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International recognition of Kosovo

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Map of states that have recognised Kosovo's independence (as of 4 September 2020)
  Kosovo
  States that recognise Kosovo as independent
  States that do not recognise Kosovo as independent
  States that recognised Kosovo and later withdrew that recognition

International recognition of Kosovo, since its declaration of independence from Serbia enacted on 17 February 2008, has been mixed, and the international community is divided on the issue.[1][2]

As of 4 September 2020, 97 out of 193 (50.26%) United Nations member states, 22 out of 27 (81.48%) European Union member states, 26 out of 30 (86.67%) NATO member states, and 31 out of 57 (54.39%) Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member states have recognised Kosovo. The government of Serbia does not recognise it as a sovereign state.[3]

In 2013, the two sides began to normalise relations in accordance with the Brussels Agreement. In September 2020, Serbia and Kosovo agreed to normalise economic ties.[4][5] Serbia also agreed to suspend its efforts to encourage other states to either not recognise Kosovo or to revoke recognition for one year, while Kosovo agreed to not apply for new membership of international organisations for the same period.[6]

Among the G-20 countries, 11 (being Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States) have recognized Kosovo as a state, while 8 (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and South Africa have not. (The EU constitutes the 20th member of the G-20.)

Background

A number of states expressed concern over the unilateral character of Kosovo's declaration, or explicitly announced that they would not recognise an independent Kosovo. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) remains divided on this issue: of its five members with veto power, three (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) have recognised the declaration of independence, while the People's Republic of China has expressed concern, urging the continuation of the previous negotiation framework. The Russian Federation has rejected the declaration and considers it illegal.[7] In May 2008, Russia, China, and India released a joint statement calling for new negotiations between Belgrade and Pristina.[8]

Although EU member states individually decide whether to recognise Kosovo, by consensus the EU has commissioned the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX) to ensure peace and continued external oversight. Due to the dispute in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), the reconfiguration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and partial handover to the EULEX mission met with difficulties. In spite of Russian and Serbian protests, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon proceeded with the reconfiguration plan. On 15 July 2008, he stated: "In the light of the fact that the Security Council is unable to provide guidance, I have instructed my Special Representative to move forward with the reconfiguration of UNMIK ... in order to adapt UNMIK to a changed reality." According to the Secretary-General, the "United Nations has maintained a position of strict neutrality on the question of Kosovo's status".[9] On 26 November 2008, the UNSC gave the green light to the deployment of the EULEX mission in Kosovo. The EU mission is to assume police, justice, and customs duties from the UN, while operating under the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 (UNSCR 1244) that first placed Kosovo under UN administration in 1999.[10]

Formal recognition of Kosovo by UN member states over time (total members 193)

A United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution adopted on 8 October 2008 backed the request of Serbia to seek an International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence.[11] On 22 July 2010, the ICJ ruled that the declaration of independence of Kosovo did not violate international law "because international law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence", and that its authors were not bound by the Constitutional Framework (promulgated by UNMIK) or by UNSCR 1244, that is addressed only to United Nations Member States and organs of the United Nations.[12][13]

Within the EU, key supporters of Kosovo's statehood include France[14] and Germany.[15] The strongest opponents to Kosovo's statehood within the EU include Spain[16][17] and Greece.[18] The Spanish non-recognition of Kosovo is linked to the Spanish government's opposition to the Basque and Catalan independence movements,[16] while the Greek non-recognition of Kosovo is linked to the Cyprus dispute and Greece's historic relationship to Serbia.[18]

Serbia's reaction

Due to Serbian claims that Kosovo is part of its sovereign territory, its initial reactions included recalling ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo for several months, indicting Kosovar leaders on charges of high treason, and litigating the case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Serbia also expelled ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo after the UNGA vote adopting Serbia's initiative to seek an ICJ advisory opinion.[19]

In December 2012, as a result of European Union mediated negotiations on Kosovo's status, Serbian Prime Minister Ivica Dačić agreed to appoint a liaison officer to Kosovo.[20] In March 2013, Dačić said that while his government would never recognise Kosovo's independence, "the Serbian president cannot go to Kosovo, nor the prime minister, nor ministers, nor the police or army. Serbs can only leave Kosovo. That’s how much Kosovo is ours and what our constitution and laws mean there".[21]

In April 2013, Kosovo and Serbia reached an agreement to normalise relations, and thereby allow both nations to eventually join the European Union.[22] On 17 June 2013 Kosovo and Serbia exchanged liaison officers.[23]

The process of normalization, however, stalled in November 2018 after Kosovo imposed a 100 percent tax on importing Serbian goods. On 1 April 2020, Kosovo withdrew the tax.[24]

In September 2020, under an agreement brokered by the United States, Serbia and Kosovo agreed to normalise economic ties.[4][5] Serbia also agreed to suspend its efforts to encourage other states to either not recognise Kosovo or to revoke recognition for one year, while Kosovo agreed to not apply for new membership of international organisations for the same period.[6]

Positions taken by sovereign entities

According to a 2020 study, states which have strong ties to the United States are more likely to recognize Kosovo, whereas states with stronger ties to Russia are less likely to recognize Kosovo.[25]

Countries that recognise Kosovo as an independent state

Member states of the United Nations

No. Country Date of recognition Ref.
1–8  Afghanistan 18 February 2008 [26]
 Albania [27]
 Costa Rica [28]
 France [29]
 Senegal [30]
 Turkey [31]
 United Kingdom [32]
 United States [33]
9  Australia 19 February 2008 [34]
10–11  Latvia 20 February 2008 [35]
 Germany [36]
12–15  Estonia 21 February 2008 [37]
 Italy [38]
 Denmark [39]
 Luxembourg [40]
16  Peru 22 February 2008 [41]
17  Belgium 24 February 2008 [42]
18  Poland 26 February 2008 [43]
19   Switzerland 27 February 2008 [44]
20  Austria 28 February 2008 [45]
21  Ireland 29 February 2008 [46]
22  Sweden 4 March 2008 [47]
23  Netherlands [48]
24  Iceland 5 March 2008 [49]
25  Slovenia [50]
26  Finland 7 March 2008 [51]
27-28  Canada 18 March 2008 [52]
 Japan [53]
29-31  Monaco 19 March 2008 [54]
 Hungary [55]
 Croatia [56]
32  Bulgaria 20 March 2008 [57]
33  Liechtenstein 25 March 2008 [58]
34-35  South Korea 28 March 2008 [59]
 Norway [60]
36  Marshall Islands 17 April 2008
37  Burkina Faso 23 April 2008 [61]
38  Lithuania 6 May 2008 [62]
39  San Marino 12 May 2008 [63]
40  Czech Republic 21 May 2008 [64]
41  Liberia 30 May 2008 [fn 1]
42  Colombia 4 August 2008 [67]
43 Belize 7 August 2008 [68]
44  Malta 22 August 2008 [69]
45  Samoa 15 September 2008 [70]
46  Portugal 7 October 2008 [71]
47-48  Montenegro 9 October 2008 [72]
 Macedonia [73]
49  United Arab Emirates 14 October 2008 [74]
50  Malaysia 30 October 2008 [75]
51  Federated States of Micronesia 5 December 2008 [76]
52  Panama 16 January 2009 [77]
53  Maldives 19 February 2009 [78]
54  Gambia 7 April 2009 [79]
55  Saudi Arabia 20 April 2009 [80]
56  Bahrain 19 May 2009 [81]
57  Jordan 7 July 2009 [82]
58  Dominican Republic 10 July 2009 [83]
59  New Zealand 9 November 2009 [84]
60  Malawi 14 December 2009 [85]
61  Mauritania 12 January 2010 [86]
62  Eswatini 12 April 2010 [87]
63  Vanuatu 28 April 2010 [88]
64  Djibouti 8 May 2010 [89]
65  Somalia 19 May 2010 [90]
66  Honduras 3 September 2010 [91]
67  Kiribati 21 October 2010 [92][93]
68  Tuvalu 18 November 2010 [94]
69  Qatar 7 January 2011 [95]
70  Guinea-Bissau 10 January 2011 [96][fn 2]
71  Andorra 8 June 2011 [102]
72  Guinea 12 August 2011 [103][104]
73  Niger 15 August 2011 [103][105]
74  Benin 18 August 2011 [106]
75  Saint Lucia 19 August 2011 [107]
76  Gabon 15 September 2011 [108][109]
77  Ivory Coast 16 September 2011 [110][111]
78  Kuwait 11 October 2011 [112]
79  Haiti 10 February 2012 [113]
80  Brunei 25 April 2012 [114]
81  Chad 1 June 2012 [115]
82  Timor-Leste 20 September 2012 [116][117]
83  Fiji 19 November 2012 [118][119]
84  Saint Kitts and Nevis 28 November 2012 [120][121]
85  Pakistan 24 December 2012 [122][123]
86  Tanzania 29 May 2013 [124]
87  Guyana 13 June 2013 [125]
88  Yemen 11 June 2013 [126][127]
89  Egypt 26 June 2013 [128]
90  Thailand 24 September 2013 [129][130]
91  Libya 25 September 2013 [131]
92  El Salvador 18 October 2014 [132]
93  Antigua and Barbuda 20 May 2015 [133]
94  Singapore 1 December 2016 [134]
95  Bangladesh 27 February 2017 [135]
96  Barbados 15 February 2018 [136]
97  Israel 4 September 2020 [137]
Notes
  1. ^ In June 2018, following a meeting between Liberian Foreign Minister Gbehzohngar Milton Findley and Serbian Foreign Minister Ivica Dacic, a note from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Liberia was published which stated in part that it "annuls its letter of recognition of Kosovo."[65] A few days latter, Liberia's MFA posted a notice on its website saying that it wished "to refute reports in some international and social media of its revocation of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Kosovo."[66]
  2. ^ In a letter dated 21 November 2017, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guinea-Bissau informed Kosovo that it had withdrawn its recognition.[97][98][99] On 2 February 2018, Kosovo's MFA announced that it had received a new note verbale from Guinea-Bissau stating that the previous note revoking recognition had no effect.[100][101]

Other states and entities

No. Country Date of recognition Ref.
1 Taiwan Taiwan (Republic of China) 19 February 2008 [138]
2  Cook Islands 18 May 2015 [139]
3  Niue 23 June 2015 [140]

Withdrawn recognition

The Serbian Foreign Ministry claimed in March 2020 that there are eighteen nations that have withdrawn their recognition: Burundi, Central African Republic, Comoros, Ghana, Dominica, Guinea-Bissau, Grenada, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Suriname and Togo.[141][142][143] In many of those cases, Kosovo's foreign ministry has called it "fake news" and "Serbian propaganda".[144][145][146][147] Three of those withdrawls have been considered dubious:

  • Guinea-Bissau withdrew recognition in November 2017, but in 2018 sent a note verbale to the government of Kosovo stating that the previous note revoking recognition had no effect.[101] The then prime-minister who withdrew recognition in 2017 while in a trip to Belgrade became President of Guinea-Bissau in 2020, and it is unclear whether the country currently recognizes Kosovo or not.
  • Just a few days after revoking its recognition in June 2018, the government of Liberia issued a statement "reaffirming bilateral relations with Kosovo".[148]
  • São Tomé and Príncipe never officially recognised Kosovo, according to its former president Manuel Pinto da Costa (see the table below for more info).

There are conflicting reports on whether Oman has recognised Kosovo, or de-recognised it.[149][150] In February 2011, Kosovo announced that it received a note from Oman which stated that it "will welcome Kosovo's membership to the United Nations, as well as to other international and regional organizations" and that the countries had established diplomatic relations.[149] However, in September 2011 Kosovo's deputy Foreign Minister Petrit Selimi stated that "Oman never recognised us".[151] Later that month, Kosovo's Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Oman's Foreign Minister Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah had informed them of his country's recognition of Kosovo.[150] Kosovo's chargé d'affaires in Saudi Arabia was quoted in 2012 as saying that Oman had not recognised Kosovo.[152]

Conflicting reports have also arisen regarding Tonga's position.[153]

No. Country Date of Ref.
Recognition Withdrawal
1  Suriname 8 July 2016 27 October 2017 [154][155][156][157]
2  Burundi 16 October 2012 15 February 2018 [158][159][160]
3  Papua New Guinea 3 October 2012 5 July 2018 [161]
4  Lesotho 11 February 2014 16 October 2018 [162][163][164]
5  Comoros 14 May 2009 1 November 2018 [165][166][167][168]
6  Dominica 11 December 2012 2 November 2018 [169][170][171][172]
7  Grenada 25 September 2013 4 November 2018 [173][174]
8  Solomon Islands 13 August 2014 28 November 2018 [175][176]
9  Madagascar 24 November 2017 7 December 2018 [177]
10  Palau 6 March 2009 17 January 2019 [178][179]
11  Togo 11 July 2014 28 June 2019 [180][181][182]
12  Central African Republic 22 July 2011 24 July 2019 [183][184][185]
13  Ghana 23 January 2012 7 November 2019 [186][187][188][189]
14  Nauru 23 April 2008 13 November 2019 [190][191][192]
15  Sierra Leone 11 June 2008 2 March 2020 [193][194][195][196]

Entities that have not recognised Kosovo as an independent state

Diplomatic recognition is an explicit, official, unilateral act in the foreign policy of states in regards to another party. Not having issued such a statement does not necessarily mean the state has objections to the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. Some states, by custom or policy, do not extend formal recognitions, on the grounds that a vote for membership in the UN or another organisation whose membership is limited to states is itself an act of recognition.

Member states of the United Nations

A
Country Position
 Algeria In March 2008, Mourad Medelci, Algerian Foreign Minister, stated that while Algeria sympathised with all Muslim countries, it believed that international laws had to be adhered to.[197] A year later, Medelci reaffirmed the Algerian position of Kosovo being an integral part of Serbia.[198] In May 2009, the Ambassador of Algeria to Serbia, Abdelkader Mesdoua stated that Algeria would reconsider the issue of Kosovo if Serbia changed its own position.[199]
 Angola

On 23 June 2008, Angolan president José Eduardo dos Santos sent a message to his Serbian counterpart, Boris Tadić, regarding Kosovo's declaration of independence. It reiterated the solidarity of dos Santos and Angola to Serbia in regard to the preservation of its sovereignty and integrity.[200]

 Argentina

In February 2008, Argentine Foreign Minister, Jorge Taiana said "if we were to recognize Kosovo, which has declared its independence unilaterally, without an agreement with Serbia, we would set a dangerous precedent that would seriously threaten our chances of a political settlement in the case of the Falkland Islands".[201] He said that Argentina will not recognise it because it "supports the principle of territorial integrity", and he stressed that UNSCR 1244 called for the mutual agreement of both parties to solve the dispute.[202] At the International Court of Justice, the Argentine delegation argued that Kosovo's declaration of independence "breaches the obligation to respect the territorial integrity of Serbia, the obligation of peaceful settlement of disputes and the principle of non-intervention", and that any solution "did not, and could not, abolish Serbia's sovereignty over Kosovo".[203]

 Armenia On 12 March 2008, Armenian president Serzh Sargsyan stated that Armenia's possible recognition of Kosovo's independence would not strain Armenia–Russia relations, but also noted that "Kosovo recognition issue needs serious discussion ... Armenia has always been an adherent to the right of nations to self-determination and in this aspect we welcome Kosovo's independence",[204] but in September 2008 Sargsyan stated that Armenia had not recognized Kosovo's independence because "Armenia can not recognize another entity in the same situation as long as it has not recognized the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic", and adding that a nation's right to self-determination "takes times" and requires the understanding of "all interested parties". Accordingly, Armenia is trying to "convince" Azerbaijan to accept the loss of Karabakh, stated the president.[204][205] In November 2008, whilst commenting on Russia's recognition of Georgia's breakaway regions, Sargsyan said "In case with Kosovo the right of nations to self-determination was applied. However, Russia's similar step was given a hostile reception".[206] On 4 April 2011 Sargsyan said that Armenia would not recognise the independence of Kosovo against Serbia's interests.[207]
 Azerbaijan

In February 2008, a spokesman of the Foreign Ministry of Azerbaijan, Khazar Ibrahim, said "We view this illegal act as being in contradiction with international law. Proceeding from this, Azerbaijan's position is clear: it does not recognise [Kosovo's] independence".[208] Azerbaijan has also withdrawn peacekeepers from Kosovo. Zahid Oruj, a member of the parliamentary committee on defence and security, explained it by saying "Owing to the change of situation in Kosovo, the Azeri peacekeeping battalion performing its mission within the Turkish contingent will be withdrawn. Azerbaijan acts in compliance with the country's political stance".[209] At the summit of the OIC on 10 March 2008, Azerbaijan opposed adoption of a document proposed by Turkey that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence.[210] On 19 June 2008, during the meeting of OIC, Azerbaijan was among countries that opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country.[211] In 2009, Azerbaijan said, regarding Kosovo, that entities that declare secession while violating the internal laws of the state can not be considered to be states, and that a fait accompli may not be accepted.[212] In May 2010, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev said that his country strongly supports the territorial integrity of Serbia. He stated that the unilaterally proclaimed independence of Kosovo is an illegal move and called on all UN member states to respect international law.[213]

B
Country Position
 Bahamas

In April 2010, Bahamian Foreign Minister Brent Symonette said "We have considered and continue to consider the situation on the ground on both sides and maintain a status of awaiting the outcome of negotiations between Kosovo and its neighbouring countries before committing support to either of the two countries".[214] On 26 September 2012, the Bahamian Foreign Minister, Frederick A. Mitchell, said that his state had sympathy for the independence of Kosovo, and that the Bahamas would support the state of Kosovo.[215]

 Belarus

In February 2008, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko wrote in a letter to Serbian President Boris Tadić that "Belarus expresses its solidarity with the Serbians' intention to defend their sovereignty and territorial integrity".[216] The National Assembly of Belarus had issued a statement condemning the declaration of independence and encouraged all nations to call the move "illegal" under international law.[217][218]

 Bhutan

On 19 September 2012, the representative of Bhutan to the UN, Lhatu Wangchuk, said that his country was deliberating the issue of Kosovo.[219]

 Bolivia

In February 2008, Bolivian president Evo Morales refused to recognise Kosovo's independence and compared Kosovo separatists to the leaders of four eastern Bolivian states who had demanded greater autonomy from the federal government.[220] In a 4 December 2009 hearing at the ICJ, the Bolivian delegation said that Kosovo is an integral part of Serbia, that the Republic of Kosovo did not exist, and that an "unilateral declaration of independence cannot change the international regime established by the UNSC resolution, or decide the outcome of negotiations".[221]

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed. Bosniak and Croat members of the Presidency want to recognise it, but Serb members refuse it, citing the possibility of secession of Bosnia's Republika Srpska on the same grounds of national self-determination.[citation needed]
 Botswana

In October 2010, Botswana's foreign minister Phandu Skelemani said that Botswana had not yet made a decision on recognition of Kosovo pending a ruling of the European Union, and that Kosovo had promised support in the establishment of a medical school in return for its recognition.[222]

 Brazil

Brazil has not recognised the independence of Kosovo, stating that any change should be reached under the auspices of the United Nations and the legal framework of UNSCR 1244.[citation needed]

C
Country Position
 Cambodia

On 6 October 2008, the Europe Department Director at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Kao Samreth, stressed that Cambodia does not wish to encourage secession in any country and therefore does not support the independence of Kosovo. Kao drew parallels to independence claims for South Ossetia and stated that Cambodia would not encourage tension within a country by supporting independence claims.[223]

In February 2009, Secretary of State at Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Cambodia, Ouch Borith, reiterated an earlier Cambodian Ministry of Foreign Affairs statement that Kosovo is a sensitive issue which they are studying carefully. Borith questioned, "if Kosovo is recognized, what about South Ossetia?"[224] In April 2009, it was stated that Cambodia had no plans to file a brief (either supportive of Serbia or Kosovo) in the ICJ case.[225]

 Cameroon In January 2011, the General Secretary of Cameroon's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ferdinand Ngoh Ngoh, reportedly said that his government could not deny that Kosovo's independence was irreversible, but that it would have to be careful on how to proceed in order not to create a situation that would damage Cameroon's interests and position in the world.[citation needed] In 2018, Cameroon was one of 51 countries to vote against Kosovo's bid to joint Interpol, effectively blocking it from becoming a member country of the organization.[226]
 Cape Verde

In December 2010, Cape Verde's National Director of Political Affairs and Cooperation, José Luis Rocha, said that his country will wait until there is consensus at the United Nations Security Council before considering its position.[227]

 Chile

In a 27 February 2008 press release, the Foreign Ministry of Chile called on the parties concerned to achieve, by peaceable means, through dialogue and adherence to the international law, a solution that respects the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter. Chile has declared that it would continue to analyse the discussions that have taken place both in the United Nations Security Council and in the Council of Ministers of the European Union.[228]

 China China is strongly supportive of the principles of state sovereignty and territorial integrity. It supports Serbia's position on Kosovo.[citation needed]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo On 10 February 2009, the Head of the International Organizations Directorate at the Congolese Foreign Ministry, Alice Kimpembe Bamba, said that her government had no plans to recognise Kosovo at the moment, adding that her government was closely following developments on Kosovo at the UN.[229] In November 2009, it was reported that the President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Joseph Kabila had said that his country will not recognise the independence of Kosovo for as long as he lives.[230] On 6 April 2012, the Congolese National Assembly Speaker, Evariste Boshab Mabudj-ma-Bilenge, said that "Serbia's position on Kosovo and Metohija is the Democratic Republic of Congo's position".[231]
 Republic of the Congo
 Cuba

On 29 February 2008, writing in his personal "Reflections of Fidel" column, which was published in the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Cuba, Granma Internacional, Fidel Castro accused Javier Solana of being the ideological father of Kosovo's "independence" (Castro's quotes) and, by doing so, of putting at risk the ethnic cohesion and the very state integrity of Spain or the UK, both of which experienced separatist movements of their own.[232]

 Cyprus

On 11 February 2008, the Cypriot Foreign Minister Erato Kozakou-Marcoullis, stated that "Cyprus will never recognize a unilateral declaration of independence outside the U.N. framework, and in particular by side-stepping the role of the Security Council".[233] This stance was reiterated in October 2009 by The President of Cyprus Dimitris Christofias, who said Cyprus would not recognise Kosovo, even if all other EU members did so.[234]

E
Country Position
 Ecuador

In response to a request from the University of Oxford regarding the analysis of developments related to the independence of Kosovo, in August 2008 the Ecuadorian Foreign Ministry stated that there should be "unrestricted compliance with the rules and principles of the United Nations Charter and International Law".[235]

 Equatorial Guinea

On 1 September 2010, Equatorial Guinea's Permanent Representative to the UN, Anatolio Ndong Mba, said during a press conference that his country's foreign policy favours Kosovo's independence.[236] In September 2011, the President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, is reported to have responded positively to a request for recognition by Kosovo.[237]

 Eritrea

On 4 September 2008, the Director of the Euro-Americas Division at the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tsehaye Fassil, said that his Government had not decided whether it would recognise Kosovo's independence.[238]

 Ethiopia In January 2009, Ethiopia's Ambassador to Austria reportedly stated that the Ethiopian government would come to a decision over the recognition of Kosovo "at the right time".[239] According to Serbia, Skënder Hyseni, Kosovo's Foreign Minister, and other members of his delegation were denied entry into Ethiopia in January 2010. They allegedly wanted to attend an African Union summit in order to lobby African nations to recognise Kosovo. The Serbian Foreign Minister, Vuk Jeremić, said that their visas were denied after pressure by the Serbian government. Jeremić, who attended the summit, thanked his Ethiopian counterpart for denying the visas and supporting Serbia's cause. However, Kosovo's Foreign Ministry denies that they submitted any requests for visas.[240] In December 2014, amid a diplomatic dispute with Serbia, Ethiopia threatened to recognise Kosovo.[241]
G
Country Position
 Georgia

The Foreign Minister of Georgia, David Bakradze, said on 18 February 2008 that Tbilisi would not recognise Kosovo's independence,.[242][243][244] On 29 March 2008 the prime minister, Lado Gurgenidze, gave a recorded interview in Estonia, in which he clearly said in English that as Georgia's friends have recognised Kosovo, it is only natural that eventually Georgia would do likewise. The printed publication of the interview elicited demands by the opposition to impeach him, and the government spokesman stated that the prime minister was misinterpreted, after which the Estonian paper Postimees, which conducted and printed the interview, released the audio publicly.[245]

 Greece As of 2021, Greece does not recognise the independence of Kosovo. In 2018, Greece was one of 51 countries that voted against Kosovo's bid to join Interpol.[246]
 Guatemala

In March 2008, the Guatemalan Foreign Minister, Haroldo Rodas, had said that he had objected to the recognition of Kosovo in deference to Russian concerns.

At a meeting on 26 March 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the Ambassador of Guatemala to the UN, Gert Rosenthal, said that his country's government was carefully studying the developments in Kosovo, and the ongoing preparations to present a case to the ICJ. He also said that Guatemala was working with others in Latin America to reach a decision.[247]

I
Country Position
 India India has consistently refused to recognise the independence of Kosovo.
 Indonesia Indonesia's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed. In 2018, Indonesia was one of 51 countries that voted against Kosovo's bid to join Interpol.[246]
 Iran

On 13 March 2008, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said that Iran, after considering the region's issues and conditions, had not recognized the independence of Kosovo.[248]

 Iraq

At a meeting on 28 May 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the representative of Iraq to the UN, Hamid Al Bayati, reportedly said that Kosovo deserves to be recognised by other states and that Iraq's decision to recognise would come at a suitable time.[249]

J
Country Position
 Jamaica

The Jamaican Government in 2009 refused a request from the United States to recognise Kosovo. On 23 July 2009 the Under Secretary for Multilateral Affairs at the Jamaican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Ambassador Vilma McNish, indicated that she expected no change in the government of Jamaica's decision not to extend formal diplomatic recognition to Kosovo.[250][251]

K
Country Position
 Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has opposed the independence of Kosovo and has taken Serbia's position on the issue. In December 2008, Kazakh prime minister Karim Masimov stated that "We have an official position. Kazakhstan did not recognise Kosovo and does not recognise Abkhazia and South Ossetia. We consider that borders are defined and Kazakhstan will not recognise any new states".[252]

 Kenya

At a meeting on 30 July 2008 between Kenyan and Serbian Foreign Ministers, Moses Wetangula and Vuk Jeremić, Wetangula spoke of Kenya's principled position regarding Kosovo and the territorial integrity of Serbia.[253] Following a September 2010 meeting with Kenyan politicians, Albanian prime minister Sali Berisha said that Kenya had promised to decide positively regarding recognition of Kosovo.[254]

 North Korea

In March 2017, North Korean Ambassador Ri Pyong Du visited Belgrade and affirmed North Korean support for Serbia's territorial integrity.[255]

 Kyrgyzstan

In February 2008, a statement issued by Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry stated that Kyrgyzstan would not recognise Kosovo's independence and considered it a dangerous precedent for separatist organisations in the world.[256][257]

L
Country Position
 Laos

On 27 February 2008, the Lao Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that "The Lao PDR urged all sides to respect the resolution of the UN Security Council No 1244, dated 10 June 1999, recognizing Kosovo as a Serbian province".[258]

 Lebanon

On 29 November 2018, Lebanese Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil visited Belgrade and affirmed in a joint press conference with his Serbian counterpart, Ivica Dačić, that Lebanon supported "the sovereignty and territorial integrity" of Serbia.[259][260]

M
Country Position
 Mali

Following the August 2012 publication of a note verbale recognising Kosovo's independence, purportedly signed by acting President of Mali, Dioncounda Traoré,[261] state run media in Mali issued a statement in which the Presidency of Mali denied recognising Kosovo and claimed that the document was a fabrication.[262] Pacolli claimed that the Malian Army, who had recently seized control of the state in a coup d'état due to dissatisfaction over the governments handling of their own separatist uprising in Azawad, had intervened to reverse the recognition granted by the civilian president.[263] On Pacolli's return to Mali to seek clarification on the issue, state leaders promised to reconfirm their recognition.[264]

 Mauritius On 8 May 2008, Mauritian Secretary General for Foreign Affairs, Anand Neewoor, stated that the Government of Mauritius would not recognise Kosovo any time soon because of their concerns that it would have implications for their "fight to regain the Chagos Islands". On 28 August 2008, Patrice Cure, head of the Multilateral Division at the Mauritian Foreign Ministry, indicated no willingness by his government to reconsider its stance on Kosovo, continuing to hold the line connecting Kosovo to Chagos issues.[265] In June 2009, the Mauritian prime minister, Navin Ramgoolam reportedly called the US embassy in Port Louis to say that he had decided that Mauritius would recognise Kosovo, despite opposition from his foreign ministry,[266] though the recognition did not take place.
 Mexico On 19 February 2008, the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying that Mexico is closely paying attention to the situation as it develops in order to adopt, at an opportune moment, a position on the declaration of independence. The same statement called on all parties to agree peacefully, through dialogue, on the final status of Kosovo and to reach an agreement on the rights of minorities and the maintenance of peace and security in the Balkans.[267] Mexican government officials have since then repeatedly underlined that Mexico does not intend to recognise Kosovo.[268]
 Moldova Kosovo's declaration creates "deep concerns in the Republic of Moldova," the Moldovan government said in a February 2008 statement. Moldova will not recognise Kosovo's independence.[269] In December 2013, Moldovan Defence Minister Vitalie Marinuta stated on a visit to Serbia that Moldova will not recognise Kosovo.[270]
 Mongolia On 8 May 2009, Kosovo's president Fatmir Sejdiu met Nyamaa Enkhbold, the Mongolian Deputy Parliament Speaker, to request recognition of Kosovo by Mongolia. Mr. Enkhbold reportedly promised to deal with the request once he had returned home.[271]

In a 17 July 2012 meeting with Kosovo's deputy prime minister, Edita Tahiri, both the Mongolian president and the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj and Gombojav Zandanshatar, said that Mongolia would consider recognising the independence of Kosovo. Elbegdorj promised that Mongolia would seriously consider recognising the independence of Kosovo in the very near future, and has a very high appreciation for the movement of the people of Kosovo for freedom and independence. Zandanshatar promised that his country would deliberate the issue of recognising Kosovo's independence.[272]

 Morocco

In June 2011, Moroccan government representatives explained that they had difficulty in recognising Kosovo due to the political context of Western Sahara.[273]

 Mozambique In February 2008, Mozambican Deputy Foreign Minister Henrique Banze said in reference to Kosovo's declaration of independence, "We shall wait for the appropriate moment. It's a very sensitive matter and like all matters of this kind, it demands a lot of thought. Our government will work so that it may make the most appropriate decision in this case".[274] In November 2008 Mozambique's ambassador to the UN, Filipe Chidumo, stated that his government is monitoring developments, and that it "understands Kosovo's people's will for freedom and independence".[275]

At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, Ambassador Chidumo reportedly said that the issue of Kosovo continues to remain on Mozambique's agenda and that he would resubmit the request for recognition to his government.[276]

In September 2012, Mozambique's Minister for Foreign Affairs and Co-Operation, Oldemiro Julio Marques Baloi, said that his government would reconsider recognising Kosovo.[277]

 Myanmar In January 2014, it was reported that Myanmar's Ministry of Foreign Affairs had sent a note to officials in Kosovo informing them of that they had recognised Kosovo's independence. However, Pacolli and Hoxhaj quickly denied that they had received any such note.[278]
N
Country Position
 Namibia In September 2010, following talks with Namibian officials, Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić stated that Namibia has no intentions of recognising Kosovo. The Foreign Minister of Namibia Utoni Nujoma said that the most important thing is to continue to search for a peaceful solution to the problem of Kosovo and that the opportunities should be sought for reconciliation between nations in the Balkans.[279]
   Nepal A leaked 2009 cable from the US embassy in Kathmandu states that during a meeting with US Assistant Secretary Richard Boucher, the Foreign Secretary of Nepal, Gyan Chandra Acharya, said that the Government of Nepal had yet to decide if it would recognise the independence of Kosovo. Acharya acknowledged that Nepal understood the US interest in Kosovo's recognition but could not make a decision at the time because of regional sensitivities.[280]
 Nicaragua In February 2008, Nicaragua's Foreign Minister, Samuel Santos, said that his country maintained a position of "observation" to the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo. "Nicaragua is watching the issue of Kosovo's independence, we have friends who are in agreement with this independence and other friends who disagree, there are some who are saying that [independence] is a threat to peace in that tender area. We just look at [this case and] we have no opinion on this issue."[281]
 Nigeria

In July 2009, Umaru Yar'Adua, President of Nigeria, said that Nigeria will not recognise Kosovo as an independent nation. He said the decision not to recognise Kosovo was informed by Nigeria's historical experience of the civil war of 1967 to 1970.[282]

P
Country Position
 Paraguay In February 2008, the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Paraguay published a statement saying that Paraguay took note of the independence declaration and was analysing the situation.[283]

In April 2010, it was reported that the Paraguayan president had told Kosovan pilot James Berisha, who was on an awareness-raising journey around Central and South America, that Paraguay had already recognised Kosovo's independence but had not made this known so as not to jeopardise their relationship with Russia.[284][better source needed]

 Philippines In February 2008, Foreign Affairs Secretary Alberto Romulo said in a statement: "Considering the existing sensibilities in the region, continued dialogue should be encouraged among all the parties concerned to ensure regional stability". He also said the Philippines is not willing to recognise Kosovo as an independent nation.[285] On 19 February 2008, Romulo stated that recognition could complicate peace talks with Muslim separatists in Mindanao. He said that "while the Philippines does not oppose the idea of independence for Kosovo, it would prefer a settlement ... taking into account the internationally accepted principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity".[286]

In a November 2012 meeting with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, Foreign Affairs Undersecretary, Rafael E. Seguis, pledged support for Kosovo, saying that his country has full understanding for the independence of Kosovo and that he would consider the request for recognition.[287]

R
Country Position
 Romania On 18 February 2008, a joint session of the Parliament of Romania voted not to recognise Kosovo's independence by 357 to 27, with support from all parties except the UDMR. Furthermore, the President and the Prime Minister opposed recognition.[288][289] Still, in May 2015 Prime Minister Victor Ponta stated that "in 2008, Romania decided not to recognize Kosovo. However, things have changed since then. Governments have changed and some new decision on the recognition of Kosovo could be made... because many things have changed in Kosovo since 2008".[290]
 Russia Russia has strongly opposed Kosovo's independence. But in 2014, when it recognised the Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea, Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs cited Kosovo's declaration and the ICJ decision as evidence that unilateral declarations of independence are not inconsistent with international law[291] (the Kosovo independence precedent).
 Rwanda On 11 February 2009, the Director of International Organisations at Rwanda's Foreign Ministry, Ben Rutsinga, said that the African Union had no unified position on Kosovo independence and that Rwanda would not reach an "individual determination" in advance of such a unified position.[292] On 18 September 2009, the Rwandan Foreign Minister, Rosemary Museminali, said that some countries would be likely to criticise a Rwandan recognition of Kosovo, accusing Rwanda of taking that stance in order to lay the basis for a similar breakaway by parts of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. She added that the Government of Kosovo had requested a meeting with her but she had not responded.[293]
S
Country Position
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines In February 2008, when asked about Kosovo, the Prime Minister of St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Ralph Gonsalves, said that "if the people of a country want independence, then I think they should have it".[294]

At a meeting in August 2011 with U.S. Representative, Eliot Engel, both St. Vincent & the Grenadines' Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, Ralph Gonsalves and Louis Straker, took on board the case for recognition of Kosovo and promised to review the issue.[295]

 São Tomé and Príncipe In March 2012, São Tomé and Príncipe's Council of Ministers under then Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada adopted a resolution recognising Kosovo's independence.[296] In January 2013, President Manuel Pinto da Costa issued a communication stating that the recognition was invalid as he had not been consulted on the decision, as required by the country's Constitution.[297][298][299][300] New Prime Minister Gabriel Costa said that the process of recognition was an anomalous situation.[301] Kosovo Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, insisted that the recognition remains valid.[302] First Deputy Prime Minister of Kosovo Behgjet Pacolli said that he received a note verbale recognising Kosovo from Trovoada and that it was a closed issue.[303]
 Serbia See above
 Seychelles In September 2012, the Seychelles' Foreign Minister, Jean-Paul Adam, said that his country is not against Kosovo's independence, and that formal recognition would occur very soon.[304][305]

In September 2014, Adam said that Seychelles would consider the recognition of Kosovo with utmost seriousness.[306]

 Slovakia Slovakia has not recognised Kosovo, but has given indications that its stance could change in the future, especially if independence will be agreed with Serbia.
 South Africa South Africa's reaction to the independence of Kosovo has been mixed.
 South Sudan In July 2011, Kosovo's First deputy prime minister, Behgjet Pacolli, was invited to attend South Sudan's independence ceremony.[307]

In September 2012, South Sudan's vice-president, Riek Machar Teny, invited Kosovo's prime minister, Hashim Thaçi, to South Sudan to discuss building bilateral relations between the two countries.[308] During an October 2012 meeting with Pacolli, South Sudan's president Salva Kiir Mayardit stated his country's desire to maintain friendly relations with Kosovo. He reiterated the position that South Sudan supports the right of the citizens of Kosovo to build and consolidate their state.[309] In September 2013 the Foreign Minister of South Sudan, Barnaba Marial Benjamin, confirmed that the recognition of Kosovo is a matter of time.[310]

In April 2014, Benjamin said that positive news in regards to improving relations with Kosovo should be expected.[311] In September 2014, Benjamin said that South Sudan was considering with seriousness the recognition of the independence and would follow all the procedures in order to do so.[312]

 Spain Spain is the only major country in Western Europe that has not recognised Kosovo, originally because of objections to the legality of its unilateral declaration of independence under international law, and also due to concerns about possible implications regarding its own issues with domestic independence movements.[17] Although it has given indications that its stance may change, increasing political tensions make it unlikely that Spain will soften its current position.
 Sri Lanka

In February 2008, the Foreign Ministry of Sri Lanka called Kosovo's declaration of independence a violation of the UN Charter and emphasised its concern that the act "could set an unmanageable precedent in the conduct of international relations, the established global order of sovereign States and could thus pose a grave threat to international peace and security".[313]

 Sudan At the summit of the OIC on 10 March 2008, Sudan opposed adoption of the document, proposed by Turkey, that would lend support to Kosovo's declaration of independence.[210] On 28 August 2008, Sudan's envoy to the UN Abdelmahmood Abdelhaleem stated that his government remains opposed to the independence of Kosovo.[314]
 Syria On 13 May 2009, Syria's ambassador to Serbia, Majed Shadoud, reported that Syrian president Bashar al-Assad told Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić that his country continues to oppose the recognition of the independence of Kosovo. Shadoud quoted al-Assad as saying "Syria urges a political solution for the situation in the Balkans and the Middle East and is opposed to any kind of divisions in both regions, regardless of whether religious, ethnic or nationalist reasons are in question".[315]

In April 2012 a Syrian opposition delegation (Syrian National Council) led by Ammar Abdulhamid visited Pristina and promised to recognise Kosovo immediately if they triumph in Syria.[316]

T
Country Position
 Tajikistan In February 2008, the Chairman of the International Affairs Committee of the Tajik Assembly of Representatives, Asomudin Saidov, stated that Tajikistan will not recognise Kosovo's independence as it considers it to be the violation of legal norms and a danger for Europe.[317] According to leaked US cables, Tajikistan does not want to take a position on Kosovo due to concerns with the precedent for Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[318]
 Trinidad and Tobago On 20 February 2008, Trinidad and Tobago's Foreign Minister Paula Gopee-Scoon took a positive stance and promised the US Ambassador that she would pursue the matter of Kosovo's recognition.[319]

At a meeting on 25 March 2009 with Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, the Ambassador of Trinidad and Tobago to the UN, Maria Annette Valere, said that her country knows how important the process of international recognition is for Kosovo, and that the government of Trinidad and Tobago would address the request for recognition in the near future.[320]

 Tunisia

At a meeting in October 2012 with Albanian Foreign Minister and Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, Edmond Panariti, the Tunisian Foreign Minister, Rafik Abdessalem, said that his government was seriously considering the issue of the recognition of Kosovo.[321]

 Turkmenistan In a September 2010 meeting with Albanian prime minister Sali Berisha, Turkmen president Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow said that his country would consider the recognition of Kosovo at the right time.[322]
U
Country Position
 Uganda

In February 2008, a senior Ugandan official said that the Ugandan government was carefully studying Kosovo's declaration of independence before it makes a decision to recognise it as a state or not.[323][324]

 Ukraine Ukraine refuses to recognise the independence of Kosovo and supports the territorial integrity of Serbia.
 Uruguay According to Últimas Noticias, in March 2008 "Uruguay has not recognised Kosovo's declaration of independence, because doing so would not be in accordance with its required three pillars of recognition: the principle of territorial integrity of states, achieving a solution through dialogue and consensus, and recognition by international organisations."[325]

On 27 September 2010, Uruguayan Deputy Foreign Minister Roberto Conde, stated that Uruguay would never recognise the independence of Kosovo.[326]

 Uzbekistan In February 2008, the Uzbek government believes that questions of independence should be decided in the UN assembly. As for Kosovo, Uzbekistan has yet to come up with a final position.[327]
V
Country Position
 Venezuela

In February 2008, Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez announced that Venezuela does not recognise Kosovo's independence on the grounds that it has been achieved through United States pressure.[328] On 24 March 2008, Chávez accused Washington of trying to "weaken Russia" by supporting independence for Kosovo. He called Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi, a "terrorist" put in power by the United States.[329]

 Vietnam In February 2008, the Vietnamese UN Ambassador Le Luong Minh "reaffirmed Vietnam policy that the fact that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence is not a correct implementation of the U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244 and that will only complicate the situation in Kosovo and the Balkan region".[330]

In a 23 February 2011 meeting with Serbian Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić, Vietnamese deputy prime minister, Pham Gia Khiem, reaffirmed Vietnam's position of supporting "Kosovo-related issues under the United Nations Security Council's decree to gain comprehensive measures in terms of respecting national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and assuring the benefits of involved nations".[331] In a 24 November 2011 meeting with Albanian deputy prime minister and Foreign Minister, Edmond Haxhinasto, Vietnam's Foreign Minister, Pham Binh Minh, said that Vietnam is following the developments in Kosovo, and that Serbia and Kosovo should continue the dialogue to find common ground that will be acceptable to both parties.[332]

Z
Country Position
 Zambia

In March 2008, Zambian Foreign Minister, Kabinga Pande, said that Zambia had not decided its position on the declaration of Kosovo's independence. Pande said the government needed more time to analyse the matter.[333] According to leaked US cables, Zambia did not want to take a position on Kosovo due to concerns with the precedent for the Lozi tribe, an ethnic group primarily inhabiting western Zambia, which had an active separatist movement for independence from Zambia.[334][non-primary source needed]

 Zimbabwe In April 2011, Claudius Nhema, Deputy Director of Protocol in the Foreign Ministry of Zimbabwe, reportedly told Kosovan pilot James Berisha that Zimbabwe would be considering Kosovo's recognition, but that they should wait for a recommendation from the Zimbabwean UN representative who should bring it to the Foreign Ministry after which it would be taken to Parliament for ratification.[335]

In February 2013, the then Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, Morgan Tsvangirai, said that he would consider recognising Kosovo.[336]

Other states and entities

Country Position
 Abkhazia In February 2008 Abkhazian de facto president Sergei Bagapsh, regarded "the promotion of Kosovo by the U.S.A. and some European states towards the declaration of independence as a visible demonstration of the policy of double standards". "Why does not the world community put any attention to the violent actions against ethnic minorities living in Kosovo..., the lack of interethnic reconciliation...", Sergey Bagapsh noted. "We are solidly convinced of the fact that [now] we have got an even wider moral base for the recognition of our independence."[337] On 5 September 2008, the Abkhazian Foreign Minister Sergei Shamba said he was ready to recognise Kosovo's independence, "if Kosovo agrees to recognize our own (Abkhazia) independence, we will certainly recognize them as well".[338][339]
 Artsakh In February 2008, Georgiy Petrosyan, Foreign Minister of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, said that he does not regard the conflict between his motherland and Azerbaijan, and the conflict between Kosovo and Serbia as completely similar. He noted that "approaches and solutions, which have recommended themselves while regulating one problem, can be used when looking for a solution to another one". Petrosyan stated that "the recognition of independent Kosovo will become an additional factor strengthening the status of [the] Stepanakert government" that he represents.[340] On 12 March 2008 following Kosovo's declaration of independence, the National Assembly of Nagorno-Karabakh adopted a statement calling on the world's parliaments to be consistent in their recognition of states established on the basis of the right for self-determination and not to use double standards. The statement commended the stance of the international community respecting the human and civil rights of the majority of Kosovo's population.[341]
In December 2011, it was reported that Vasily Atajanyan, the acting foreign minister of Nagorno-Karabakh, had said that Nagorno-Karabakh would recognise Kosovo if recognition were reciprocated. In response, Enver Hoxhaj, Foreign Minister of Kosovo, said that Kosovo can only have formal relations with members of the UN.[342]
  Holy See The reaction of the Holy See has been unclear. Since Kosovo's declaration there has been information suggesting de facto recognition, and information suggesting that this was not the case.
 Northern Cyprus In February 2008, the President of Northern Cyprus Mehmet Ali Talat welcomed Kosovo's independence, but a presidential spokesman said that the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was not planning to recognise Kosovo.[343][344][345]
 Palestine In February 2008, two senior Palestinian officials representing the Mahmoud Abbas West Bank-controlling government, who also are part of the team negotiating with Israel, disagreed on what the Kosovo events implied for Palestine. Yasser Abed Rabbo said, "If things are not going in the direction of continuous and serious negotiations, then we should take the step and announce our independence unilaterally. Kosovo is not better than us. We deserve independence even before Kosovo, and we ask for the backing of the United States and the European Union for our independence". Saeb Erekat responded that the Palestine Liberation Organization had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration," said Erekat, "We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".[346]
During a July 2009 state visit to Serbia, President of the Palestinian National Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, when discussing both the situations in the Middle East and Kosovo said, "We are looking for a way to resolve these problems in a peaceful way, by upholding international law. We cannot impose solutions nor can we accept imposed solutions. That is why we must negotiate".[347][348]
In June 2011, Ibrahim Khraishi, Palestine's representative to the UN in Geneva, stated that Palestine supports Kosovo's integration into the European and international communities, and supports its independence.[349] In September 2011, during the meeting of Foreign Ministers of the Non-Aligned Movement summit in Belgrade, the Palestinian Ambassador to the UN Riyad Mansour said that Palestine was a "typical foreign occupation which cannot be compared to the issue of Kosovo" as confirmed by international law and the UN.[350][351]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic The Polisario Front, which governs the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, has stated that the speedy recognition of Kosovo's independence by many countries shows the double standards of the international community, considering that the Western Sahara issue remains unsolved after three decades.[352]
 Somaliland In 2010, the President of Somaliland, Ahmed Mahamoud Silanyo, said, "We are heartened by Kosovo and what's happened to Southern Sudan that means it opens the door for us. The principle that countries should remain as they were at the time of independence has changed so why should it not work for us as well".[353]
 South Ossetia In February 2008, the South Ossetian de facto president, Eduard Kokoity, stated that it is not fair to compare this breakaway region with Kosovo because South Ossetians have far more right to a state of their own than Kosovo Albanians. He said that "Kosovo Albanians got independence after NATO's aggression on Serbia. Americans and NATO member countries took away Serbia's province. I feel sincerely for the Serb people," and that "Serbs had a well-organized state that provided for a normal life for Albanians. For this reason, what Americans have done to the Serbs is injustice".[354]
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg Transnistria Transnistria has no policy towards Kosovo, but the Transnistrian Foreign Ministry has said that "The declaration and recognition of Kosovo are of fundamental importance, since thereby a new conflict settlement model has been established, based on the priority of people's right to self-determination. Pridnestrovie [Transnistria] holds that this model should be applicable to all conflicts which have similar political, legal, and economic bases".[355]

Positions taken by intergovernmental organisations

Intergovernmental organisations do not themselves diplomatically recognise any state; their member states do so individually. However, depending on the intergovernmental organisation's rules of internal governance and the positions of their member states, they may express positive or negative opinions as to declarations of independence, or choose to offer or withhold membership to a partially recognised state.

International organisation Position
 Arab League In May 2009, the Secretary General of the Arab League, Amr Moussa, welcomed a request by Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Skënder Hyseni, to establish regular communications.[356] At a meeting on 18 June 2009 with Hyseni, the representative of the Arab League to the UN, Yahya A. Mahmassani, said that the Kosovo issue is being discussed at the Arab League, and that there would be gradual movement towards recognition as most Arab states are supportive of Kosovo.[276]
Member states (12 / 22)

Algeria • Bahrain  • Comoros • Djibouti  • Egypt  • Iraq • Jordan  • Kuwait  • Lebanon • Libya  • Mauritania  • Morocco • Oman • Palestine • Qatar  • Saudi Arabia  • Somalia  • Sudan • Syria • Tunisia • United Arab Emirates  • Yemen 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
 Caribbean Community (CARICOM) In August 2010, Albanian Parliament Speaker Jozefina Topalli received a letter from the chairman of the Grenadian Parliament, George J. McGuire, stating that CARICOM members would soon make a joint decision on the recognition of Kosovo.[357]
On 19 August 2011, it was reported that the CARICOM members had made a joint decision to recognise Kosovo, but that each state would announce official recognition separately.[358]
Member states (8 / 15)

Antigua and Barbuda  • Bahamas • Barbados  • Belize  • Dominica • Grenada • Guyana  • Haiti  • Jamaica • Montserrat  • Saint Kitts and Nevis  • Saint Lucia  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines • Suriname • Trinidad and Tobago

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
  – British Overseas Territory; the UK (which recognises Kosovo) represents its foreign affairs.
Europe Council of Europe (CoE) Kosovo plans to apply for membership in the CoE since it considers that it fulfills the statutory requirements to do so. If Kosovo receives positive votes from 2/3 of the member countries, it will be admitted to the CoE. Kosovo has already been recognised by 2/3 of the CoE members, thus it should be able to join the organisation.[359][360][361]
In May 2012, the Chairman of the Committee of Ministers of the CoE, Edmond Haxhinasto, pledged to work for a stronger role for Kosovo during the Albanian chairmanship of the Council.[362] Haxhinasto added that Kosovo would in the near future be a part of the family of states of the Council of Europe.[363] However, the Secretary-General of the CoE, Thorbjørn Jagland, commented that membership of Kosovo depends on the willingness of members.[364]
The Council of Europe Development Bank's board of directors voted in favour of Kosovo's membership on 14 June 2013 during their meeting in Malta.[365]
In June 2014, Kosovo became a member state of the Venice Commission, an advisory body of the Council of Europe.[366]
Member states (34 / 47)

Albania  • Andorra  • Armenia • Austria  • Azerbaijan • Belgium  • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Bulgaria  • Croatia  • Cyprus • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • Finland  • France  • Georgia • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Iceland  • Ireland  • Italy  • Latvia  • Liechtenstein  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Malta  • Moldova • Monaco  • Montenegro  • Netherlands  • North Macedonia  • Norway  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Russia • San Marino  • Serbia • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Sweden  • Switzerland  • Turkey  • Ukraine • United Kingdom 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) A resolution, agreeing to the membership of Kosovo in the EBRD, was approved by its Board of Governors on 16 November 2012, providing that, by 17 December 2012, it has completed the necessary internal procedures.[367][368] On 8 February 2013, Kosovo's Foreign Minister, Enver Hoxhaj, and the President of EBRD, Suma Chakrabarti, signed an agreement on economic cooperation and activities.[369]
 European Union (EU) The EU, like other IGOs, does not possess the legal capacity to diplomatically recognise any state; member states do so individually. The majority of member states have recognised Kosovo. To articulate a common EU policy of either support or opposition to Kosovo's independence would require unanimity on the subject from all 27 member states, which does not presently exist. On 18 February 2008, the EU officially stated that it would "take note" of the resolution of the Kosovo assembly.[370] The EU is sending a EULEX mission to Kosovo, which includes a special representative and 2,000 police and judicial personnel.[371][372]
Although the European Parliament is not formally vested with the authority to shape the EU's foreign policy, it was seen to be expressing its acceptance of Kosovan independence when it hosted the Kosovan Assembly in an interparliamentary meeting on 30 May 2008. This was also the first time Kosovo's flag was officially hoisted at an EU institution.[373][374] On 5 February 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that encouraged all EU member states to recognise Kosovo. The resolution also welcomed the successful deployment of EULEX across Kosovo, and rejected the possibility of Kosovo's partition. It was passed with 424 voted in favour, and 133 against. Some Romanian and Communist representatives called for a new international conference on Kosovo's status or to allow the northern part of the country to join Serbia.[375][376]
On 8 July 2010, the European Parliament adopted a resolution welcoming "the recognition by all Member States of the independence of Kosovo", and stating that EU member states should "step up their common approach towards Kosovo". The resolution rejected the possibility of a partition of Kosovo.[377]
On 29 March 2012, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that urged the five EU member states that had not recognised Kosovo's independence to do so.[378]
Member states (22 / 27) Candidates (4 / 5)

Austria  • Belgium  • Bulgaria  • Cyprus • Croatia  • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • Finland  • France  • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Ireland  • Italy  • Latvia  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Malta  • Netherlands  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Sweden 
Candidates: Albania  • Montenegro  • North Macedonia  • Serbia • Turkey 

 Bold – Presiding the Council of the European Union at time of declaration
  – Have recognised Kosovo.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) On 15 July 2008, the IMF issued a statement saying "It has been determined that Kosovo has seceded from Serbia as a new independent state and that Serbia is the continuing state," thus acknowledging the separation of Kosovo from Serbia.[379] After their membership was approved in a secret ballot by 108 states,[380] Kosovo signed the IMF's Articles of Agreement on 29 June 2009 to become a full member of the fund.[381][382]
Interpol To become a member of Interpol, a country would need the votes of 2/3 of Interpol's 194 members. Kosovo has tried to join Interpol on three different occasions, most recently in November 2018, when it received positive votes from 68 countries, falling short of the two-thirds majority needed.[383]
International Organization for Migration (IOM) At a meeting on 30 March 2012 with Kosovo's Deputy Foreign Minister, Petrit Selimi, Deputy Director of the IOM, Laura Thomson, expressed readiness to continue advanced discussions with the representatives of Kosovo to further advance the prospects for membership.[384]
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) NATO maintains that its ongoing Kosovo Force mission and mandate remain unchanged and that "NATO reaffirms that KFOR shall remain in Kosovo on the basis of UNSCR 1244, as agreed by Foreign Ministers in December 2007, unless the UN Security Council decides otherwise".[385]
Member states (26 / 30) Candidates (0 / 1)

Albania  • Belgium  • Bulgaria  • Canada  • Croatia  • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • France  • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Iceland  • Italy  • Latvia  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Montenegro  • Netherlands  • North Macedonia  • Norway  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Turkey  • United Kingdom  • United States 
Candidate: Bosnia and Herzegovina

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) In February 2008, Secretary General of the OIC Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu said "Kosovo has finally declared its independence after a long and determined struggle by its people. As we rejoice this happy result, we declare our solidarity with and support to our brothers and sisters there. The Islamic Umma wishes them success in their new battle awaiting them which is the building of a strong and prosperous a state capable of satisfying of its people".[386] The OIC did not call on its individual member states to extend recognition, as some member states, including Azerbaijan, Egypt, Indonesia and Sudan, were firmly against any issuance of such a statement.[387]
On 25 May 2009, at the OIC's 36th session of the Council of Foreign Ministers in Damascus, the 57 member states adopted a resolution that noted Kosovo's declaration of independence, upheld the role of the UN in Kosovo, reaffirmed the strong interest of the OIC regarding Muslims in the Balkans, welcomed the co-operation of Kosovo with the OIC Economic and Financial institutions, and called on the international community to continue contributing to the fostering of Kosovo's economy.[388] It has been reported that an earlier draft of the resolution (tabled by Saudi Arabia) had called for recognition of Kosovo by Islamic countries, but this was rejected by some member states, including Syria, Egypt and Azerbaijan.[389] The OIC mechanism is similar to the one adopted by the EU which leaves it up to member states to decide.[390]
In June 2011, the OIC adopted a resolution calling on member states to consider recognising Kosovo but once again it left the recognition issue to individual member states.[391]
In November 2012, the OIC adopted a resolution calling on member states to consider recognising Kosovo based on their free and sovereign rights as well as on their national practice.[392] İhsanoğlu expressed support for strengthening the international subjectivity of the Republic of Kosovo.[393]
In February 2013, the OIC renewed the previous resolution and urged all of its member states to recognise Kosovo.[394]
Member states (31 / 57)

Afghanistan  • Albania  • Algeria • Azerbaijan • Bahrain  • Bangladesh  • Benin  • Burkina Faso  • Brunei  • Cameroon • Chad  • Comoros • Côte d'Ivoire  • Djibouti  • Egypt  • Gabon  • Gambia  • Guinea  • Guinea-Bissau  • Guyana  • Indonesia • Iran • Iraq • Jordan  • Kuwait  • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Lebanon • Libya  • Maldives  • Malaysia  • Mali • Mauritania  • Morocco • Mozambique • Niger  • Nigeria • Oman • Pakistan Palestine • Qatar  • Saudi Arabia  • Senegal  • Sierra Leone • Somalia  • Sudan • Suriname • Syria • Tajikistan • Togo • Tunisia • Turkey  • Turkmenistan • Uganda • United Arab Emirates  • Uzbekistan • Yemen 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
OSCE flag.svg Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) On 19 February 2008, Chairman Ilkka Kanerva and OSCE Minorities Commissioner Knut Vollebæk called for Kosovo's government to vigorously implement agreed-upon frameworks regarding minorities.[395] Serbia has vowed to oppose OSCE membership for Kosovo and is calling for the organisation to condemn the declaration of independence.[396]
Member states (36 / 56)

Albania  • Andorra  • Armenia • Austria  • Azerbaijan • Belarus • Belgium  • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Bulgaria  • Canada  • Croatia  • Cyprus • Czech Republic  • Denmark  • Estonia  • Finland  • France  • Georgia • Germany  • Greece • Hungary  • Iceland  • Ireland  • Italy  • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Latvia  • Liechtenstein  • Lithuania  • Luxembourg  • Malta  • Moldova • Monaco  • Montenegro  • Netherlands  • North Macedonia  • Norway  • Poland  • Portugal  • Romania • Russia • San Marino  • Serbia • Slovakia • Slovenia  • Spain • Sweden  • Switzerland  • Tajikistan • Turkey  • Turkmenistan • Ukraine • United Kingdom  • United States  • Uzbekistan • Vatican City

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
 United Nations (UN) Russia called an emergency session of the United Nations Security Council on 17 February 2008, but the council members, given differences in stated position between permanent members, failed to reach a consensus. Russia requested another meeting on 18 February. In March 2008 the UNMIK mission in Kosovo told the Serbian government to cease its interference in North Kosovo after local Serbs burned down a customs office set up by the Republic of Kosovo.[397] In order for Kosovo to attain a UN seat, it would require the agreement of the five permanent members of the Security Council, of which only three currently recognise Kosovo: UK, France, and the US.
On 17 January 2012, the President of Kosovo, Atifete Jahjaga, had a meeting with the President of the United Nations General Assembly, Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser, who stated that he will continue to support Kosovo in all initiatives and processes through which it is running.[398] On 11 July 2012, the elected President of the United Nations General Assembly, Serb Vuk Jeremić, said that Kosovo's move to join the UN during his upcoming presidency of the UN General Assembly would be "an act of pointless provocation". "As long as Serbia presides over the UN, and that's for the next year, this could only happen over my dead body," Jeremić said.[399] However, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that Jeremić should have stated this as an official of Serbia, not as the President of the UN General Assembly.[400]
Member states (97 / 193)
Permanent members of Security Council (3 / 5)

China • France  • Russia • United Kingdom  • United States 

  – Have recognised Kosovo.
World Bank On 29 June 2009, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Bank.[401]
World Customs Organization On 3 March 2017, the Republic of Kosovo became a full member of the World Customs Organization.[402]

Positions taken by other actors

Autonomous regions and secessionist movements

Entity Position
Flag of Balochistan.svg Balochistan In August 2010, former Baloch separatist leader Jumma Khan Marri welcomed the independence of Kosovo and the ruling by the ICJ that the declaration of independence by Kosovo was not in violation of international law.[403] However, Jumma Khan Marri has since distanced himself from the movement and now advocates against secession.[404] In October 2010, former Minister of Fisheries and opposition member of the Balochistan Assembly Kachkol Ali hailed the decision of the International Court of Justice on Kosovo's declaration of Independence as "a glorious judgment for the national liberation movements". He said that it was a beacon of hope for enslaved nations.[405]
Flag of the Basque Country.svg Basque Government The regional Basque government, unlike the central Spanish government in Madrid, responded very positively to Kosovo's declaration of independence. A regional government spokeswoman said that "It's a lesson to be followed when it comes to peaceful and democratic solutions of the identity and allegiance problems ... It shows that respect of the citizens' will is the key to solving difficult political problems".[406]
Flag of Catalonia.svg Catalonia In July 2010, following the ICJ decision, the Catalan nationalist parties expressed that there are clear parallels between their case and Kosovo's. Joan Puigcercós, the President of the Republican Left of Catalonia, stated that the ICJ decision shows that Catalonia's independence could be legal and recognised at an international level. The Democratic Convergence of Catalonia party asked the Spanish Government to recognise Kosovo's independence and the right of self-determination of the people.[407] On 23 July 2010, José Montilla, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, said that Catalonia and Kosovo have little in common.[408]
In March 2012 during a fierce debate with Spanish prime minister Mariano Rajoy, Convergence and Union general secretary Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida asked for the immediate recognition of Kosovo by Spain, and stated that the reasons for non-recognition "are not international but internal".[409]
Flag of Tibet.svg Central Tibetan Administration (government in exile) In June 2008, an article was published on the website of the Central Tibetan Administration saying that if Kosovo has a right to independence then Tibet has every right to become an independent nation and Tibetans are fully entitled to the right of self-determination.[410]
In April 2010, the 14th Dalai Lama, then joint executive authority within the government in exile, sent a telegram of congratulations to Kosovo's prime minister, Hashim Thaçi, saying that he is satisfied with the independence of Kosovo and that he prays that Kosovo's democratic state will be a model for others to follow.[411]
Flag of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.svg Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (government in exile) Usman Ferzauli, the Foreign Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, said that his country "welcome the declaration of state independence by Kosovo and do not question the right of the people of Kosovo to distance themselves from the state that terrorized it".[412]
The Prime Minister of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Akhmed Zakayev, stated in an April 2010 interview that to him and his nation, Kosovo represented a hope, and also made reference to a letter he had apparently sent to Kosovo's prime minister Hashim Thaçi congratulating the latter.[413]
Flag of Xinjiang Uyghur (East Turkestan).svg East Turkestan (government in exile) On 18 February 2008, Ansar Yusuf Turani, the representative of the government-in-exile, released a press statement saying "On behalf of the people of East Turkistan, the East Turkistan Government in Exile hereby recognizes Kosovo as an independent and sovereign state and wishes peace and prosperity for the people of Kosovo".[414]
Kashmir independent.svg Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front On 11 March 2008, the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front staged a demonstration in Brussels in front of the European Commission building. It was headed by one of its leaders, Barrister Abdul Majeed Tramboo, and its agenda cited Kosovo's independence, demanding equal treatment and commensurate application of the same solution by the EU in the Kashmir dispute involving India, Pakistan and China. Protesters included EU Parliament members, students and various NGO constituents and representatives.[415]
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (Crimea) Mustafa Cemilev, the Chairman of the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People declared that he supported the right of self-determination for every nation, including Kosovo.[416] He also added that the Crimean Tatars will not start a secession process from Ukraine if their rights are respected. Cemilev stated that he believes the motive for the Kosovars to declare independence was the anti-Albanian situation in Kosovo.[417]

International non-governmental organisations

International organisation Position
European Broadcasting Union (EBU) Radio Television of Kosovo (RTK) is not an active member of the EBU and therefore they cannot participate in the Eurovision Song Contest and sister projects. However, there is a cooperation agreement between RTK and the EBU[418] and they were allowed to participate in the Eurovision Young Dancers 2011 competition.
On 30 March 2012 during a meeting in Geneva with Kosovo's Deputy Foreign Minister Petrit Selimi, Ingrid Delterne, Executive Director of the EBU expressed readiness for Kosovo's membership in the ITU.[384]
 International Olympic Committee (IOC) The Olympic Committee of Kosovo became a full member of the International Olympic Committee on 9 December 2014.[419] The Olympic Committee of Kosovo has been in existence since 1992.[420] Kosovo was a provisional member of the IOC from 22 October 2014 through 9 December 2014.[421]
Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Kosovo played their first official match against Haiti in 2014. In April 2016, Kosovo were voted into UEFA, and on 13 May 2016, at the 66th FIFA congress in Mexico City, Kosovo (along with Gibraltar) were voted into the organisation. Only 23 associations voted against Kosovo's membership. They took part in their first World Cup qualifier in their 1–1 draw with Finland.
Flag of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation.svg Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) UNPO issued a statement on 18 February 2008: "for regions in similar conditions, Kosova's independence represents new hope for the future of their own potential statehood".[422]
In the days that followed, several African UNPO members expressed their own individual secession-minded reactions to Kosovo's independence.[423]
Norwegian Nobel Committee After former President of Finland Martti Ahtisaari received the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize "for his important efforts ... to resolve international conflicts",[424] including his work in Kosovo as a UN special envoy, the Norwegian Nobel Committee Secretary, who is also the Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said that the committee believed "there is no alternative to an independent Kosovo".[425]
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Kosovo is not a member of the governing structures for the ISO.
Independently of its ISO membership status, ISO will also potentially issue a standardised country code for Kosovo. According to rules of procedure followed by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency based in Geneva, a new ISO 3166-1 code for Kosovo will only be issued once it appears in the UN Terminology Bulletin Country Names or in the UN Statistics Division's list of Country and Region Codes for Statistical Use.[426] To appear in the terminology bulletin, it must either (a) be admitted into the UN, (b) join a UN Specialised Agency or (c) become a state party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.[427] Criterion (b) was met when Kosovo joined the International Monetary Fund and World Bank; a terminology bulletin has yet to be circulated.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ICANN, through its Country Code Names Supporting Organization, is responsible for adding new country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) for use in Internet addressing. Rules of procedure dictate Kosovo must first receive an ISO 3166-1 code (discussed above) before the ccTLD can be introduced; speculation has centred on ".ks" as the likeliest candidate.[428][429]
International Road and Transport Union (IRU) Kosovo officially became the 181st member of the IRU in May 2009.[430]
International Bar Association (IBA) Kosovo officially became a member of the IBA on 28 May 2009.[431][432]

See also

References

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  222. ^ Botswana Unhappy With Czech Visa Requirements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Botswana, 7 October 2012
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Further reading