|Regions with significant populations|
|Khas language and regional dialects (e.g. Doteli language) in Nepal; Kumaoni and Garhwali in Uttarakhand|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Pahari people, Kumaoni people, Garhwali people, Other Indo-Aryan peoples|
Khas people (Nepali: खस) also called Khas Arya[nb 1] (Nepali: खस आर्य) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group native to the Indian subcontinent, what is now present-day Nepal as well as Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal regions of North India. The Khas people speak the Khas language. They were also known as Parbatiyas and Paharis. The term Khas has now become obsolete, as the Khas people have adopted other identities such as Chhetri and Bahun, because of the negative stereotypes associated with the term Khas.
They have been connected to the Khasas mentioned in the ancient Hindu literature. Historian Bal Krishna Sharma and Dor Bahadur Bista speculates that the Khas people were of Indo-European origin. Historian Baburam Acharya speculates that Khas are a sub-clan of Aiḍa, an Arya clan originated at Idavritt (modern day Kashmir).[nb 2] Khas were living in the Idavaritt in the 3rd millennium B.C.E. and the original meaning of the term Khas was Raja or Kshatriya (Yoddha). He further speculates that Kashmir has been named from its local residents Khas as Khasmir. In the 2nd millennium B.C.E., one group of Khas migrated towards Iran while the other group migrated east of Sutlej river settling only in the hill regions up to Bheri River. Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel contends that Khas were not the Vedic Aryans but Aryans of latter period like the Gurjara, Darada, Shaka, Pallava and Pisacha. He further asserts that post-Vedic Aryans were akin to Vedic Aryans in terms of language and culture.
Khas are believed to have arrived in the western reaches of Nepal at the beginning of first-millennium B.C. or middle of first-millennium A.D. from the north-west. It is likely that they absorbed people from different ethnic groups during this immigration. They have been connected to the medieval Khasa Malla kingdom. In the initial phase, majority of Khas people became Brahmins and others became Kshatriyas.
Until the 19th century, the Gorkhali referred to their country as Khas Desh (Khas country). As they annexed the various neighbouring countries (such as Newar of the Newar people) to the Gorkha kingdom, the terms such as Khas and Newar ceased to be used as the names of countries. The 1854 legal code (Muluki Ain), promulgated by the Nepali Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, himself a Khas, no longer referred to Khas as a country, rather as a jāt (species or community) within the Gorkha kingdom.
The Shah dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom, as well as the succeeding Rana dynasty, spoke the Khas language (now called the Nepali language). However, they claimed to be Rajputs of western Indian origin, rather than the native Khas Kshatriyas. Since outside Nepal, the Khas social status was seen as inferior to that of the Rajputs, the rulers started describing themselves as natives of the Hill country, rather than that of the Khas country. Most people, however, considered the terms Khas and Parbatiya (Pahari or Hill people) as synonymous.
Jung Bahadur also re-labeled the Khas jāt as Chhetri in present-day Nepal. Originally, the Brahmin immigrants from the plains considered the Khas as low-caste because of the latter's neglect of high-caste taboos (such as alcohol abstinence). The upper-class Khas people commissioned the Bahun (Brahmin) priests to initiate them into the high-caste Chhetri order and adopted high-caste manners. Other Khas families who could not afford to (or did not care to) pay the Bahun priests also attempted to assume the Chhetri status but were not recognized as such by others. They are now called Matwali (alcohol-drinking) Chhetris.
Khas language, Belongs to the north Indo-Aryan Hill group as shown as Nepali, in purple
Because of the adoption of the Chhetri identity, the term Khas is rapidly becoming obsolete. According to Dor Bahadur Bista (1991), "the Khas have vanished from the ethnographic map of Nepal".
Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel writes the communities or caste in Khas group were Brahman, Chhetri, Gharti, Damai, Kami, Sarki, Hudka, Tamote, Gaine, Badi, etc. The tribal designation Khas refers to in some contexts only to the upper-class Khas group, i.e. Bahun and Chhetri, but in other contexts may also include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kāmi (blacksmiths), Damāi (tailors), and Sārki (shoemakers and leather workers). Khas people are addressed with the term Khayan or Parbatiya or Partyā, Parbaté meaning hill-dweller by Newars. The hill Khas tribe are in large part associated with the Gorkhali invaders.
The Khas people originally referred to their language as Khas kurā (Khas speech), which was also known as Parbatiya (language of the hill country). The Newar people used the term Khayan Bhaya, Parbatiya and Gorkhali as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors. The Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage. In an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas past, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term Nepal (after Newar) to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, the Gorkha government also adopted this term to describe their country. Subsequently, the Khas language also came to be known as Nepali language. It has become a national language of Nepal and lingua franca among the majority of population of North Bengal, Sikkim and Bhutan.
Modern-day Khas people are referred as Khas Brahmin (commonly called as Khas Bahun), Khas Rajput (commonly called as Khas Chhetri) and Khas Dalit. Khas people are popularly referred in modern times as Khas Arya. As per the explanation of legal provisions of Constitution of Nepal, Khas Arya comprises Brahmin, Kshetri, Thakur and Sanyasi (Dashnami) community. This legal provision excludes Khas Dalits.They are denied quota and reservations in civil services and other sectors due to their history of socio-political dominance in Nepal. But they are allowed reservation in federal parliament and provincial legislature. The European Union has been accused of direct interference, creating ethnic strife and negative discrimination towards Khas Arya due to their recommendation to remove the reservation for Khas Aryas.
|Khas group||Caste or surname|
|Chhetri||Chhetri (Kshatriya), K.C., Karki, Khulal, Bhandari, Khadka, Bisht, Bohora, Chauhan, Thapa, Khatri, Kunwar, Basnet/Basnyat, Gharti-Chhetri (G.C.), Khatri-Chhetri (K.C.), Silwal, Punwar/Panwar, Rawat[disambiguation needed]/Raut, Rana, Ranabhat/Ranavat, Bogati, Budhathoki (B.C.), Jamwal, Baruwal, Katwal, Rawal, Rayamajhi, Pandey, Dangi (D.C.), Dahal, Buda Ghimire|
|Purniya Bahun||Acharya, Adhikari, Bajgain, Baral, Banskota, Banstola, Bhandari, Bhattarai, Chaulagai, Chapagain, Dahal (Rupakheti), Devkota, Dhungel, Ghimirey, Guragain, Humagain, Khanal, Koirala, Lamsal/Lamshal, Nepal, Pokharel, Poudel, Rijal, Sigdel, Sanjel, Subedi|
|Kumai Bahun||Awasthi, Bhatta, Bhetwal, Chiluwal, Gyawali, Joshi, Kadel/Kandel, Kharel, Lohani, Mainali, Oli, Pandey, Paneru, Panta, Pathak, Prasai, Regmi, Sangraula, Sedhai, Shiwakoti/Siwakoti, Simkhada, Sitaula, Thapaliya, Upreti|
|Bishwokarma||Bika, Kami, Lohar, Sunar, Od, Chunanra, Parki, Tamata|
|Dalit||Pariyar (Damai, Darjee, Suchikar, Nagarchee, Dholee, Hudke), Mijar (Sarki, Charmakar, Bhool), Gaine, Baadi|
|Thakuri||Thakuri, Bam, Banshi, Barma, Chand, Dev, Hamal, Khand, Malla, Paal, Rathore, Raya, Samal, Sen, Shah, Shahi, Singh, Deuba|
|Dashnami Sanyasi||Giri, Puri, Bharathi, Ban, Tirtha, Parvat, Sagar, Saraswati, Aashram, Aranya|
Procession of Nepali Hindu Wedding; groom wears Dhaka dress used only by Khas Parbattia community
Jhakri, a shamanistic practice evident in modern Khas people in Darjeeling, India
In Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand in India, too, the term Khas has become obsolete. The Khas (or Khasia) people of Kumaon adopted the self-designation Kumaoni Jiagahari Rajput, after being elevated to the Rajput status by the Chand kings. The term Khas is almost obsolete, and people resent being addressed as Khas because of the negative stereotypes associated with this term.
Khas Malla dynasty rulers
- Nāgarāja also known as Jāveśvara
- Cāpa, son of Nāgarāja
- Cāpilla, son of Cāpa
- Krāśicalla, son of Cāpilla
- Krādhicalla, son of Krāśicalla
- Krācalla, son of Krādhicalla
- Aśokacalla, son of Krācalla
- Jitārimalla, first son of Aśokcalla
- Ānandamalla, second son of Aśokcalla
- Ripumalla (1312–13), son of Ānandamalla
- Saṃgrāmamalla, son of Ripumalla
- Ādityamalla, son of Jitārimalla
- Kalyāṇamalla, son of either Ādityamalla or Saṃgrāmamalla
- Pratāpamalla, son of Kalyāṇamalla, had no scions
- Puṇyamalla,  of another Khas family of (Purang royalty)
- Pṛthvīmalla, son of Puṇyamalla
- Bir Bhadra Thapa
- Sanukaji Amar Singh Thapa
- Bhimsen Thapa and Thapa dynasty
- Jung Bahadur Rana and Rana dynasty
- Basnyat family
- Historian Baburam Acharya speculates that in the 3rd millennium B.C.E., there were two clans of Arya in the northern Indian subcontinent; Aiḍa and Mānava. Aiḍa who were named after their homeland Iḍavritt (modern day Kashmir), settled over Panjab and Ganga-Jamuna plain while Mānava settled over Awadh region. Chandravanshi kings like Bharata and Yudhisthir belonged to Aiḍa while Suryavanshi kings like Ramachandra belonged to Mānava. Later, Aiḍa built dominion over Magadh while Mānava had dominion over Videha.
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- Hagen & Thapa 1998, p. 114.
- William Brook Northey & C. J. Morris 1928, p. 123.
- K. S. Singh 2005, p. 851.
- Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 48.
- John T Hitchcock 1978, pp. 112-119.
- Sharma 1999, p. 181.
- Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 47.
- Acharya 1975, p. 199.
- Acharya 1975, p. 200.
- Pokhrel 1973, p. 229.
- Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 15.
- Sharma 1999, p. 112.
- John T Hitchcock 1978, p. 113.
- Richard Burghart 1984, p. 107.
- Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 37.
- Richard Burghart 1984, p. 117.
- Richard Burghart 1984, p. 119.
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- Richard Burghart 1984, pp. 118-119.
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Some of the Chhetri clans are Adhikari, Baniya, Basnet, Bist, Bohra, Bura or Burathoki, Gharti, Karki, Khadka, Dhami, Khatri, Khulal, Mahat, Raut, Rana, Roka, Thapa, etc.
- Tucci 1956, p. 66.
- D.R. Regmi 1965, p. 714.
- D.R. Regmi 1965, p. 717.
- Tucci 1956, p. 50.
- Adhikary 1997, p. 81.
- Pradhan 2012, p. 22.
- Acharya, Baburam (1975), Bhandari, Devi Prasad, ed., "Itihas Kaalbhanda Pahile" (PDF), Purnima, Kathmandu, 8 (1)
- Dor Bahadur Bista (1991). Fatalism and Development: Nepal's Struggle for Modernization. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-0188-1.
- John T Hitchcock (1978). "An Additional Perspective on the Nepali Caste System". In James F. Fisher. Himalayan Anthropology: The Indo-Tibetan Interface. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-90-279-7700-7.
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- Pokharel, Balkrishna (December 1, 1973) , "Ancient Khas Culture" (PDF), Regmi Research Series, 5 (12): 229–236
- Pradhan, Kumar L. (2012), Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806–1839, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, p. 278, ISBN 9788180698132
- Richard Burghart (1984). "The Formation of the Concept of Nation-State in Nepal". The Journal of Asian Studies. 44 (1): 101–125. doi:10.2307/2056748. JSTOR 2056748.
- Susan Thieme (2006). Social Networks and Migration: Far West Nepalese Labour Migrants in Delhi. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-8258-9246-3.
- William Brook Northey; C. J. Morris (1928). The Gurkhas: Their Manners, Customs, and Country. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1577-9.
- Whelpton, John (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521804707.
- Sharma, Bal Krishna (1999). The origin of caste system in Hinduism and its relevance in the present context. Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and Samdan Publishers. ISBN 9788172144968.
- Adhikary, Surya Mani (1997). The Khaśa kingdom: a trans-Himalayan empire of the middle age. Nirala. ISBN 978-81-85693-50-7.
- D.R. Regmi (1965), Medieval Nepal, 1, Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay
- Thakur, Laxman S. (1990). K. K. Kusuman, ed. The Khasas An Early Indian Tribe. A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume. Mittal Publications. pp. 285–293. ISBN 978-81-7099-214-1.
- Tucci, Giuseppe (1956), Preliminary Report on Two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal, David Brown Book Company, ISBN 9788857526843