Anthem: "Kimigayo" (君が代)
Japanese territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green
and largest city
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional monarchy|
|House of Councillors|
|House of Representatives|
|November 29, 1890|
|May 3, 1947|
|377,975 km2 (145,937 sq mi) (62nd)|
• Water (%)
|1.40 (as of 2015)|
• 2021 estimate
• 2015 census
|334/km2 (865.1/sq mi) (24th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$5.236 trillion (4th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$4.911 trillion (3rd)|
• Per capita
medium · 78th
|HDI (2019)|| 0.919|
very high · 19th
|Currency||Japanese yen (¥)|
|Time zone||UTC+09:00 (JST)|
|ISO 3166 code||JP|
Japan (Japanese: 日本, Nippon [ɲippoꜜɴ] (listen) or Nihon [ɲihoꜜɴ] (listen)) is an island country in East Asia, located in the northwest Pacific Ocean. It is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, and extends from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Part of the Ring of Fire, Japan spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is Japan's capital and largest city; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.
Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanized. About three-fourths of the country's terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 125.62 million on narrow coastal plains. Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.4 million residents.
Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period (30,000 BC), though the first mentions of the archipelago appear in Chinese chronicles from the 1st century AD. Between the 4th and 9th centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became unified under an emperor and his imperial court based in Heian-kyō. Beginning in the 12th century, political power was held by a series of military dictators (shōgun) and feudal lords (daimyō), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility (samurai). After a century-long period of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. In 1854, a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. In 1937, Japan invaded China; in 1941, it entered World War II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution. Since 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet.
Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), the OECD, and the Group of Seven. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, the country maintains Self-Defense Forces that are ranked as the world's fourth-most powerful military. After World War II, Japan experienced high economic growth, becoming the second-largest economy in the world by 1990 before being surpassed by China in 2010. Despite stagnant growth since the Lost Decade, the country's economy remains the third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by PPP. A leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. Ranked the second-highest country on the Human Development Index in Asia after Singapore, Japan has the world's second-highest life expectancy, though it is experiencing a decline in population. The culture of Japan is well known around the world, including its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, which encompasses prominent animation and video game industries.
The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and pronounced Nippon or Nihon. Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa (倭) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese reading of the characters, is favored for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps. Nihon is typically used in everyday speech and reflects shifts in Japanese phonology during the Edo period. The characters 日本 mean "sun origin". It is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun".
The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters 日本國 as Cipangu. The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect and encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century. The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter.
Prehistoric to classical history
A Paleolithic culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the islands of Japan. This was followed from around 14,500 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture. Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon; the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farming, a new style of pottery, and metallurgy from China and Korea. According to legend, Emperor Jimmu (grandson of Amaterasu) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial line.
Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710).
The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalized all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a household registry as the basis for a new system of taxation. The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms. These reforms culminated with the promulgation of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments. These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium.
The Nara period (710–784) marked the emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki (712) and Nihon Shoki (720), as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture. A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population. In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) in 794. This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time.
Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the shōguns. The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573). The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States").
During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyōs; his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597.
Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs, and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868). Modern Japan's economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. The study of Western sciences (rangaku) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. The Edo period gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese.
In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Subsequent similar treaties with other Western countries brought economic and political crises. The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration). Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. During the Meiji era (1868–1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin. The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant shift to urbanization.
The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization. World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to capture German possessions in the Pacific and in China. The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups. This process accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a number of radical nationalist groups that shared a hostility to liberal democracy and a dedication to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers.
The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, as well as on British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific. Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into sexual slavery. After Allied victories during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender. The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of Japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over the territories it conquered. The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes.
In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world; this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an asset price bubble, beginning the "Lost Decade". On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era.
Japan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. It stretches over 3000 km (1900 mi) northeast–southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea. The county's five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. The Nanpō Islands are south and east of the main islands of Japan. Together they are often known as the Japanese archipelago. As of 2019[update], Japan's territory is 377,975.24 km2 (145,937.06 sq mi). Japan has the sixth longest coastline in the world at 29,751 km (18,486 mi). Because of its far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the sixth largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering 4,470,000 km2 (1,730,000 sq mi).
Because of its mountainous terrain, approximately 67% of Japan's land is uninhabitable. The habitable zones, mainly in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities: Japan is one of the most densely populated countries. As of 2014[update], approximately 0.5% of Japan's total area is reclaimed land (umetatechi).
Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanoes because of its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It has the 17th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. Japan has 111 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century; the 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people. More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a large tsunami.
The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter.
In the Sea of Japan region on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall during winter. In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn. The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round.
The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain. According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rainfall and increasing temperatures have caused problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C (106.0 °F), was recorded on July 23, 2018, and repeated on August 17, 2020.
Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands. Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife as of 2019[update], including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, the small Japanese field mouse, and the Japanese giant salamander.
A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as 52 Ramsar wetland sites. Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value.
In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern, the government introduced environmental protection laws in 1970. The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources.
As of 2020[update], more than 22 coal-fired power plants are planned for construction in Japan, following the switching-off of Japan's nuclear fleet after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability. Japan is the world's fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. As the host and signatory of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change. In 2020 the government of Japan announced a target of carbon-neutrality by 2050. Environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.
Japan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited to a ceremonial role. Executive power is instead wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. Naruhito is the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his father Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019.
Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elected offices. The prime minister as the head of government has the power to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. Elected in the 2020 Japanese prime minister election, Yoshihide Suga is Japan's prime minister.
Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. Since the late 19th century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended constitution in the world. Statutory law originates in the legislature, and the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the power to oppose legislation. The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.
A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking reform of the Security Council. Japan is a member of the G7, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. It is the world's fifth largest donor of official development assistance, donating US$9.2 billion in 2014. In 2017, Japan had the fifth largest diplomatic network in the world.
Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a security alliance. The United States is a major market for Japanese exports and a major source of Japanese imports, and is committed to defending the country, with military bases in Japan. Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007 and with India in October 2008.
Japan's relationship with South Korea had historically been strained because of Japan's treatment of Koreans during Japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women. In 2015, Japan agreed to settle the comfort women dispute with South Korea by issuing a formal apology and paying money to the surviving comfort women. As of 2019[update] Japan is a major importer of Korean music (K-pop), television (K-dramas), and other cultural products.
Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan contests Russia's control of the Southern Kuril Islands, which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. South Korea's control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima.
Japan is the second-highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index 2020. Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world. The country's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II.
The Government of Japan has been making changes to its security policy which include the establishment of the National Security Council, the adoption of the National Security Strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea and China, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society.
Domestic law enforcement
Domestic security in Japan is provided mainly by the prefectural police departments, under the oversight of the National Police Agency. As the central coordinating body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Safety Commission. The Special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. The Japan Coast Guard guards territorial waters surrounding Japan and uses surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, piracy, spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing vessels, and illegal immigration.
The Firearm and Sword Possession Control Law strictly regulates the civilian ownership of guns, swords and other weaponry. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the member states of the UN that report statistics as of 2018[update], the incidence rates of violent crimes such as murder, abduction, sexual violence and robbery are very low in Japan.
Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP, and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity as of 2019[update]. As of 2019[update], Japan's labor force consisted of 67 million workers. Japan has a low unemployment rate of around 2.4 percent. Around 16 percent of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. Japan today has the highest ratio of public debt to GDP of any developed nation, with national debt at 236% relative to GDP as of 2017.
Japan's exports amounted to 18.5% of GDP in 2018. As of 2019[update], Japan's main export markets were the United States (19.8 percent) and China (19.1 percent). Its main exports are motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts. Japan's main import markets as of 2019[update] were China (23.5 percent), the United States (11 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent). Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and raw materials for its industries.
Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries in the 2019 ease of doing business index. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are common in the Japanese work environment. Japan has a large cooperative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer cooperative and the largest agricultural cooperative in the world as of 2018[update]. Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016.
Agriculture and fishery
The Japanese agricultural sector accounts for about 1.2% of the total country's GDP as of 2018[update]. Only 11.5% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation. Because of this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% as of 2018[update]. Japan's small agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected. There has been a growing concern about farming as farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors.
Japan ranked seventh in the world in tonnage of fish caught and captured 3,167,610 metric tons of fish in 2016, down from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous decade. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch, prompting critiques that Japan's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. Japan has sparked controversy by supporting commercial whaling.
Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods". Japan's industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5% of its GDP. The country's manufacturing output is the third highest in the world as of 2019[update].
Japan is the third largest automobile producer in the world as of 2017[update] and is home to Toyota, the world's largest automobile company. The Japanese shipbuilding industry faces competition from South Korea and China; a 2020 government initiative identified this sector as a target for increasing exports.
Services and tourism
Japan's service sector accounts for about 70% of its total economic output as of 2019[update]. Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, -NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the world.
Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. For inbound tourism, Japan was ranked 11th in the world in 2019. The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Japan 4th out of 141 countries, which was the highest in Asia.
Science and technology
Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly in the natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the 2020 Bloomberg Innovation Index. Relative to gross domestic product, Japan's research and development budget is the second highest in the world, with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen research and development budget as of 2017[update]. The country has produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine, and three Fields medalists.
Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, supplying 55% of the world's 2017 total. Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per capita in the world with 14 per 1000 employees.
The Japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is in a state of decline as competition arises in countries like South Korea and China. However, video gaming in Japan remains a major industry. In 2014, Japan's consumer video game market grossed $9.6 billion, with $5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming.
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan's national space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. The space probe Akatsuki was launched in 2010 and achieved orbit around Venus in 2015. Japan's plans in space exploration include building a moon base and landing astronauts by 2030. In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) from Tanegashima Space Center. The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program, its purpose was to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. The explorer entered a lunar orbit on October 4, 2007, and was deliberately crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009.
Japan has invested heavily in transportation infrastructure. The country has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers (750,000 miles) of roads made up of 1,000,000 kilometers (620,000 miles) of city, town and village roads, 130,000 kilometers (81,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers (34,011 miles) of general national highways and 7641 kilometers (4748 miles) of national expressways as of 2017[update].
Since privatization in 1987, dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. The high-speed Shinkansen (bullet trains) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality.
There are 175 airports in Japan as of 2013[update]. The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, was Asia's second-busiest airport in 2019. The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the world, at 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively as of 2017[update].
As of 2017[update], 39% of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25% from coal, 23% from natural gas, 3.5% from hydropower and 1.5% from nuclear power. Nuclear power was down from 11.2 percent in 2010. By May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to service. The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015, and since then several other nuclear power plants have been restarted. Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and has a heavy dependence on imported energy. The country has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.
Water supply and sanitation
Responsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, in charge of water supply for domestic use; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in charge of water resources development as well as sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment, in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities. Access to an improved water source is universal in Japan. About 98% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities.
Japan has a population of 126.3 million, of which 124.8 million are Japanese nationals (2019). In 2019, 92% of the total Japanese population lived in cities. The capital city Tokyo has a population of 13.8 million (2018). It is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest metropolitan area in the world with 38,140,000 people (2016).
Japan's population is 98.1% ethnic Japanese as of 2016[update], with small populations of foreign workers. Primary minority groups include the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan people, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin. Zainichi Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent, and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent are among the small minority groups in Japan.
Japan has the second longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world, at 84 years as of 2019[update]. The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. As of 2019[update] over 20 percent of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits. A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. Japan's population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2050. Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population. On April 1, 2019, Japan's revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of foreign workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors.
Largest cities or towns in Japan
Japan's constitution guarantees full religious freedom. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its indigenous religion. However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Many Japanese people practice both Shinto and Buddhism; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or spiritual. The level of participation in religious ceremonies as a cultural tradition remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs.
Christianity was first introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. Today, 1% to 1.5% of the population are Christians. Throughout the latest century, Western customs originally related to Christianity (including Western style weddings, Valentine's Day and Christmas) have become popular as secular customs among many Japanese.
About 90% of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants as of 2016[update]. As of 2018[update] there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of which were ethnically Japanese. Other minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, as well as the animist beliefs of the Ainu.
Japanese writing uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on cursive script and radical of kanji), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. English instruction was made mandatory in Japanese elementary schools in 2020.
Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. Few children learn these languages, but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. The Ainu language, which is a language isolate, is moribund, with only a few native speakers remaining as of 2014[update].
Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and junior high school, which together last for nine years. Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school. The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide.
The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD ranks the knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as the third best in the world. Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, math and sciences with the average student scoring 529 and has one of the world's highest-educated labor forces among OECD countries. As of 2017[update], Japan's public spending on education amounted to just 3.3 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percent. In 2017, the country ranked third for the percentage of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percent. Approximately 60 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor's degrees are held by 30.4 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea.
Health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.
Japan has one of the world's highest suicide rates. Another significant public health issue is smoking among Japanese men. Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the developed world.
Contemporary Japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural significance.
Art and architecture
The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese esthetics and imported ideas. The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. Japanese manga developed in the 20th century and have become popular worldwide.
Japanese architecture is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mud plaster structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. Since the 19th century, Japan has incorporated much of Western modern architecture into construction and design. It was not until after World War II that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism.
Literature and philosophy
The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters. In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana (hiragana and katakana) was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest extant Japanese narrative. An account of court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel.
During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early 20th century, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994).
Japanese philosophy has historically been a fusion of both foreign, particularly Chinese and Western, and uniquely Japanese elements. In its literary forms, Japanese philosophy began about fourteen centuries ago. Confucian ideals remain evident in the Japanese concept of society and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society. Buddhism has profoundly impacted Japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics.
Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. The popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, dates from the 16th century. Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, forms an integral part of Japanese culture. Kumi-daiko (ensemble drumming) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop. Karaoke is a significant cultural activity.
Customs and holidays
Ishin-denshin (以心伝心) is a Japanese idiom which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unspoken mutual understanding. Isagiyosa (潔さ) is a virtue of the capability of accepting death with composure. Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the transience of the world. Hansei (反省) is a central idea in Japanese culture, meaning to acknowledge one's own mistake and to pledge improvement. Kotodama (言霊) refers to the Japanese belief that mystical powers dwell in words and names.
Officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law (国民の祝日に関する法律, Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu) of 1948. Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a number of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. The national holidays in Japan are New Year's Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, The Emperor's Birthday on February 23, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children's Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on the third Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the second Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23.
Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. Seafood and Japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. Japanese curry, since its introduction to Japan from British India, is so widely consumed that it can be termed a national dish, alongside ramen and sushi. Traditional Japanese sweets are known as wagashi. Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. More modern-day tastes includes green tea ice cream.
Popular Japanese beverages include sake, which is a brewed rice beverage that typically contains 14–17% alcohol and is made by multiple fermentation of rice. Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late 17th century. Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the Japanese tea ceremony.
According to the 2015 NHK survey on television viewing in Japan, 79 percent of Japanese watch television daily. Japanese television dramas are viewed both within Japan and internationally; other popular shows are in the genres of variety shows, comedy, and news programs. Japanese newspapers are among the most circulated in the world as of 2016[update].
Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries globally. Ishirō Honda's Godzilla became an international icon of Japan and spawned an entire subgenre of kaiju films, as well as the longest-running film franchise in history. Japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by Japanese manga and have been extensively popular in the West. Japan is a world-renowned powerhouse of animation.
Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport. Japanese martial arts such as judo and kendo are taught as part of the compulsory junior high school curriculum. Baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. Japan's top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide following. The country co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times, and the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. Golf is also popular in Japan.
In motorsport, Japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in series such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. Three Japanese drivers have achieved podium finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in addition to success in domestic championships. Super GT is the most popular national series in Japan, while Super Formula is the top level domestic open-wheel series. The country hosts major races such as the Japanese Grand Prix.
Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice. The country gained the hosting rights for the official Women's Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup.
- In English, the official name of the country is simply "Japan". In Japanese, the name of the country as it appears on official documents, including the country's constitution, is 日本国 ( Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku), meaning "State of Japan". Despite this, the short-form name 日本 (Nippon or Nihon) is often used officially.
- "Official Names of Member States (UNTERM)" (PDF). UN Protocol and Liaison Service. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- 令和元年全国都道府県市区町村別面積調（１０月１日時点） (in Japanese). Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. December 26, 2019. Archived from the original on April 15, 2020.
- "Surface water and surface water change". OECD. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
- "Population Estimates Monthly Report February 2021)". Statistics Bureau of Japan. July 20, 2020.
- "2015 Population Census: Basic Complete Tabulation on Population and Households" (PDF). Statistics Bureau of Japan. October 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
- "Income inequality". OECD. Archived from the original on September 18, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
- Schreiber, Mark (November 26, 2019). "You say 'Nihon,' I say 'Nippon,' or let's call the whole thing 'Japan'?". The Japan Times.
- Carr, Michael (March 1992). "Wa Wa Lexicography". International Journal of Lexicography. 5 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1093/ijl/5.1.1.
- Piggott, Joan R. (1997). The Emergence of Japanese Kingship. Stanford University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-8047-2832-4.
- Hoffman, Michael (July 27, 2008). "Cipangu's landlocked isles". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018.
- Lach, Donald (2010). Asia in the Making of Europe. I. University of Chicago Press. p. 157.
- Mancall, Peter C. (2006). "Of the Ilande of Giapan, 1565". Travel Narratives from the Age of Discovery: an anthology. Oxford University Press. pp. 156–157.
- Batchelor, Robert K. (2014). London: The Selden Map and the Making of a Global City, 1549–1689. University of Chicago Press. pp. 76, 79. ISBN 978-0-226-08079-6.
- Ono, Akira; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Takashi; Kudo, Yuichiro (2002). "Radiocarbon Dates and Archaeology of the Late Pleistocene in the Japanese Islands". Radiocarbon. 44 (2): 477–494. doi:10.1017/S0033822200031854.
- Habu, Junko (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-521-77670-7.
- "Jōmon Culture (ca. 10,500–ca. 300 B.C.)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Oh, ChungHae Amana (2011). Cosmogonical Worldview of Jomon Pottery. Sankeisha. p. 37. ISBN 978-4-88361-924-5.
- "Road of rice plant". National Science Museum of Japan. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- "Kofun Period (ca. 300–710)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- "Yayoi Culture (ca. 300 B.C.–300 A.D.)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
- Hendry, Joy (2012). Understanding Japanese Society. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-136-27918-8.
- Brown, Delmer M.; Hall, John Whitney; Jansen, Marius B.; Shively, Donald H.; Twitchett, Denis (1988). The Cambridge History of Japan. 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–149, 275. ISBN 978-0-521-22352-2.
- Beasley, William Gerald (1999). The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan. University of California Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-520-22560-2.
- Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 57, 68. ISBN 978-0-8047-0525-7.
- Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. pp. 64–79. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "Of Courtiers and Warriors: Early and Medieval History (710–1600)". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 24–52. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4.
- Hays, J.N. (2005). Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history. ABC-CLIO. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9.
- Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. pp. 79–87, 122–123. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Leibo, Steven A. (2015). East and Southeast Asia 2015–2016. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 99–104. ISBN 978-1-4758-1875-8.
- Middleton, John (2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge. p. 616.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 106–112. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Shirane, Haruo (2012). Traditional Japanese Literature: An Anthology, Beginnings to 1600. Columbia University Press. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-231-15730-8.
- Sansom, George (1961). A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford University Press. pp. 42, 217. ISBN 978-0-8047-0525-7.
- Lidin, Olof (2005). Tanegashima. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-203-47957-2.
- Brown, Delmer (May 1948). "The impact of firearms on Japanese warfare, 1543–98". The Far Eastern Quarterly. 7 (3): 236–253. doi:10.2307/2048846. JSTOR 2048846.
- "Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573–1603)". Dallas Museum of Art. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
- Turnbull, Stephen (2011). Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Osprey Publishing. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-84603-960-7.
- Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "The Closed Country: the Tokugawa Period (1600–1868)". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 53–74. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Toby, Ronald P. (1977). "Reopening the Question of Sakoku: Diplomacy in the Legitimation of the Tokugawa Bakufu". Journal of Japanese Studies. 3 (2): 323–363. doi:10.2307/132115. JSTOR 132115.
- Howe, Christopher (1996). The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy. Hurst & Company. pp. 58ff. ISBN 978-1-85065-538-1.
- Ohtsu, M.; Imanari, Tomio (1999). "Japanese National Values and Confucianism". Japanese Economy. 27 (2): 45–59. doi:10.2753/JES1097-203X270245.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 289–296. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "Building a Modern Nation: the Meiji Period (1868–1912)". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 75–107. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4.
- McCargo, Duncan (2000). Contemporary Japan. Macmillan. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-0-333-71000-5.
- Baran, Paul (1962). The Political Economy of Growth. Monthly Review Press. p. 160.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 312–314. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Matsusaka, Y. Tak (2009). "The Japanese Empire". In Tsutsui, William M. (ed.). Companion to Japanese History. Blackwell. pp. 224–241. ISBN 978-1-4051-1690-9.
- Hiroshi, Shimizu; Hitoshi, Hirakawa (1999). Japan and Singapore in the world economy: Japan's economic advance into Singapore, 1870–1965. Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-415-19236-1.
- Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "The Excesses of Ambition: the Pacific War and its Lead-Up". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 108–141. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4.
- Tsuzuki, Chushichi (2011). "Taisho Democracy and the First World War". The Pursuit of Power in Modern Japan 1825–1995. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205890.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-820589-0.
- Ramesh, S (2020). "The Taisho Period (1912–1926): Transition from Democracy to a Military Economy". China's Economic Rise. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 173–209. ISBN 978-3-030-49811-5.
- Burnett, M. Troy, ed. (2020). Nationalism Today: Extreme Political Movements around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 20.
- Weber, Torsten (2018). Embracing 'Asia' in China and Japan. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 268.
- "The Japanese Nation: It has a history of feudalism, nationalism, war and now defeat". LIFE. September 17, 1945. pp. 109–111.
- Paine, S. C. M. (2012). The Wars for Asia, 1911–1949. Cambridge University Press. pp. 123–125. ISBN 978-1-139-56087-0.
- Worth, Roland H., Jr. (1995). No Choice But War: the United States Embargo Against Japan and the Eruption of War in the Pacific. McFarland. pp. 56, 86. ISBN 978-0-7864-0141-3.
- Bailey, Beth; Farber, David (2019). "Introduction: December 7/8, 1941". Beyond Pearl Harbor: A Pacific History. University Press of Kansas. pp. 1–8.
- Yōko, Hayashi (1999–2000). "Issues Surrounding the Wartime "Comfort Women"". Review of Japanese Culture and Society. 11/12 (Special Issue): 54–65. JSTOR 42800182.
- Pape, Robert A. (1993). "Why Japan Surrendered". International Security. 18 (2): 154–201. doi:10.2307/2539100. JSTOR 2539100.
- Watt, Lori (2010). When Empire Comes Home: Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar Japan. Harvard University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-674-05598-8.
- Henshall, Kenneth (2012). "A Phoenix from the Ashes: Postwar Successes and Beyond". A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 142–180. ISBN 978-0-230-36918-4.
- Coleman, Joseph (March 6, 2007). "'52 coup plot bid to rearm Japan: CIA". The Japan Times.
- Saxonhouse, Gary; Stern, Robert (2003). "The bubble and the lost decade". The World Economy. 26 (3): 267–281. doi:10.1111/1467-9701.00522.
- Fackler, Martin; Drew, Kevin (March 11, 2011). "Devastation as Tsunami Crashes Into Japan". The New York Times.
- "Japan's emperor thanks country, prays for peace before abdication". Nikkei Asian Review. April 30, 2019.
- "Water Supply in Japan". Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
- Iwashita, Akihiro (2011). "An Invitation to Japan's Borderlands: At the Geopolitical Edge of the Eurasian Continent". Journal of Borderlands Studies. 26 (3): 279–282. doi:10.1080/08865655.2011.686969.
- Kuwahara, Sueo (2012). "The development of small islands in Japan: An historical perspective". Journal of Marine and Island Cultures. 1 (1): 38–45. doi:10.1016/j.imic.2012.04.004.
- McCargo, Duncan (2000). Contemporary Japan. Macmillan. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-333-71000-5.
- "World Factbook: Japan". CIA. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
- Yamada, Yoshihiko (2011). "Japan's New National Border Strategy and Maritime Security". Journal of Borderlands Studies. 26 (3): 357–367. doi:10.1080/08865655.2011.686972.
- Fujimoto, Shouji; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Shimizu, Chihiro; Watanabe, Tsutomu (2017). "Relationship between population density and population movement in inhabitable lands". Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review. 14: 117–130. doi:10.1007/s40844-016-0064-z.
- "List of countries by population density". Statistics Times. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- Fujimoto, Shouji; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Shimizu, Chihiro; Watanabe, Tsutomu (2014). "Geographic Dependency of Population Distribution". Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Modeling and Simulation, Plus Econophysics Colloquium. Springer Proceedings in Complexity: 151–162. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20591-5_14. ISBN 978-3-319-20590-8.
- Hua, Yang (2014). "Legal Regulation of Land Reclamation in China's Coastal Areas". Coastal Management. 42 (1): 59–79. doi:10.1080/08920753.2013.865008.
- Israel, Brett (March 14, 2011). "Japan's Explosive Geology Explained". Live Science.
- "World Risk Report 2016". UNU-EHS. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
- Fujita, Eisuke; Ueda, Hideki; Nakada, Setsuya (July 2020). "A New Japan Volcanological Database". Frontiers in Earth Science. 8: 205. doi:10.3389/feart.2020.00205.
- "Tectonics and Volcanoes of Japan". Oregon State University. Archived from the original on February 4, 2007. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- Hammer, Joshua (May 2011). "The Great Japan Earthquake of 1923". Smithsonian Magazine.
- Karan, Pradyumna Prasad; Gilbreath, Dick (2005). Japan in the 21st century. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 18–21, 41. ISBN 978-0-8131-2342-4.
- "Climate of Hokuriku district". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
- "Overview of Japan's climate". Japan Meteorological Association. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Ito, Masami. "Japan 2030: Tackling climate issues is key to the next decade". The Japan Times. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- "Record High in Japan as Heat Wave Grips the Region". The New York Times. Associated Press. July 23, 2018. Archived from the original on July 23, 2018.
- Ogura, Junko; Regan, Helen (August 18, 2020). "Japan's heat wave continues, as temperatures equal highest record". CNN.
- "Flora and Fauna: Diversity and regional uniqueness". Embassy of Japan in the USA. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- Sakurai, Ryo (2019). Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management in Japan: From Asia to the World. Springer. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-981-13-6332-0.
- "The Wildlife in Japan" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. March 2015.
- "National Parks of Japan". Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Japan". Ramsar. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- "Japan – Properties Inscribed on the World Heritage List". UNESCO. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- 日本の大気汚染の歴史 (in Japanese). Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Sekiyama, Takeshi. "Japan's international cooperation for energy efficiency and conservation in Asian region" (PDF). Energy Conservation Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- Tabuchi, Hiroko (February 4, 2020). "Japan to build up to 22 new coal power plants despite climate emergency". The Independent.
- "Environmental Performance Index: Japan". Yale University. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
- "Japan sees extra emission cuts to 2020 goal – minister". Reuters. June 24, 2009.
- Davidson, Jordan (October 26, 2020). "Japan Targets Carbon Neutrality by 2050". Ecowatch.
- "Environmental Performance Review of Japan" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- "Japan's Parliament and other political institutions". European Parliament. June 9, 2020.
- "The Constitution of Japan". Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. November 3, 1946. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013.
- "Japan". US Securities and Exchange Commission. August 6, 2020.
- "Japan Youth Can Make Difference with New Voting Rights: UN Envoy". UN Envoy on Youth. July 2016.
- "Yoshihide Suga set to become Japan's prime minister after winning LDP election". The Japan Times. September 14, 2020.
- Dean, Meryll (2002). Japanese legal system: text, cases & materials (2nd ed.). Cavendish. pp. 55–58, 131. ISBN 978-1-85941-673-0.
- Kanamori, Shigenari (January 1, 1999). "German influences on Japanese Pre-War Constitution and Civil Code". European Journal of Law and Economics. 7 (1): 93–95. doi:10.1023/A:1008688209052.
- "The Anomalous Life of the Japanese Constitution". Nippon.com. August 15, 2017. Archived from the original on August 11, 2019.
- "The Japanese Judicial System". Office of the Prime Minister of Japan. July 1999.
- "Regions of Japan" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
- "Japan's Efforts at the United Nations (UN)". Diplomatic Bluebook 2017. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- Terada, Takashi (2011). "The United States and East Asian Regionalism". In Borthwick, Mark; Yamamoto, Tadashi (eds.). A Pacific Nation (PDF). ISBN 978-4-88907-133-7.
- "Statistics from the Development Co-operation Report 2015". OECD. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "Global Diplomacy Index – Country Rank". Lowy Institute. Retrieved April 1, 2018.
- "US Relations with Japan". US Department of State. January 21, 2020.
- "Japan-Australia Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between Japan and India". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. October 22, 2008.
- "Japan and South Korea agree WW2 'comfort women' deal". BBC News. December 28, 2015.
- Ju, H. (July 2018). "The Korean Wave and Korean Dramas". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication.
- Min-sik, Yoon (August 14, 2019). "21 years after 'Japanese invasion,' Korean pop culture stronger than ever". The Korean Herald.
- "Japanese Territory, Northern Territories". MOFA. April 4, 2014.
- "Japanese Territory, Takeshima". MOFA. July 30, 2014.
- Fox, Senan (September 2016). "The Senkaku Shoto/Diaoyu Islands and Okinotorishima disputes: Ideational and material influences". China Information. 30 (3): 312–333. doi:10.1177/0920203X16665778.
- "Global Peace Index 2020" (PDF). Institute for Economics & Peace. June 2020.
- "Defense Spending by Country (2020)". Global Firepower. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
- "Japan: Article 9 of the Constitution". Library of Congress. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
- Teslik, Lee Hudson (April 13, 2006). "Japan and its military". Council on Foreign Relations.
- "Japan's Security Policy". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. April 6, 2016.
- "Abe offers Japan's help in maintaining regional security". Japan Herald. May 30, 2014. Archived from the original on May 31, 2014.
- Yoji, Koda (September 18, 2020). "Japan: Dealing with North Korea's Growing Missile Threat". The Diplomat.
- Gale, Alastair; Tsuneoka, Chieko (July 14, 2020). "China Provocations Hasten Japan's Military Revival". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Japan's Self-Defence Forces are beginning to focus on China". The Economist. April 17, 2019.
- "Who will conduct the investigation?". Supreme Court of Japan. 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
- National Police Agency Police History Compilation Committee, ed. (1977). Japan post-war police history (in Japanese). Japan Police Support Association.
- "Chapter IV. Maintenance of Public Safety and Disaster Countermeasures" (PDF). Japanese National Police Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
- "Japan Coast Guard" (PDF). Japan Coast Guard. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 8, 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- "Diet tightens laws on knives, guns". The Japan Times. November 29, 2008.
- Fisher, Max (July 23, 2012). "A Land Without Guns: How Japan Has Virtually Eliminated Shooting Deaths". The Atlantic.
- "Victims of intentional homicide, 1990–2018". UNODC. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Kidnapping: 2018". UNODC. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Sexual violence". UNODC. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Robbery: 2018". UNODC. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "GDP (current US$)". World Bank. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Gross domestic product 2019, PPP" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- McCurry, Justin (January 17, 2017). "Japan's rising child poverty exposes true cost of two decades of economic decline". The Guardian.
- Sanati, Cyrus (October 31, 2014). "Japan's latest economic stimulus exposes its dirty debt secret". Fortune.
- Matthews, Chris (February 26, 2016). "Forget Greece, Japan is the world's real economic time bomb". Fortune.
- Oh, Sunny (May 14, 2018). "Here's a lesson from Japan about the threat of a U.S. debt crisis". MarketWatch.
- "Japan's Coronavirus Response Increases Public Debt Challenge". Fitch Ratings. April 15, 2020.
- "Exports of goods and services (% of GDP): Japan". World Bank. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Ease of Doing Business rankings". World Bank. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Economic survey of Japan 2008". OECD. Archived from the original on November 9, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010.
- "Japan's Economy: Free at last". The Economist. July 20, 2006.
- "The 2018 World Cooperative Monitor: Exploring the Cooperative Economy" (PDF). International Co-operative Alliance. October 2018.
- "Country/Economy Profiles: Japan". World Economic Forum. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "Competitiveness Rankings". World Economic Forum. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
- "Arable land (% of land area)". World Bank. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- Nagata, Akira; Chen, Bixia (May 22, 2012). "Urbanites Help Sustain Japan's Historic Rice Paddy Terraces". Our World.
- Chen, Hungyen (2018). "The spatial patterns in long-term temporal trends of three major crops' yields in Japan". Plant Production Science. 21 (3): 177–185. doi:10.1080/1343943X.2018.1459752.
- "Japan: Support to agriculture". Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation. OECD. 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- Nishimura, Karyn (January 1, 2020). "Grown from necessity: Vertical farming takes off in aging Japan". The Jakarta Post. Agence France-Presse.
- "The state of world fisheries and aquaculture" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
- McCurry, Justin (April 24, 2017). "Japan to exceed bluefin tuna quota amid warnings of commercial extinction". The Guardian.
- "Japan resumes commercial whaling after 30 years". BBC News. July 1, 2019.
- "Production Statistics". OICA. 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". World Bank. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
- Holder, Jim (December 15, 2019). "Is time running out for Japan's car industry?". Autocar.
- Okada, Mizuki (September 5, 2020). "Japan Targets to Export More Ships, Revive Global Market Share". Japan Forward.
- "Services, value added (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Fortune Global 500". Fortune. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "The World's Largest Public Companies". Forbes. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Trends in the Visitor Arrivals to Japan by Year". JNTO. Retrieved December 11, 2020.
- "Statistical Annex". World Tourism Barometer. UNWTO. 18 (5): 18. August–September 2020. doi:10.18111/wtobarometereng.2020.18.1.5.
- "The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017" (PDF). World Economic Forum. April 2017.
- Jamrisko, Michelle; Lu, Wei (January 18, 2020). "Germany Breaks Korea's Six-Year Streak as Most Innovative Nation". Bloomberg.
- "How much does your country invest in R&D?". UNESCO. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Japan's Science and Technology Research Spending at New High". Nippon.com. February 19, 2019.
- "All Nobel Prizes". Nobel Media. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- "Fields Medal". International Mathematical Union. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- Fujiwara, Hiroshi (December 17, 2018). "Why Japan leads industrial robot production". International Federation of Robotics.
- "Science,technology and innovation: Researchers by sex, per million inhabitants, per thousand labour force, per thousand total employment (FTE and HC)". UNESCO. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- Pham, Sherisse (May 4, 2017). "How things got ugly for some of Japan's biggest brands". CNN Money.
- Nutt, Christian (June 19, 2015). "Japan's game market hits record high as consoles decline and mobile grows". Gamasutra.
- Howell, Elizabeth (May 19, 2016). "JAXA: Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency". Space.
- "Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Homepage". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on March 21, 2007.
- "Akatsuki". NASA. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- Howell, Elizabeth (April 7, 2019). "Can Robots Build a Moon Base for Astronauts? Japan Hopes to Find Out". Space.
- "Japan Successfully Launches Lunar Explorer 'Kaguya'". Japan Corporate News Network. September 14, 2007. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011.
- "Japan launches first lunar probe". BBC News. September 14, 2007.
- "Japanese probe crashes into Moon". BBC News. June 11, 2009.
- Wingfield-Hayes, Rupert (October 10, 2012). "Japan's high-spending legacy". BBC News.
- Shibayama, Takeru (2017). "Japan's transport planning at national level, natural disasters, and their interplays". European Transport Research Review. 9 (3). doi:10.1007/s12544-017-0255-7.
- "Privatization of JNR, 30 years on". The Japan Times. April 4, 2017.
- Sieloff, Sarah (October 7, 2020). "Japan's Bullet Trains Are Hitting a Speed Bump". Bloomberg.
- Falcus, Matt (April 22, 2019). "Asia's 9 busiest airports in 2019". CNN.
- "Top 50 World Container Ports". World Shipping Council. Retrieved November 16, 2020.
- "Energy" (PDF). Statistical Handbook of Japan 2019. Statistics Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Tsukimori, Osamu (May 5, 2012). "Japan nuclear power-free as last reactor shuts". Reuters.
- "Nuclear power back in Japan for first time since Fukushima". BBC News. August 11, 2015.
- "Mixed progress for Japan's nuclear plant restarts". Nuclear Engineering International. April 23, 2020.
- Thorarinsson, Loftur (April 2018). "A Review of the Evolution of the Japanese Oil Industry, Oil Policy and its Relationship with the Middle East" (PDF). Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. pp. 5–12.
- Kucharski, Jeffrey; Unesaki, Hironobu (2017). "Japan's 2014 Strategic Energy Plan: A Planned Energy System Transition". Journal of Energy. 2017: 1–13. doi:10.1155/2017/4107614.
- "Waterworks Vision Summary" (PDF). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. June 2004.
- "Water Supply in Japan 2017" (PDF). Japan Water Works Association. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
- "Population Estimates Monthly Report June 2019". Statistics Bureau Japan. June 20, 2019. Archived from the original on June 6, 2019.
- "Japan population drops by record number to 124.8 mil.: gov't". The Mainichi. July 10, 2019. Archived from the original on July 11, 2019.
- "Urban population (% of total population)". World Bank. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
- 東京都の人口（推計） [Population of Tokyo (estimate)]. Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau of Statistics Department. Archived from the original on October 2, 2018. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
- "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. March 12, 2017.
- Kodama, Shogo (September 26, 2020). "Labor-starved Japan welcomes return of foreign workers". Nikkei Asia.
- Japanese Archipelago Human Population Genetics Consortium (2012). "The history of human populations in the Japanese Archipelago inferred from genome-wide SNP data with a special reference to the Ainu and the Ryukyuan populations". Journal of Human Genetics. 57 (12): 787–795. doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.114. PMID 23135232.
- "Japan's hidden caste of untouchables". BBC News. October 23, 2015.
- Ambrose, Drew; Armont, Rhiona-Jade (June 13, 2018). "Zainichi: Being Korean in Japan". Al Jazeera.
- Chen, Lara Tien-shi (2005). "Chinese in Japan". Encyclopedia of Diasporas. pp. 680–688. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-29904-4_70. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.
- Seiger, Fiona-Katharina (2019). "'Mixed' Japanese-Filipino identities under Japanese multiculturalism". Social Identities. 25 (3): 392–407. doi:10.1080/13504630.2018.1499225.
- Tobace, Ewerthon (July 17, 2015). "The Brazilians winning in Japan". BBC News.
- "Peruvians Struggling to Find a Place in Japanese Society". Nippon.com. February 13, 2014.
- "Life expectancy at birth, total (years)". World Bank. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
- Yoshida, Reiji (January 5, 2015). "Numbers tell tale of Japan's postwar rise and fall". The Japan Times.
- Walia, Simran (November 19, 2019). "The economic challenge of Japan's aging crisis". The Japan Times.
- Semuels, Alana (July 20, 2017). "The Mystery of Why Japanese People Are Having So Few Babies". The Atlantic.
- Kopf, Dan (June 4, 2018). "The world is running out of Japanese people". QZ.
- Wakatsuki, Yoko; Griffiths, James (May 7, 2018). "Number of children in Japan shrinks to new record low". CNN.
- Lufkin, Bryan (December 10, 2018). "More seniors, more foreigners: How Japan is changing". BBC.
- "New immigration rules to stir up Japan's regional rentals scene — if they work". REthink Tokyo. March 27, 2019. Archived from the original on July 2, 2019.
- Inoue, Kyoko (2007). MacArthur's Japanese Constitution (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-0-226-38391-0.
- McQuaid, John. "A View of Religion in Japan". Japan Society. Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- "How religious are Japanese people?". Japan Today. October 27, 2013.
- Cavaliere, Paola (2019). "Women between Religion and Spirituality: Observing Religious Experience in Everyday Japanese Life". Religions. 10 (6): 377. doi:10.3390/rel10060377.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Shellnutt, Kate (May 29, 2018). "Why Japan Wants Its Past Persecution of Christians to Be World Renowned". Christianity Today.
- 宗教年鑑 令和元年版 [Religious Yearbook 2019] (PDF) (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2019. p. 35.
- Kato, Mariko (February 24, 2009). "Christianity's long history in the margins". The Japan Times.
- Blakkarly, Jarni (July 13, 2016). "Shadow of surveillance looms over Japan's Muslims". The Japan Times.
- "No. of Muslims, mosques on the rise in Japan amid some misconceptions, prejudice". The Mainichi. November 29, 2019.
- "Japan 2018 International Religious Freedom Report" (PDF). US Department of State. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
- Miyagawa, Shigeru. "The Japanese Language". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- Sawa, Takamitsu (January 21, 2020). "Japan going the wrong way in English-education reform". The Japan Times.
- Anderson, Mark (2019). "Language shift in the Ryukyu Islands". In Heinrich, Patrick; Ohara, Yumiko (eds.). Routledge Handbook of Japanese Sociolinguistics. Routledge. pp. 370–388. ISBN 978-1-315-21337-8.
- Fujita-Round, Sachiyo; Maher, John (2017). "Language Policy and Education in Japan". In McCarty, T; May, S (eds.). Language Policy and Political Issues in Education. Springer. pp. 1–15. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02320-5_36-2.
- Ishihara, Masahide (2016). "Language Revitalization Efforts in the Ryukyus". In Ishihara, Masahide; Hoshino, Eiichi; Fujita, Yoko (eds.). Self-determinable Development of Small Islands. Springer. pp. 67–82. ISBN 978-981-10-0132-1.
- Hudson, Mark (2014). "The ethnohistory and anthropology of 'modern' hunter-gatherers: north Japan (Ainu)". In Cummings, Vicki; Jordan, Peter; Zvelebil, Marek (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology and Anthropology of Hunter-Gatherers. Oxford University Press. p. 1058. ISBN 978-0-19-955122-4.
- Duke, Benjamin (2009). "The Gakusei: the first national plan for education, 1872". The History of Modern Japanese Education: Constructing the National School System, 1872–1890. Rutgers University Press. pp. 61–76.
- "The Modernization and Development of Education in Japan". The History of Japan's Educational Development (PDF). Japan International Cooperation Agency Research Institute. March 2004. p. 23.
- "Japan: Learning Systems". Center on International Education Benchmarking. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- "QS World University Rankings 2020". QS TopUniversities. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- "Compulsory nine-year school system kicks off in Japan". The Japan Times. June 10, 2016.
- "Japan – Student performance (PISA 2015)". OECD. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
- "Education at a Glance 2014" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- "PISA – Results in Focus" (PDF). OECD. 2018. p. 5. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
- Semuels, Alana (August 2, 2017). "Japan Might Be What Equality in Education Looks Like". The Atlantic.
- "Japan". OECD. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
- Ikegami, Naoki (October 14, 2014). Universal Health Coverage for Inclusive and Sustainable Development: Lessons from Japan. World Bank Publications. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-4648-0408-3.
- Rodwin, Victor. "Health Care in Japan". New York University. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
- Russell, Roxanne; Metraux, Daniel; Tohen, Mauricio (2017). "Cultural influences on suicide in Japan". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 71 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1111/pcn.12428. PMID 27487762.
- Akter, Shamima; Goto, Atsushi; Mizoue, Tetsuya (2017). "Smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Japan: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Epidemiology. 27 (12): 553–561. doi:10.1016/j.je.2016.12.017. PMC 5623034. PMID 28716381.
- Britnell, Mark (2015). In Search of the Perfect Health System. Palgrave. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-137-49661-4.
- Haffner, John; Klett, Tomas; Lehmann, Jean-Pierre (2009). Japan's Open Future: An Agenda for Global Citizenship. Anthem Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-84331-311-3.
- "Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan". Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- Arrowsmith, Rupert Richard (2010). Modernism and the Museum: Asian, African, and Pacific Art and the London Avant-Garde. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959369-9.
- Ito, Kinko (February 2005). "A History of Manga in the Context of Japanese Culture and Society". Journal of Popular Culture. 38 (3): 456–475. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.2005.00123.x.
- Locher, Mira (2012). Traditional Japanese Architecture: An Exploration of Elements and Forms. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-4629-0606-2.
- Tange, Kenzo; Kawazoe, Noboru (1965). Ise: Prototype of Japanese Architecture. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
- Kazuo, Nishi; Kazuo, Hozumi (1995). What is Japanese Architecture?: A Survey of Traditional Japanese Architecture with a List of Sites and a Map. Kodansha. ISBN 978-4-7700-1992-9.
- Abe, K (May 1954). "Early Western Architecture in Japan". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 13 (2): 13–18. doi:10.2307/987685. JSTOR 987685.
- Inagaki, Aizo (2003). "Japan". Oxford Art Online. Modern: Meiji and after. doi:10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T043440.
- Keene, Donald (2000). Seeds in the Heart: Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11441-7.
- "Asian Studies Conference, Japan (2000)". Meiji Gakuin University. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- "Heian Period (794–1185)". The Met. October 2002.
- "Tale of the bamboo cutter". Calisphere. Retrieved November 23, 2020.
- Totman, Conrad (2005). A History of Japan (2nd ed.). Blackwell. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-1-4051-2359-4.
- Royall, Tyler, ed. (2003). The Tale of Genji. Penguin Classics. pp. i–ii, xii. ISBN 978-0-14-243714-8.
- Keene, Donald (1999). World Within Walls: Japanese Literature of the Pre-Modern Era, 1600–1867. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11467-7.
- Keene, Donald. "Japanese literature". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- "Japanese Confucian Philosophy". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. May 20, 2008.
- Parkes, Graham (January 1, 2011). "Japanese aesthetics". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Malm, William P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments (New ed.). Kodansha International. pp. 31–45. ISBN 978-4-7700-2395-7.
- Lo, Patrick (2016). "Katsu Watanabe, Akane Oki, and Yasushi Ishii, Librarians of the NHK Symphony Orchestra, Tokyo". Conversations with the World's Leading Orchestra and Opera Librarians. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 156–167.
- "History of Taiko". Stanford Taiko. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
- Campion, Chris (August 22, 2005). "J-Pop History". The Observer.
- Caracciolo, Frankie (September 18, 2020). "What Karaoke Means to the Country That Invented It". Thrillist.
- "Traditional Japanese theatre: overview". Time Out Tokyo. September 27, 2009.
- Lee, Edwin (December 6, 2018). "The Oldest Surviving Form of Theater". The Atlantic.
- Maynard, Michael L; Maynard, Senko K; Taki (1993). 101 Japanese Idioms: Understanding Japanese Language and Culture Through Popular Phrases. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8442-8496-5.
- Berenson, Richard J.; deMause, Neil (2001). The complete illustrated guidebook to Prospect Park and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Silver Lining Books. p. 121.
- Cohen, Raymond (1991). Negotiating Across Cultures: Communication Obstacles in International Diplomacy. United States Institute of Peace. ISBN 978-1-878379-08-5.
- Nakamura, Akemi (April 8, 2008). "National holidays trace roots to China, ancients, harvests". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on July 13, 2009.
- Hindell, Juliet (January 10, 2000). "Happy Monday in Japan". BBC News.
- "Japan's National Holidays in 2021". Nippon.com. June 10, 2020.
- "Food & Drink in Japan". Frommer's. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
- von Bargen, Hinnerk (2015). Street Foods. Wiley. p. 14.
- Makalintal, Bettina (February 11, 2018). "A brief history of how curry ended up in Japan". Vice.
- "The rules of sushi". Japan Today. September 13, 2012.
- McCurry, Justin (June 18, 2010). "Ramen: Japan's super slurpy noodles". The Guardian.
- Goldstein, Darra (2015). The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets. Oxford University Press. pp. 777–. ISBN 978-0-19-931339-6.
- Fujita, Hiroko; Stallings, Fran (2008). Folktales from the Japanese Countryside. Libraries Unlimited. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-1-59158-488-9.
- Batt, Carl A. (2014). Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. Academic Press. pp. 846–. ISBN 978-0-12-384733-1.
- Boulton, Christopher; Quain, David (2013). Brewing Yeast and Fermentation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-118-68534-1.
- Hosking, Richard (1995). A Dictionary of Japanese Food - Ingredients and Culture. Tuttle. p. 30. ISBN 0-8048-2042-2.
- "Television Viewing and Media Use Today: From "The Japanese and Television 2015" Survey" (PDF). NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute. April 2016.
- Iwabuchi, Koichi, ed. (2004). Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas. Hong Kong University Press. JSTOR j.ctt2jc5b9.
- "What are the most popular Japanese TV shows?". Japan Today. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- "World Press Trends 2016" (PDF). WAN-IFRA. p. 19. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
- Sharp, Jasper (2011). Historical Dictionary of Japanese Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. xi.
- Ingoglia, Jesse (May 21, 2014). "Godzilla: monster, metaphor, pop icon". New York Public Library.
- Kalat, David (2017). "Introduction". A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd ed.). McFarland.
- Hu, Tze-Yue (2010). "Miyazaki and Takahata anime cinema". Frames of Anime: culture and image-building. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 105–136.
- Nagata, Kazuaki (September 7, 2010). "'Anime' makes Japan superpower". The Japan Times.
- "Sumo: East and West". PBS. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
- Aoki, Mizuho (April 24, 2017). "Prewar bayonetting martial art makes return to schools". The Japan Times.
- "Favorite sports to watch in Japan as of September 2019". Statista. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
- Nagata, Yoichi; Holway, John B. (1995). "Japanese Baseball". In Palmer, Pete (ed.). Total Baseball (4th ed.). Viking Press. p. 547.
- "Soccer as a Popular Sport: Putting Down Roots in Japan" (PDF). The Japan Forum. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- Reineking, Jim (May 25, 2018). "Every FIFA World Cup champion: Brazil, Germany, Italy historically dominate tournament". USA Today.
- "Team Japan". Asian Football Confederation. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- "Japan edge USA for maiden title". FIFA. July 17, 2011.
- Varcoe, Fred. "Japanese Golf Gets Friendly". Metropolis. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- "Honda". STATS F1. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- "Group A". World Rally Championship. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- Sports, Dorna. "Japanese industry in MotoGP™". MotoGP. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- Nagatsuka, Kaz (June 14, 2017). "Sato revels in glow of historic Indy 500 triumph". The Japan Times.
- "Le Japon et les 24 Heures du Mans en infographie" (in French). Le Mans. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
- Clarke, Len. "Japanese Omnibus: Sports". Metropolis. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- "For the Love of Cars: Auto Racing in Japan". Tokyo Weekender. April 18, 2018.
- "Olympic History in Japan". Japanese Olympic Committee. Retrieved January 7, 2011.
- "2006 FIBA World Championship". FIBA. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
- "FIBA Basketball World Cup 2023". FIBA. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- "IOC selects Tokyo as host of 2020 Summer Olympic Games". International Olympic Committee. July 21, 2016.
- "The Game – World Championships – FIVB Women's World Championships Finals". FIVB. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
- "History". Asia Rugby. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
- "Japan reaches out to the rest of Asia". Rugby World Cup. November 1, 2013. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013.
- JapanGov – The Government of Japan (in English)
- Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet Official website (in English)
- The Imperial Household Agency, official site of the Imperial House of Japan
- National Diet Library
- Japan from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Japan profile from BBC News
- Japan from the OECD
- Geographic data related to Japan at OpenStreetMap
- Old maps of Japan, from the Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, The National Library of Israel