Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge
|Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge|
|Carries||6 lanes of the G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway|
|Locale||Pearl River Delta|
|Official name||Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge|
|Total length||55 kilometres (34 mi)|
|No. of spans||3|
|No. of lanes||6|
|Design life||120 years|
|Designer||Meng Fanchao (孟凡超)|
|Engineering design by||Lin Ming (林鸣)|
|Construction start||15 December 2009|
|Construction end||6 February 2018|
|Construction cost||¥ 126.9 billion ($ 18.77 billion)|
|Inaugurated||23 October 2018 by Xi Jinping, President of China|
|Opened||24 October 2018, 9 A.M. UTC+8 |
|Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge|
|Cantonese Yale||Góngjyūou Daaihkìuh|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Gǎngzhū'ào Dàqiáo|
|Portuguese||Ponte Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau|
The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HZMB), officially the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge, is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, and four artificial islands. It is both the longest sea crossing and the longest fixed link on earth. The HZMB spans the Lingding and Jiuzhou channels, connecting Hong Kong, Macau, and Zhuhai—three major cities on the Pearl River Delta.
The HZMB was designed to last for 120 years and built with a cost of 126.9 billion yuan (US$ 18.77 billion). The cost of constructing the Main Bridge was estimated at 51.1 billion yuan (US$ 7.56 billion) funded by bank loans and shared among the governments of mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau.
Originally set to be opened to traffic in late 2016, the structure was completed on 6 February 2018 and journalists were subsequently given rides over the bridge. On 24 October 2018, the HZMB was opened to the public after its inauguration a day earlier by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and President of the People's Republic of China.
- 1 Planning
- 2 Construction
- 3 Sections and elements
- 4 Left- and right-hand traffic
- 5 Restrictions
- 6 Economic effects
- 7 Controversies
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Hopewell Holdings founder and then-managing director Gordon Wu proposed the concept of a bridge-tunnel linking China, Hong Kong and Macau in the 1980s. Wu stated that he got the idea in 1983 from the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel. In 1988, Wu pitched the concept to Guangdong and Beijing officials. He envisaged a link farther north than the current design, beginning at Black Point near Tuen Mun, Hong Kong and crossing the Pearl River estuary via Neilingding Island and Qi'ao Island. His proposed bridge would end at the Chinese village of Tangjia, and a new road would continue south through Zhuhai before terminating at Macau. Discussions stalled after the Tiananmen Square massacre in mid-1989 "unnerved" Wu and other foreign investors, and caused Hopewell's Hong Kong share prices to plunge.
The route proposed by Wu was promoted by the government of Zhuhai under the name Lingdingyang Bridge. In the mid-1990s, Zhuhai built a bridge between the mainland and Qi'ao Island that was intended as the first phase of this route, though the full scheme had not been approved by either the Chinese nor Hong Kong governments at that time. China's central government showed support for this project on 30 December 1997. The new Hong Kong government was reticent, stating that it was still awaiting cross-border traffic study results, and Hong Kong media questioned the environmental impact of the project with regard to air pollution, traffic and marine life.
In December 2001, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong passed a motion urging the Administration to develop the logistics industry including the construction of a bridge connecting Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macao. At a meeting of the China/Hong Kong Conference on Co-ordination of Major Infrastructure Projects held on 20 September 2002, it was agreed that a joint study should be conducted on the transport link between Hong Kong and Pearl River West.
To coordinate the project, the Advance Work Coordination Group of HZMB was set up in 2003. Officials from three sides solved the issues such as landing points and alignments of the bridge, operations of the Border Crossing Facilities and project financing.
In August 2008, China's Central Government, the governments of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 42% of the total costs. The remaining 58% consisted of loans (approximately 22 billion yuan or US$ 3.23 billion) from Bank of China.
In March 2009, it was further reported that China's Central Government, Hong Kong and Macau agreed to finance 22% of the total costs. The remaining 78% consisted of loans (approximately 57.3 billion yuan or US$ 8.4 billion) from a consortium of banks led by Bank of China.
Construction of the HZMB project began on 15 December 2009 on the Chinese side, with then-Vice Premier of China Li Keqiang holding a commencement ceremony. Construction of the Hong Kong section of the project began in December 2011 after a delay caused by a legal challenge regarding the environmental impact of the bridge.
The last bridge tower was erected on 2 June 2016, the last straighted-element of the 4,860-metre-long (15,940 ft) straight section of the undersea tunnel was installed on 12 July 2016, while the final tunnel joint was installed on 2 May 2017. Construction of the Main Bridge, consisting of a viaduct and an undersea tunnel, was completed on 6 July 2017, and the construction of the whole project was completed on 6 February 2018.
Sections and elements
The 55-km (34 mi) HZMB consists of three main sections: the Main Bridge (29.6 km or 18.4 mi) in the middle of the Pearl River estuary, the Hong Kong Link Road (12 km or 7.5 mi) in the east and the Zhuhai Link Road (13.4 km or 8.3 mi) in the west of the estuary.
The Main Bridge, the largest part of the HZMB project, is a bridge-cum-tunnel system constructed by the mainland Chinese authorities. It connects an artificial island, housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities (BCF) for both mainland China and Macau in the west, to the Hong Kong Link Road in the east.
This section includes a 22.9-km (14.2 mi) viaduct and a 6.7-km (4.2 mi) undersea tunnel that runs between two artificial islands. The viaduct crosses the Pearl River estuary with three cable-stayed bridges spanning between 280 and 460 metres (920 and 1,510 ft), allowing shipping traffic to pass underneath.
Hong Kong Link Road
Under Hong Kong jurisdiction, the Hong Kong Link Road was built by Highway Department to connect the Main Bridge to an artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF). This section includes a 9.4-km (5.8 mi) viaduct, a 1-km (0.62 mi) Scenic Hill Tunnel and a 1.6-km (0.99 mi) at-grade road along the east coast of the Hong Kong International Airport.
Zhuhai Link Road
The Zhuhai Link Road starts from an artificial island housing the Boundary Crossing Facilities for both mainland China and Macau, passes through the developed area of Gongbei via a tunnel towards Zhuhai, and connects to three major expressways, namely, the Jing-Zhu Expressway, Guang-Zhu West Expressway and Jiang-Zhu Expressway.
Left- and right-hand traffic
Although the HZMB connects two left-hand traffic (LHT) areas, namely Hong Kong and Macau, the crossing itself is right-hand traffic (RHT), the same as in Zhuhai and other regions of China. Thus, drivers from Hong Kong and Macau need to make use of crossing viaducts to switch to RHT upon entering the bridge, and back to LHT upon leaving the bridge when they are back to Hong Kong and Macau. Traffic between Zhuhai and the bridge requires no left-right conversion as they are both RHT.
Currently only 10,000 permits are available for private vehicles to drive across the HZMB from Hong Kong to Zhuhai. In addition, the number of vehicles permitted to enter Hong Kong and Macau from other regions is subject to a daily quota.
Since the Hong Kong government imposes significant fees, taxes and administrative paperwork on private car ownership and usage to deal with road congestion, driving a car on the HZMB would incur the same restrictions as current cross-border traffic. These include applying for separate driving licences for both Hong Kong and mainland China, a Hong Kong Closed Road Permit for cross-boundary vehicles, and an Approval Notice from the Guangdong Public Security Bureau. Vehicle owners also need to ensure they have the appropriate insurance coverage for the regions they are travelling to.
The HZMB links three major cities Hong Kong, Zhuhai and Macau, which are geographically close but separated by water. With the bridge in place, travelling time between Zhuhai and Hong Kong would cut down from about four hours to 30 minutes on the road.
The HZMB project is part of a Beijing-driven strategy to create an economic hub and promote the economic development of the whole area of the Pearl River Delta, which is also known as Greater Bay Area. Hoping to leverage the bridge and create an economic zone linking the three cities, Zhuhai's Hengqin area was designated as a free trade zone in 2015.
Delays and budget overruns
The artificial island housing the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HKBCF) was reported drifting due to an unconventional method, hitherto unused in Hong Kong, for land reclamation with steel circular cells in a row pushed through the mud and filled with inert material to form a seawall.
The drifting of parts of the reclaimed island had allegedly caused a delay in the HZMB project. The Highways Department denied reports in various sources of movement up to 20 metres but admitted parts of the reclaimed land had moved "up to six or seven metres", claiming that some movement was expected and safety had not been jeopardised.
Mainland contractors were also reportedly having difficulty in constructing immersed tubes in their section of the project, with the director of the Guangdong National Development and Reform Commission stating that 2020 would be a difficult target to meet.
In 2017, the Main Bridge of the HZMB project experienced a cost overrun of about 10 billion yuan, arising from an increase in labor and material costs, as well as the refinement of the design and construction schemes.
Worker deaths and injuries
The number of deaths and injuries that have taken place on the project has come under scrutiny in Hong Kong. Apart from nine fatal cases on the mainland side, there have been ten deaths reported on the Hong Kong side of the construction project, and somewhere between 234 and 600 injuries, depending on the source. In April 2017, the Construction Site Workers General Union, the Labour Party and the Confederation of Trade Unions demonstrated at the Central Government Complex, demanding the government take action.
Lawmaker Fernando Cheung also expressed concerns over the unknown death toll on the Chinese side of the project, stating: "the project is known as the 'bridge of blood and tears’ and we are only talking about the Hong Kong side. We don’t even know what is happening in China. I suppose the situation could be 10 times worse than that in Hong Kong." He said that the Hong Kong Government had a responsibility to consider worker safety on the Chinese side.
Faked safety testing
In 2017, Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) arrested 21 employees (two senior executives, 14 laboratory technicians and five laboratory assistants) of Jacobs China Limited, a contractor of the Civil Engineering and Development Department for falsifying concrete test results, thus potentially risking the safety of bridge for public use. In December 2017, a lab technician pleaded guilty and was sentenced to imprisonment for eight months, while the others await sentencing. Hong Kong's Highways Department conducted tests again after the falsified results were exposed and found all test results met safety standards.
In April 2018, the public and media raised questions over the integrity of the seawalls protecting the artificial islands at both ends of the undersea tunnel. In footage taken by drone users and mariners, the dolosse installed at the edges of the artificial islands appear to have dislodged. Some civil engineers suggested that there was an error in design. In dismissing the safety concerns, the HZMB Authority said the dolosse were designed to be submerged and the design was working as intended. Director of Highways Department Daniel Chung denied on 8 April 2018 that the breakwater components had been washed away by waves.
Subsequent aerial footage posted online showed a section of the dolosse breakwater completely underwater. Civil engineer So Yiu-kwan told Hong Kong media on 12 April 2018 that the water level, at the time the photos were taken, was about 1.74 mPD (metres above Principal Datum), but the maximum water level could reach 2.7 mPD. He said the dolosse would offer no wave protection if entirely submerged, and further alleged that they had been installed backwards.
Falling number of dolphins
Conservationists at WWF Hong Kong blamed the construction of the HZMB for the falling number of white dolphins in the waters near the bridge. The dolphins found near waters of Lantau were worst hit with numbers dropping by 60 per cent between April 2015 and March 2016.
- Environment of China
- Environment of Hong Kong
- Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
- Transport in China
- Transport in Hong Kong
- Transport in Macau
- 港珠澳大桥总设计师：大桥就像辛苦哺育的孩子. Xinhua. 2018-08-31.
- "人生，就是奔跑——记港珠澳大桥总工程师林鸣". Xinhua. 2018-04-30.
- 港珠澳大桥主体工程完成交工验收 具备通车试运营条件. Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China. 2018-02-06. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- "Xinhua Headlines: World's longest cross-sea bridge opens, integrating China's Greater Bay Area". Xinhua Net. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- "Cars and buses begin crossing the Pearl River Delta as Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge opens to traffic". 2018-10-24. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- "Xi Jinping declares opening of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge".
- "China opens longest sea-crossing bridge". BBC News. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- hermes (2018-10-25). "Smooth start for world's longest state of the art sea crossing". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- "What's the Cost of a Ride on the World's Longest Bridge Over Water? - Caixin Global". www.caixinglobal.com. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- "Satellite shots show epic scale of world's longest oversea bridge (IMAGES)". RT International. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
- "Xinhua Headlines: World's longest cross-sea bridge opens, integrating China's Greater Bay Area - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- CNN, Sarah Lazarus,. "China unveils world's longest sea-crossing bridge". CNN. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- "Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge construction set to finish this year". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- "Main structure of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is completed". China Daily. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
- The Standard. "Bridge to open in one go despite HK delays". Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- 刘淼. 港珠澳大桥主体工程完成交工验收具备通车试运营条件_滚动新闻_中国政府网. www.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- CNN, Sarah Lazarus,. "China unveils world's longest sea-crossing bridge". CNN. Retrieved 2018-08-16.
- 好消息！港珠澳大桥七一前正式通车_大粤网_腾讯网. gd.qq.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- "Xi announces opening of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge". Xinhua. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
- Tsang, Denise (2018-10-23). "Tycoon's 35-year dream finally realised as mega bridge opens". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
- Stoner, Tad (3 November 1988). "$6b bridge to China plan". South China Morning Post. p. 1.
- Hunt, Christopher (29 December 1989). "Entrepreneur Becomes a Weather Vane For Resuming Business in China Now". The Wall Street Journal, Eastern edition. p. 1.
- Cheung, Agnes (29 March 1995). "First Lingdingyang link nearly ready". South China Morning Post. p. 11.
- Szeto, Wanda; Ng, Kang-chung (31 December 1997). "Beijing approves Zhuhai-HK bridge". South China Morning Post. p. 1.
- "A bridge too far". South China Morning Post. 2 January 1998. p. 12.
- "Hong Kong - Zhuhai - Macao Bridge (HZMB)".
- "Introduction to Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge - Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridg". www.hzmb.org. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- Bi, Mingxin (14 April 2009). "Bank of China to lead loan consortium for Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge". Window of China. Xinhuanet. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
- Cheng, Jonathan (15 December 2009). "China Builds Bridge to Link Southern Cities". Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on 13 October 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
- Arup: "Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge ground breaking" Archived 19 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine., 9 February 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Macau Daily Times: "Pearl River Delta Bridge work begins" Archived 10 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 15 December 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "HK-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge about to open to traffic". Archived from the original on 8 June 2016.
- "Final HZMB Bridge Tower Erected". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
- 刘淼. "港珠澳大桥主体工程完成交工验收具备通车试运营条件_滚动新闻_中国政府网". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- "China border control at sea crossing". The Standard. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- "Hong Kong - Zhuhai - Macao Bridge". www.hzmb.gov.hk. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- "HZMB Main Bridge". Highways Department (Hong Kong). Retrieved 16 August 2018.
- Website of Transport and Housing Bureau (HKSAR): "Cross boundary traffic: Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge" Archived 18 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Arup (a consulting company involved in the design of the bridges): "Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge overview" Archived 15 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- "HongKong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) : Hong Kong Link Road". www.hzmb.hk. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- "Bridge link road surfacing completed". Hong Kong's Information Services Department. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- "HongKong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) : Connectivity to Pearl River West". www.hzmb.hk. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- Yeung, Albert (2016-01-29). "Geotechnical works of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Project". Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication. 2: 109–121. doi:10.3208/jgssp.ESD-KL-3.
- "Cars may drive on the right on Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, despite city's left-hand traffic arrangement | Hong Kong Free Press HKFP". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
- "Interface of "Left-driving" & "Right-driving" Arrangement".
- Su, Xinqi; Yeung, Raymond (13 February 2018). "Right side of road the only way to travel on Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge". South China Morning Post.
- "Zhuhai bridge to allow 7,000 more cars after high demand". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
- "Transport Department - Regular Quota for Hong Kong Private Cars to Macao (Access to City Centre)". www.td.gov.hk. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
- "The cost of owning a car in Hong Kong". www.moneyhero.com.hk. 2014-11-07. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- (www.gov.hk), GovHK. "GovHK: Cross-boundary Driving". www.gov.hk. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- "Transport Department - Closed Road Permit for Cross-boundary Vehicles". www.td.gov.hk. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
- "Insurance Authority - Motor insurance for using Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB)". www.ia.org.hk (in Chinese).
- "World's longest sea crossing: Hong Kong-Zhuhai bridge opens". BBC News. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- 郭凯. "Main structure of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is completed- Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- "China's president launches Hong Kong-mainland mega bridge - ASEAN Plus | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- "Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge construction set to finish this year". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2018-10-28.
- "Newsletter 2012 July" (PDF). Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and Related Hong Kong Projects. Highways Department. July 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2015.
- "Island drift threatens further delays in cross-border bridge". Hong Kong Economic Journal. 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015.
- Winn, Howard (25 November 2015). "Delays of up to 5 years for HK$30bn 'moving' Macau bridge crossing facilities". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015.
- Siu, Phila; Lee, Eddie (24 September 2015). "Seven-metre drift on Hong Kong artificial island reclaimed for bridge project is normal, say officials". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015.
- Ng, Kang-chung (25 September 2015). "Shifting sands: 'flaws' blamed for problems at artificial island for Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 30 November 2015.
- "China stretch of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge hits another budget overrun totalling HK$11.7 billion". 22 November 2017. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "China opens longest sea-crossing bridge". BBC News. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
- Ng, Ellie (11 April 2017). "Lawmakers slam gov't over 'misleading' death rates related to HK-Zhuhai-Macau bridge project". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017.
- Ng, Ellie (12 April 2017). "Gov't 'regrets' fatalities at Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge project, as workers demand halt to 'murders'". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017.
- Ng, Ellie (24 May 2017). "'Fake' lab tests at mega bridge project damage trust in gov't, lawmakers warn". Hong Kong Free Press.
- Cheng, Kris (1 December 2017). "Lab technician jailed for 8 months after falsifying Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao bridge test records". Hong Kong Free Press.
- Clark, Robert (5 April 2018). "This week's bridge problem: tunnel faces flooding threat". Lantau News.
- Cheng, Kris (3 April 2018). "HK-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge components found drifting from artificial island, as authority claims it may be an 'illusion'". Hong Kong Free Press.
- "Drifting away? Concerns over Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge dismissed". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- "Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge breakwater design scientific, reasonable and safe, says top gov't official | Hong Kong Free Press HKFP". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. 2018-04-10. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- Cheng, Kris (12 April 2018). "Sea bridge island's breakwater blocks offer no protection as they are underwater at high tide, says veteran engineer". Hong Kong Free Press.
- "Experts blame Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge for falling dolphin numbers". SCMP. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge.|
- Official website (Chinese website)
- Official website (Hong Kong website)
- Official website (Macau website)
- Save our Shoreline
- Designing HK, Tung Chung Sustainable Development
- Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge at Structurae
- Three cities, one bridge, graphics package by South China Morning Post with Landsat satellite images of the bridge