2 2002 55.1 2007
 Guinea 10.5 5.5 33.7 2012 21.6 2006 39.4 2007
 Guinea-Bissau 19.0 12.6 50.7 2010 84.8 1991
 Guyana 44.5 1998 26.0 1999 44.6 2007
 Haiti 54.4 8.6 60.8 2012 68.1 2001 59.2 2001
 Honduras 59.4 16.9 50 2016 35.2 2003 57.7 2007
 Hong Kong 17.8 53.7 2011
European Union Hungary 5.5 4.9 30.9 2014 5.6 2002 24.7 2009
 Iceland 3.6 25.6 2014 28.0 2006
 India 8.6 5.3 35.7 2011 8.6 2004 35.1 2011
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Indonesia 7.8 6.6 38.1 2017 7.9 2002 38.8 2018
 Iran 17.2 7.2 38.8 2014 16.9 1998 44.5 2006
 Iraq 4.4 29.5 2012
European Union Ireland 9.4 5.1 31.9 2014 9.4 2000 33.9 2010
 Israel 13.4 9.8 41.4 2012 11.8 2005 37.6 2012
European Union Italy 11.6 6.6 34.7 2014 11.7 2000 31.9 2012 est.
 Jamaica 17.3 45.5 2004 17.0 2004 45.5 2004
 Japan 4.5 5.4 32.1 2008 4.5 1993 37.9 2011
 Jordan 11.3 5.2 35.4 2010 11.3 2003 39.7 2007
 Kazakhstan 8.5 3.7 26.5 2015 8.0 2004 est. 28.9 2011
 Kenya 13.6 11.5 47.7 2005 18.6 2000 42.5 2008 est.
 North Korea
 South Korea 7.8 5.3 31.6 2012 5.9 2011 34.1 2015
 Kosovo 26.5 2016
 Kuwait
 Kyrgyzstan 6.4 3.7 26.8 2016 6.4 2003 33.4 2007
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Laos 8.3 5.9 37.9 2012 8.4 2002 36.7 2008
European Union Latvia 11.6 5.8 35.1 2014 11.6 2003 35.2 2010
 Lebanon 5.1
 Lesotho 39.8 20.8 54.2 2015 48.2 2002 est. 63.2 1995
 Liberia 12.8 5.4 33.2 2014
 Libya
European Union Lithuania 10.4 7.2 37.7 2014 10.3 2003 35.5 2009
European Union Luxembourg 5.0 31.2 2014 6.8 2000 30.4 2013 est.
 Macau 35 2013
 North Macedonia 12.5 7.3 35.6 2015 12.3 2003 43.6 2013
 Madagascar 19.2 8.7 40.6 2010 19.3 2001 47.5 2001
 Malawi 10.9 9.4 46.1 2010 11.0 2004 39.0 2004
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Malaysia 22.1 11.2 41 2015 28.0 2003 est. 46.2 2009
 Maldives 7.0 36.8 2009 37.4 2004 est.
 Mali 12.5 5.2 33.0 2010 12.6 2001 40.1 2001
European Union Malta 4.4 27.9 2013
 Mauritania 12.0 5.4 32.4 2015 11.8 2000 39.0 2000
 Mauritius 5.9 35.8 2012 35.9 2012 est.
 Mexico 21.6 8.8 43.4 2016 24.6 2004 48.3 2008
 Micronesia 8.4 40.1 2013
 Moldova 8.2 3.7 26.3 2016 8.3 2003 33.0 2010
 Mongolia 8.2 5.1 32.3 2016 8.2 2002 36.5 2008
 Montenegro 4.8 31.9 2015 26.2 2013 est.
 Morocco 11.7 7.4 40.7 2007 11.9 1999 40.9 2007 est.
 Mozambique 18.8 14.2 45.6 2008 18.8 2002 45.6 2008
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Myanmar 6.3 38.1 2015 11.6 1998
 Namibia 106.6 20.1 59.1 2015 129.0 2003 59.7 2010
 Nepal 15.8 5.0 32.8 2010 15.6 2004 32.8 2010
European Union Netherlands 9.2 4.4 28.6 2014 9.2 1999 25.1 2013
 New Zealand 12.4 36.2 1997
 Nicaragua 31.0 10.2 46.6 2014 15.4 2001 40.5 2010
 Niger 46.0 5.4 34.0 2014 44.3 1995 34.0 2007
 Nigeria 17.8 9.1 43.0 2009 17.5 2003 43.7 2003
 Norway 6.1 4.1 26.8 2014 6.0 2000 26.8 2010
 Oman
 Pakistan 6.5 4.4 30.7 2013 6.6 2002 29.6 2011 FY
 Panama 49.9 16.6 50.4 2016 61.4 2003 51.9 2010 est.
 Papua New Guinea 23.8 9.3 43.9 2009 23.8 1996 50.9 1996
 Paraguay 38.8 11.8 47.9 2016 65.9 2003 53.2 2009
 Peru 26.1 10.6 43.8 2016 31.5 2003 45.3 2012
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Philippines 15.5 7.2 40.1 2015 15.5 2003 46.0 2012
European Union Poland 8.8 5.0 32.1 2014 8.7 2002 34.1 2009
European Union Portugal 15.0 6.4 35.6 2014 9.2 1995 est. 34.2 2013 est.
 Qatar 41.1 2007
European Union Romania 7.5 4.3 27.5 2013 7.4 2003 27.3 2012
 Russia 12.7 6.6 37.7 2015 12.8 2002 42 2012
 Rwanda 18.6 11.0 50.4 2013 18.2 2000 46.8 2000
 Sao Tome and Principe 4.7 30.8 2010
 Saudi Arabia 45.9 2013 est.
 Senegal 12.3 7.7 40.3 2011 12.4 2001 40.3 2011
 Serbia 4.2 29.1 2013 38.7 2014 est.
 Seychelles 9.8 46.8 2013
 Sierra Leone 87.2 5.4 34.0 2011 87.2 1989 62.9 1989
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Singapore 17.7 17.3 1998 46.4 2014
European Union Slovakia 6.7 4.1 26.1 2014 6.7 1996 25.3 2012
European Union Slovenia 5.9 3.7 25.7 2014 5.9 1998 23.7 2012
 Somalia
 South Africa 33.1 28.4 63.0 2014 31.9 2000 62.5 2013 est.
 South Sudan 13.0 45.5 2009 46.0 2010 est.
European Union Spain 10.3 7.3 36.0 2014 10.2 2000 34.0 2011
 Sri Lanka 11.1 6.8 39.8 2016 36.1 2003/04 FY 49.0 2010
 St. Lucia 42.6 1995
 Sudan 6.2 35.4 2009
 Suriname 57.6 1999
 Eswatini 25.1 14.2 51.5 2010 25.4 2001 50.4 2001
European Union Sweden 6.2 4.6 27.2 2014 6.2 2000 24.9 2013
 Switzerland 9.0 5.2 32.5 2013 8.9 2000 28.7 2012 est.
 Syria 35.8 2004
 Taiwan 6.1 2002 est. 33.8 2012
 Tajikistan 7.8 5.6 34.0 2015 7.8 2003 32.6 2006
 Tanzania 9.2 6.2 37.8 2011 9.3 2000 37.6 2007
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Thailand 12.6 6.5 36.5 2017 12.4 2002 39.4 2010
 Timor-Leste 4.1 31.6 2007 31.9 2007 est.
 Togo 9.7 43.0 2015
 Trinidad and Tobago 12.9 40.3 1992
 Tunisia 13.4 6.4 35.8 2010 13.7 2000 40.0 2005 est.
 Turkey 6.6 8.5 41.9 2016 17.1 2003 40.2 2010
 Turkmenistan 12.3 43.2 2011 12.2 1998 40.8 1998
 Uganda 16.6 7.5 42.8 2016 16.4 2002 39.5 2013
 Ukraine 5.9 3.5 25.5 2015 7.6 2006 28.2 2009
 United Arab Emirates
European Union United Kingdom 13.8 5.4 34.1 2014 13.6 1999 32.4 2012
 United States 18.5 9.4 41.5 2016 14.0 2014 est. 47.0 2014
 Uruguay 11.8 7.9 39.7 2016 17.9 2003 45.3 2010
 Uzbekistan 10.6 36.7 2003 10.6 2003 36.8 2003
 Venezuela 18.8 15.8 46.9 2006 50.3 2003 39.0 2011
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Vietnam 6.9 5.9 35.3 2016 10.0 2004 37.6 2008
 Palestine 5.5 35.5 2009
 Yemen 8.6 6.1 36.7 2014 8.6 2003 37.7 2005
 Zambia 21.1 57.1 2015 57.5 2010
 Zimbabwe 8.6 43.2 2011 50.1 2006
 World 12.0 2002 est. 38.0 2007

Other estimates for the World: Gini = 63.0 in 2006 (Lafuente et al, 2006).[9]

OECD countries[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[edit]

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers[10]
Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

 Australia 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.468
European Union Austria 0.433 0.472
European Union Belgium 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
 Canada 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
 Chile 0.441 0.414 0.426
European Union Czech Republic 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
European Union Denmark 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
European Union Estonia 0.504 0.458
European Union Finland 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
European Union France 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
European Union Germany 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
European Union Greece 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
European Union Hungary 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
 Iceland 0.365 0.382
European Union Ireland
 Israel 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
European Union Italy 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
 Japan 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
European Union Luxembourg 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
 Mexico 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
European Union Netherlands 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
 New Zealand 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
 Norway 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
European Union Poland 0.542 0.470
European Union Portugal 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
European Union Slovak Republic 0.458 0.416
European Union Slovenia 0.452 0.423
 South Korea 0.331 0.344
European Union Spain 0.461
European Union Sweden 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
 Switzerland 0.409
 Turkey 0.470
European Union United Kingdom 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
 United States 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[edit]

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers[10]
Country mid-70s mid-80s around 1990 mid-90s around 2000 mid-2000s Late 2000s

 Australia 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
 Austria 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
 Belgium 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
 Canada 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
 Chile 0.427 0.403 0.394
 Czech Republic 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
 Denmark 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
 Estonia 0.349 0.315
 Finland 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
 France 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
 Germany 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
 Greece 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
 Hungary 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
 Iceland 0.257 0.301
 Ireland 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
 Israel 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
 Italy 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
 Japan 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
 Luxembourg 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
 Mexico 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
 Netherlands 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
 New Zealand 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
 Norway 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
 Poland 0.316 0.349 0.305
 Portugal 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
 Slovak Republic 0.268 0.257
 Slovenia 0.246 0.236
 South Korea 0.306 0.315
 Spain 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
 Sweden 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
 Switzerland 0.279 0.276 0.303
 Turkey 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
 United Kingdom 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
 United States 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 Archived 2012-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. Global & Local Economic Review.
  2. ^ The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.
  3. ^ World Bank GINI index, accessed on November 3, 2017.
  4. ^ Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.
  5. ^ Distribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
  6. ^ Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.
  7. ^ "Human Development Reports". hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  8. ^ a b Data for urban households only.
  9. ^ Lafuente Lechuga, Matilde; Losa Carmona, Antonio; Sánchez Martínez, Antonio. 2016. «Análisis de la evolución de la desigualdad económica mundial en los últimos años» (pdf). XVI Jornadas de ASEPUMA y II Encuentro Internacional. Consultado el 12 de abril de 2014.
  10. ^ a b OECD. "Income Distribution and Poverty : by country –I nequalityY". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]