Hong Kong English

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Hong Kong English
Traditional Chinese港式英文
Simplified Chinese港式英文

Hong Kong English (Chinese: 港式英文) is the dialect of the English language most commonly used in Hong Kong. The dialect is a result of Hong Kong's British overseas territory history and the influence of native Cantonese speakers.

Being a former British colony, Hong Kong predominantly uses British spellings. Pronunciations and words are also predominantly British[citation needed], although influences from American, Canadian and Australian English do exist as a result of Hollywood movies, TV and Internet culture.[1] In fact, a lot of Hong Kong Chinese families migrated to (in alphabetical order) Australia, Canada,[2] Ireland, New Zealand and the United States in the 1990s after Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in mainland China, and when they move back they are less likely to use British English. There is also an influence from the significant non-Chinese demographic (e.g., expats and maids). The Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority accepts "all varieties of English" as "[e]xaminers come from many different places."[3] According to article 9 of the Hong Kong Basic Law, "English may also be used as an official language" but the law does not specify which type of English.

Cantonese English, locally referred to as Chinglish, in theory, refers to the accent and characteristics of English spoken by native Hong Kongers and other Cantonese people. Overall, it is primarily spoken by native Hong Kong language (Cantonese) speakers. Therefore, although it is called Hong Kong English, it is not only spoken in Hong Kong. People who come from Macau, Guangzhou, or whose first language is Cantonese speak it.

Background[edit]

English is one of the official languages in Hong Kong, and is used widely in the Government, academic circles, business and the courts. All road and government signs are bilingual and English is as equally valid as Chinese in legal and business standings. English is what distinguished most and those who spoke English or were taught English were considered the elite, meaning those able to be taught English were considered upperclassmen. This conceptualized way of thinking arose in 1984.[4] This dialect is its own category and is the standard in Hong Kong.[4]

People with higher education, past experience of living in English-speaking countries, or who constantly interact with Hong Kong's English-speaking expatriate communities, generally speak an acquired form of English. Accent and spelling preference may vary from person to person, depending on the people they have interacted with and the country they have studied in. For most ordinary local Hong Kongers however, the English spoken is generally typical of foreign language learners: Cantonese-influenced pronunciation with some acquired Received Pronunciation characteristics, and with vocabularies and sentence structure generally more formal than those of native speakers. For instance, contractions and slang are not used, and many idioms are alien to Hong Kongers because the terms pertain more to the cultures of English-speaking countries. The falling English proficiency of local English language teachers has come under criticism.[5]

Since the Handover, English in Hong Kong remains primarily a second language, in contrast to Singapore where English has been shifting toward being a first language.

Status[edit]

Thirty-five years ago, it was argued that there was no such thing as Hong Kong English,[6] but nowadays its status is much more established.[7] In the Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes, it has been classified as in the third phase, that of Nativization,[8] but more recently it has been shown that many young people are happy to identify themselves as speakers of Hong Kong English, so it might be regarded as progressing into the fourth phase, that of Endonormative Stabilization.[9] Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that Hong Kong English is highly intelligible to listeners from elsewhere,[10] which helps explain why an increasing number of people are happy to be identified as speakers of this variety.[11]

Pronunciation[edit]

Although it may be assumed that, as a result of the colonial legacy, the pronunciation of Hong Kong English was originally based on British English,[12] in fact nowadays there are many features of pronunciation derived from American English,[7] and indeed the influence of American English appears to be increasing.[13] Furthermore, there seem to be some innovative developments that are unique to Hong Kong English, such as a split in the realisation of /v/ as [f] or [w].[14] Some of the more salient features are listed below.

Segments[edit]

  • There is a tendency for /θ/ to undergo fronting and become [f], so through may be pronounced as [fɹu],[7] and three may be [fɹi].[15] However, this is variable, so some speakers pronounce thin as [θɪn] while others pronounce it as [fin].[16] The voiceless TH sound may be pronounced as [θ] at the beginning of words, but [f] usually occurs at the end.[17]
  • /ð/ tends to be [d], so this is [dis],[12][17] and whether is [wedə].[15]
  • /v/ may be [w] or [f], so event may have [w] while even has [f]. It seems that [w] occurs at the start of a stressed syllable while [f] occurs at the start of an unstressed syllable.[14]
  • There is alternation between [l] and [n], and the same speaker may alternate with words such as light and night, and both loud and number may have either [l] or [n] at the start.[14]
  • In initial consonant clusters, [l] sometimes occurs in place of [ɹ], so crowded may have [l] while problem often begins with [pl].[15]
  • /w/ may be omitted from initial /kw/ clusters before a rounded vowel, so quote is [koʊt] and quarter is [kɔtə].[14]
  • In final consonant clusters, just as with many other varieties of English, there is a tendency for simplification, so the plosive at the end of words such as think and camp is often omitted. Deletion of coronal plosives /t/ and /d/ from word-final clusters has been reported to occur in about 76% of tokens, though this frequency is a little less if the function words and and just are excluded from the analysis.[18]
  • L-vocalisation is common, so dark /l/ in the coda of a syllable is often pronounced as [ʊ], and fill may be [fɪʊ] while tell is [teʊ], just as in London English (Cockney).[12] After back rounded vowels /l/ is often omitted, so school is [skʉː] and wall is [wɔː].[15]
  • Like many accents in Britain, Hong Kong English is non-rhotic, so /ɹ/ is only pronounced before a vowel. However, with the growing influence of American English, many young people in Hong Kong now pronounce the /ɹ/ in the coda of a syllable.[13]
  • There is often little distinction between the non-close front vowels, /æ/ and /ɛ/, so bet and bat may be pronounced the same (with [ɛ]).[12]
  • Long and short vowels are generally merged, particularly involving the close vowels /iː/ and /ɪ/ (so heat and hit are similar) as well as /uː/ and /ʊ/ (so pull and pool are the same).[12]
  • Vowel reduction is often avoided in function words, so a full vowel occurs in words such as and and to as well as the first syllable of content words such as accept and patrol.[15]

Intonation[edit]

  • Multi-syllable words are often differently stressed. For example, while the word "latte" is pronounced /ˈlæt/ in most variants of the English language, it is usually pronounced /laˈtʰei̯/ in Hong Kong English, with the second syllable stressed instead of the first.
  • Omission of entire "r-" syllables in longer words; "difference" becomes /ˈtifɐns/, and "temperature" becomes /ˈtʰɛmpʰit͡sʰœ/.
  • Words beginning with unstressed syllables "con" are generally pronounced its stressed form /kʰɔn/ with a lower pitch, e.g. "connection", "consent", "condition". Words beginning with stressed syllable "com-" e.g. "competition", "common" and "compromise" are pronounced /kʰǎm/.
  • The schwa tends to be pronounced as /ɛ/ in final closed syllables; "ticket" is pronounced /ˈtʰe̝kʰɛt̚/, and "carpet" is pronounced /ˈkʰapʰɛt̚/.
  • The suffix -age is generally pronounced /ei̯tʃ/; "message" is pronounced /ˈmɛsei̯tʃ/, "package" is pronounced /ˈpʰɛkʰei̯tʃ/ etc.
  • There is less vowel reduction in unstressed syllables, and some variation in the placement of stress. For example, chocolate may be pronounced /ˈɒklt/, as distinct from /ˈɒklət/ in other varieties of English.[19]
  • Compared to other varieties of English, there is less difference between stressed and unstressed syllables. In most varieties of English, unstressed syllables are reduced, taking less time. This difference is smaller in Hong Kong English.[20]

Others[edit]

  • In Cantonese, there is no structure of diphthong+consonant. As a result, /eɪn/ becomes /e̝ŋ/, /eɪm/ becomes /ɛm/, /ɔɪn/ becomes /ɔn/, /oʊn/ becomes /o̝ŋ/, /aʊn/ becomes /aŋ/, /eɪk/ becomes /e̝k̚/, /oʊk/ becomes /o̝k̚/, /eɪl/ becomes /ɛu̯/ etc.
  • For the case /aɪn/, /aɪt/ or /aɪk/, the ending consonant is generally omitted, resulting in /aɪ/.
  • Many Chinese will speak a foreign language with the same characteristic monosyllabic staccato of spoken Chinese, with varying degrees of the natural liaisons between syllables that natives employ. In a similar vein, they often pronounce syllables as if words were transliterated into Cantonese: "Cameron" is pronounced as [ˈkʰɛmmalɔn] based on its transliteration; "basic" is pronounced as [ˈpei̯se̝k̚].
  • When speaking English, many people tend to assign one of the six tones (or nine, if entering tones are included) of the Cantonese to different words, giving it a Cantonese style. E.g. most Hong Kongers would pronounce "there" and "their" differently, giving a higher pitch to "there" /ˈtɛ́/ (tone 1 in Cantonese) and a lower pitch to "their" /ˈtɛ̀/ (tone 6 in Cantonese).
  • Exaggeration of certain final consonants, for example /s/ to /si˩/ and /d/ sounds of the past-tense form of verbs to /tət̚˩/.
  • Differences or omission in ending sounds, as the ending consonants are always voiceless and unreleased (glotallised) in Cantonese with the exceptions of /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/, similar to Basel German)
  • Pronouncing the silent /w/, /h/ sounds in words like "Green-wich", "Bon-ham", "Chat-ham", "Beck-ham" are often reflected in the transliteration of the words, for example, Beckham is transliterated 碧咸 (pronounced /pɪk̚˥ haːm˩/).
  • Merging the contrast of voiceless/voiced consonants with aspirated/unaspirated if any contrast exists in Cantonese. This is because English voiceless consonants are most often aspirated, whereas the voiced ones are always unaspirated. The stop /p/ becomes /pʰ/ and /b/ becomes /p/; /t/ becomes /tʰ/ and /d/ becomes /t/; /k/ becomes /kʰ/ and /ɡ/ becomes /k/; /tʃ/ becomes /tsʰ/ and /dʒ/ becomes /ts/ (except when preceded by s, where the English consonants are unaspirated).
  • Merging voiceless/voiced consonants into voiceless if there is no contrast in aspirated/unaspirated in Cantonese. Both /f/ and /v/ become /f/; both /z/ and /s/ become /s/; both /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ become /s/; the only exception might be that /θ/ and /ð/ are never confused, due to difficulty in pronouncing /θ/ and /ð/: many pronounce /θ/ as /f/, and /ð/ as /t/.
  • Confusion between homographs (words with the same spelling but different meanings), e.g. the noun "resume" (c.v.) and the verb "resume" (to continue).

American/British spelling and word usage[edit]

Variations[edit]

  • end-word: In informal conversation like instant messengers, sentence-final particles or interjections of Cantonese origin such as ah, lah, law, mah and waw'—many of these being "flavouring particles"—are used at the ends of English sentences.
  • "I've eaten dinner law" ("I've had dinner"—“law" /lɔː˧/ indicates a perfect and makes the sentence more informal)
  • "I go lah, bye" ("I'm leaving, bye!"—“lah" /laː˧/ indicates intent and makes the sentence more informal)

Hong Kong vocabulary/expressions[edit]

Nullah Road, Mong Kok

Some words and phrases widely understood in Hong Kong are rare or unheard of elsewhere. These often derive from Chinese, Anglo-Indian or Portuguese/Macanese.

  • A 'chop' is a seal or stamp, e.g. a "Company chop" is the seal or stamp of a corporation (It actually originates from colonial Indian English.) It is now used in some other Commonwealth countries as a non-official term
  • A Tai-Pan (or 'taipan') is a term used in the early 20th century for a business executive of a large corporation.
  • An amah is a term used in the early 20th century for a live-in servant (from Macanese/Portuguese- ama nurse); now supplanted by "[domestic] helper"
  • A 'shroff' is a cashier in a hospital, a government office or a car park (parking garage).
  • "Godown" is a warehouse From the Malay "gudang".[26]
  • Nullah is a concrete-lined canal or an re-enforced creek bed used to contain run-off. Nullah entered the English language from Hindi. The word nullah is used almost exclusively in Hong Kong.
  • Lai see means Lucky money.
  • 'FILTH'/'Filth' (Failed in London, Try Hongkong[27][28]) is a slang expression used to refer to people who look for employment opportunities in Hong Kong after being unsuccessful in looking for a job in the United Kingdom.
  • A raffle is invariably referred to as a 'lucky draw'.
  • Jetso ("著數") is sometimes used to mean discount or special offer.[29][non-primary source needed]
  • 'Hong Kong foot', a literal translation of the Chinese slang term "香港腳" for athlete's foot. An early record for the Chinese name was found in Chen Jun Bao's diary (陳君葆日記),[30] where an entry from 1944-08-03 claimed the term was named by Shanghaiese, while Hongkongers called it 'Singapore foot' (星加坡腳), and Singaporean called it 'Manila foot' (曼尼剌腳).[31] 'Singapore foot' is still used by Singaporean media as of 2017.[32]
  • 'Add oil': [add oil!] verb, literally to fuel, is used more as an idiom to encourage a team or person.[citation needed]
  • 'Locust': [lo-cust] noun, referring to tourists from the mainland and meant to connote both masses and a drain on local resources. The word is derogatory and originated during shortages of powdered milk, which anti-parallel trading protesters blamed on mainland parallel traders.
  • Light bulb (literal translation of "電燈膽") means a third person that spoils the ideal combination of a couple.[33] "Do not be a light bulb" means "Do not play gooseberry".[34]

Research is also being done on the generation of new Hong Kong English vocabulary driven by computer mediated communication between bilingual Cantonese and English speakers. Rather than using complicated Chinese character keyboard interfaces, Hong Kong English speakers will text and email English translations to the point that the English word often gains independent usage.[35]

See also[edit]

Linguistics
Hong Kong

References[edit]

  1. ^ "British or American spellings?".
  2. ^ "Number of Hongkongers migrating to Canada hits 20-year high". 2017-09-11.
  3. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions on LPAT - English Language". www.hkeaa.edu.hk.
  4. ^ a b Eoyang, Eugene Chen. "From the Imperial to the Empirical: Teaching English in Hong Kong". Profession: 62–74. JSTOR 25595704.
  5. ^ Glenwright, Phil (1 July 2005). "Grammar Error Strike Hard: Language Proficiency Testing of Hong Kong Teachers and the Four 'Noes'". Journal of Language Identity and Education. 4 (3): 201–226. doi:10.1207/s15327701jlie0403_2. ISSN 1534-8458.
  6. ^ Luke, K. K. & Richards, J. (1982). English in Hong Kong: Functions and status. English World-Wide, 3: 47-61.
  7. ^ a b c Setter, Jane; Wong, Cathy S.P.; Chan, Brian H.S. (2010). Hong Kong English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  8. ^ Schneider, E. W. (2007), Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Hansen Edwards, J. G. (2015). Hong Kong English: Attitudes, identity and use. Asian Englishes, 17: 184-208.
  10. ^ Kirkpatrick, A., Deterding, D., & Wong, J. (2008). The international intelligibility of Hong Kong English. World Englishes, 27, 359–377.
  11. ^ Hansen Edwards, J. G. (2016). The politics of language and identity: Attitudes towards Hong Kong English pre- and post- the Umbrella Movement. Asian Englishes, 18(2), 157-164.
  12. ^ a b c d e Hung, T. N. (2012). Hong Kong English. In E. L. Low & Azirah Hashim (Eds.), English in Southeast Asia: Features, policy and language in use (pp. 113-133). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  13. ^ a b Chan, J. Y. H. (2013). Contextual variation in Hong Kong English. World Englishes, 32, 54-74.
  14. ^ a b c d Hung, T. N. (2007). Innovation in second language phonology. In T. Hoffmann & L. Siebers (Eds.), World Englishes: Problems, properties and prospects (pp. 227-237). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  15. ^ a b c d e Deterding, D., Wong J., & Kirkpatrick, A. (2008). The pronunciation of Hong Kong English. English World-Wide, 29, 148–149.
  16. ^ Hong, T. N. (2002). Towards a phonology of Hong Kong English. In K. Bolton (Ed.), Hong Kong English: Autonomy and creativity (pp. 119–140). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  17. ^ a b Sewell, Andrew (2009). "World Englishes, English as a Lingua Franca, and the case of Hong Kong English". English Today. 25 (1): 37–43. doi:10.1017/S0266078409000066.
  18. ^ Hansen Edwards, J. G. (2016). Sociolinguistic variation in Asian Englishes: The case of coronal stop deletion. English World-Wide 37(2), 138-167.
  19. ^ Sewell, Andrew (2017). "Pronunciation Assessment in Asia's World City: Implications of a Lingua Franca Approach in Hong Kong". In Isaacs T. & Trofimovich P. Second Language Pronunciation Assessment: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Bristol: Multilingual Matters / Channel View Publications. pp. 237–255.
  20. ^ Setter, Jane (2006). "Speech Rhythm in World Englishes: The Case of Hong Kong". TESOL Quarterly. 40 (4): 763–782. doi:10.2307/40264307. JSTOR 40264307.
  21. ^ "公務員事務局".
  22. ^ "Estate Agents Authority 地產代理監管局". www.eaa.org.hk.
  23. ^ "Civil Service Bureau".
  24. ^ "Hong Kong's Best Fish and Chips". 2016-05-13.
  25. ^ 尋找完美 Fish & Chips
  26. ^ Cassell giant paperback dictionary, 1994
  27. ^ "Failed in London, Try Hong Kong".
  28. ^ Lam, Lana; Lee, Danny (2013-12-21). "Playwright pens tale of Hong Kong and its expat 'filth'". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  29. ^ "Get Jetso著數網- 全港最受歡迎的著數優惠分享平台" (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  30. ^ 商務印書館. "陳君葆日記(上下冊)". www.cp1897.com.hk.
  31. ^ (okplaymayday), okplaymayday. "香港腳的由來──中國歷史上的香港腳與腳氣 @ 漫遊於歷史與現代之間 :: 痞客邦".
  32. ^ "'Singapore foot' & 'dhoby itch' were nasty ailments in 1920s Singapore". Mothership.sg.
  33. ^ "「二」話要說". civicparty.hk. December 7, 2015..
  34. ^ "play gooseberry translate to Traditional Chinese". dictionary.cambridge.org.
  35. ^ "Add oil! The evolution of Hong Kong English, and where our unique words come from".

External links[edit]