Northwest Maidu language
|Native to||United States|
The Northwest Maidu language (also called Concow-Maidu, Konkow — or Koyoomk'awi, in the language itself) is a part of the Maiduan language group. The word koyoo means, "meadow", with the additional 'm' being the adjective form of the word. 'Koyoo+ [m, adj.] k'awi + [m, adj.] Ma'a [tribe].' It is spoken in California. It is severely endangered, with three remaining elders who learned to speak it as a first language, one of whom is deaf. As part of an effort to regain official recognition as a federally recognized tribe, an effort to provide language instruction amongst the descendants of the original tribe and affiliated family members has begun.
One source supports the claim that Northwest Maidu had at least 9 dialects, designated today according to the locality in which each was spoken. These dialects were: Otaki; Mikchopdo; Cherokee; Eskeni; Pulga; Nemsu; Feather Falls; Challenge; and Bidwell Bar. Lexicon of each remains scant. In addition, there may have been many family variations within each dialect group; thus, certainly there was no one Konkow language, but Konkow means a phonologically distinct pronunciation from what is popularly defined as 'Maidu' or 'Mountain Maidu', namely in terms of stress patterns on lexicon. According to limited historical data, by the turn of the 19th century there were only four of these dialects still being spoken.
The name "Konkow" has been variously spelled Concow and Konkau. The language is also known as Maidu (Meidoo), Holólupai, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne (Sekumne), Tsamak, Yuba, and the pejorative "Digger".
Since 2002, a dialect which could be called "Modern Konkow," based on what is conventionally called the Cherokee dialect of Konkow, has come into limited use by some California Native Americans with cultural and familial ties to the old Konkow tribe. This dialect is primarily based on the dialect as learned by Mary Jones, one of the last speakers of Old Konkow, who learned the dialect that was spoken in the vicinity of Cherokee, California. It is being promulgated with a DVD-based course of study called "Twenty-two Lessons in the Koyoongk'awi Language".
As of 2010, .mp3 learning materials of the Mechoopda dialect were also available, based on old recordings of Emma Cooper, made during the 1940s as a part of the war effort. Also based on the Emma Cooper recordings, a "Konkow Toddler" app was released for iPhone, iPad, and other iOS devices in July 2012.
The affricate /t͡sʼ/ may also be realized as [t͡ʃ~t͡ʃʼ] allophonically.
Vowel length is also present.
- "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English". www.census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
- Northwest Maidu at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Northwest Maidu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- "Tribal History". Feather Falls Casino. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
- Renaissance, Maidu (21 August 2007). "Konkow We'wejbo'sis Project 2007- 2011: Concow Language, Annette De Brotherton". Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- Meridith J. Cooper (2010-09-30). "Preserving Mechoopda tradition - A young tribe member creates a learning program using old recordings of the native language". Chico News & Review. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- "TinkR' Labs launches Konkow Toddler for iOS devices". MacMegasite. 2012-07-30. Archived from the original on 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- "Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association". Retrieved 2012-09-04.
- Ultan, Russell (1961). Konkow Grammar. University of California, Berkely.
|Northwest Maidu language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Konkow language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages
- Recording of Konkow Maidu
- Language Instruction available on Konkow Maidu Cultural Preservation Association website
- Chestnut, Victor King (1902). Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Government Printing Office. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- OLAC resources in and about the Northwest Maidu language
- Concow language, California Language Archive (archived from  March 4, 2016)
- Konkow Bibliography
- Konkow basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database