Haplogroup O-M175

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Haplogroup O-M175
Haplogrupo O (ADN-Y).PNG
Possible time of origin36,800 [95% CI 34,300 <-> 39,300] ybp (YFull[1])

41,900 [95% CI 31,294 <-> 51,202] years ago (Karmin 2015[2])

44,700 or 38,300 ybp[3]
Coalescence age31,200 [95% CI 29,400 <-> 33,100] ybp (YFull[1])

34,042 [95% CI 25,228 <-> 41,942] years ago (Karmin 2015[2])

35,000 or 30,000 years ago depending on mutation rate[3]
Possible place of originEast Asia
AncestorNO
DescendantsPrimary:
O1 (O-F265); O2 (O-M122) 
Secondary:
O1a (O-M119); O1b (O-M268);
O2a (O-M324); O2b (O-F742)
Defining mutationsM175 (+ numerous other SNPs).[4]

Haplogroup O, also known as O-M175, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is primarily found among populations in Southeast Asia and East Asia. It also is found in various percentages of populations of the Russian Far East, South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, Oceania, Madagascar, and the Comoros. Haplogroup O is a primary descendant of haplogroup NO-M214.

The O-M175 haplogroup is very common amongst males from China, Korea, and Southeast Asia. It has two primary branches: O1 (O-F265) and O2 (O-M122). O1 is found at high frequencies amongst males native to Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, Madagascar and some populations in southern China and Austroasiatic speakers of India. It's also high in the Melanesian populations of Solomon Islander, Fijians, Moluccas and significant frequencies in some populations Papua New Guinea. O2 is found at high levels amongst Han Chinese, Tibeto-Burman populations (including many of those in Yunnan, Tibet, Myanmar, Northeast India, and Nepal), Manchu, Mongolians, Koreans, Vietnamese, Malays, Filipinos, Thailand, Polynesians, the Naiman tribe of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan,[5] Kazakhs in the southeast of Altai Republic,[6] and Kazakhs in the Ili area of Xinjiang.[7]

Origins[edit]

Haplogroup O-M175 is a descendant haplogroup of Haplogroup NO-M214, and first appeared according to different theories either in Southeast Asia (see Rootsi 2006, TMC & ?, Shi 2005, and Bradshaw & ?) or East Asia (see ISOGG 2012) approximately 40,000 years ago (or between 31,294 and 51,202 years ago according to Karmin et al. 2015).[2][8]

Haplogroup O-M175 is one of NO-M214's two branches. The other is Haplogroup N, which is common throughout North Eurasia.

Distribution[edit]

This haplogroup appears in 80-90% of most populations in East Asia and Southeast Asia, and it is almost exclusive to that region: M175 is almost nonexistent in Western Siberia, Western Asia, Europe, most of Africa, and the Americas, where its presence may be the result of recent migrations. Certain subclades of Haplogroup O-M175 do achieve significant frequencies among some populations of South Asia, Central Asia, and Oceania. Significant presence of Haplogroup O-M50 have been found in Bantu-speaking populations of the Comoros along with a single instance of O-MSY2.2(xM50)[9] while both O-M50 and O-M95(xM88) occur commonly among the Malagasy people of Madagascar.[10][11] O-M175 have been found in 28.1% of Solomon Islander from Melanesia.[12] 12% of Uyghurs (Wells et al. 2001), 9% of Kazakhs (Wells et al. 2001) but in the Naiman of Kazakhs 65.81%,[5] 6.8% of Kalmyks[13] (17.1% of Khoshuud, 6.1% of Dörwöd, 3.3% of Torguud, 0% of Buzawa), 6.2% of Altaians (Kharkov et al. 2007), 4.1% of Uzbeks on average but Uzbeks from Bukhara 12.1%, Karakalpaks (Uzbekistan) 11.4%, Sinte (Uzbekistans) 6.7%(Wells et al. 2001) and 4.0% of Buryats.[14]

Among the sub-branches of haplogroup O-M175 are O-M119(O1a), O-M268(O1b), and O-M122(O2).

O-M175*[edit]

A broad survey of Y-chromosome variation among populations of central Eurasia found haplogroup O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) in 31% (14/45) of a sample of Koreans and in smaller percentages of Crimean Tatars (1/22 = 4.5%), Tajiks (1/16 = 6.25% Dushanbe, 1/40 = 2.5% Samarkand), Uyghurs (2/41 = 4.9%), Uzbeks (1/68 = 1.5% Surkhandarya, 1/70 = 1.4% Khorezm), and Kazakhs (1/54 = 1.9%) (Wells 2001). However, nearly all of the purported Korean O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) Y-chromosomes may belong to Haplogroup O-M176,[Note 1] and later studies do not support the finding of O-M175* among similar population samples (Xue 2005, Kim 2011). The reported examples of O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) Y-chromosomes that have been found among these populations might therefore belong to Haplogroup O-M268*(xM95,M176) or Haplogroup O-M176.

A study published in 2013 found O-M175(xM119, M95, M176, M122) Y-DNA in 1/18 Iranians from Teheran, 2/37 Tajiks from Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan, and 1/97 Mongols from northwest Mongolia, while finding O-M176 only in 1/20 Mongols from northeast Mongolia.[15]

O-F265 (O1)[edit]

O1a-M119 and O1b-M268 share a common ancestor, O-F265 (a.k.a. O-F75) approximately 23,400 [95% CI 21,600 to 25,300] YBP.[8][16] O-F75, in turn, coalesces to a common ancestor with O3-M122 approximately 24,700 [95% CI 23,000 to 26,500] YBP.[8] Thus, O-F75 existed as a single haplogroup parallel to O3-M122 for a duration of approximately 1,300 years (or anywhere from 0 to 4,900 years considering the 95% CIs and assuming that the phylogeny is correct) before breaking up into its two extant descendant haplogroups, O1-MSY2.2 and O2-M268.

O-M119 (O1a)[edit]

O-M119 (which was known briefly as O-MSY2.2, until the SNP MSY2.2 was found to be unreliable) is found frequently in Austronesian-speaking people, with a moderate distribution in southern and eastern Chinese and Tai–Kadai peoples.

O-M268 (O1b)[edit]

O-M122 (O2)[edit]

Found frequently among populations of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and culturally Austronesian regions of Oceania, with a moderate distribution in Central Asia (Shi 2005).

  • O-M122
    • O-CTS1754 East & Southeast Asia
      • O-F953/F1886 Philippines[17]
        • O-F953* Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
        • O-F1024
          • O-F1024* Guangxi[1]
          • O-Y29790 Liaoning,[1] Fujian[1]
    • O-M324
      • O-L465
        • O-CTS727
          • O-F915
            • O-F915* Shanxi[1]
            • O-Y14462
              • O-Y14462* Guangdong[1]
              • O-CTS1936 Beijing,[1] Ho Chi Minh City[1]
              • O-A18267
                • O-A18029 China[1]
                • O-ACT6559 Hebei[1]
          • O-CTS3709
            • O-CTS11209
              • O-CTS11209* Han from Hunan[1]
              • O-L599 Han from Hunan,[1] Kinh from Ho Chi Minh City,[1] Tujia[1]
            • O-F2640
              • O-F2640* Beijing[1]
              • O-CTS11210
                • O-CTS11210* Han from Hunan[1]
                • O-CTS2432 Han from Hunan[1]
        • O-JST002611/CTS2483
          • O-CTS2483* China,[17] Japan,[17] Philippines[17]
          • O-CTS10573 Beijing,[25] Sichuan,[25] Henan,[25] Jiangsu[25]
          • O-F18
            • O-CTS498 China,[1] Japan (Tokyo)[1]
            • O-F449 Azerbaijan[17]
              • O-F1266, F2016, F4267 Beijing,[25] Jilin,[25] Shanxi,[25] Jiangsu,[25] Shanghai,[25] Guangdong[25]
              • O-F238
                • O-FGC62457
                • O-F134
                  • O-F134* China (Han)[1]
                  • O-F1894 Beijing, Shanghai, Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, Shanxi, Zhejiang, Guangdong[25]
                    • O-F1894* Hunan (Han),[1] Beijing[1]
                    • O-MF18144
                      • O-MF18144* Shandong[1]
                      • O-F18567 South Korea,[1] Japanese[1]
                  • O-MF1155 Anhui,[1] Guangdong,[1] Myanmar (Mandalay)[1]
            • O-F117
              • O-F117* Fujian[1]
              • O-F11
                • O-F11* Gansu,[1] Japanese[1]
                • O-F930 Beijing,[1] Armenia,[1] Inner Mongolia,[25] Hebei,[25] Shaanxi,[25] Shandong,[25] Zhejiang,[25] Hubei[25]
                  • O-F2685 Beijing, Shanghai, Fujian, Guangdong[25]
                • O-BY169374
                  • O-BY169374* Zhejiang[1]
                  • O-SK1692
                • O-F539 Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan[25]
                  • O-F539*
                  • O-F319 Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City),[1] Hunan[1]
                • O-CTS12877
                  • O-F16635
                  • O-CTS257 Zhejiang, Shanghai, Guangdong, Beijing, Fujian, Heilongjiang, Hunan[25]
                    • O-CTS257* South Korea,[1] Japan (Tokyo)[1]
                    • O-F16834
                • O-Y29837
                  • O-Y29837* Hebei,[1] Fujian (Han)[1]
                  • O-MF8526
                    • O-MF8526* Sichuan,[1] Zhejiang[1]
                    • O-Y135777 China[1]
                • O-BY36917 Japan[17]
                • O-F4062 Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Zhejiang[25]
                  • O-Y15976 China, Japan,[17] Korea, Pakistan, Vietnam
                    • O-Y15976* Zhejiang,[1] Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City)[1]
                    • O-Y26383
                      • O-Y26383* Hubei[1]
                      • O-SK1686
                  • O-FGC54474
                • O-F971 Beijing, Shanghai, Hubei, Guangdong[25]
                  • O-F971* Sichuan,[1] Zhejiang,[1] Jiangxi,[1] Japan[17]
                  • O-Y23813
                    • O-Y23813* Guangdong[1]
                    • O-Y23809
                      • O-Y23809* Guangdong[1]
                      • O-BY170727
                      • O-Y23907 Guangdong[1]
                • O-F632
                  • O-F632* Beijing[1]
                  • O-F16340 Zhejiang[1]
                  • O-F133 China, Bulgaria[17]
                    • O-F133* Beijing[1]
                    • O-Y20951
                      • O-Y20951* Anhui[1]
                      • O-Y20932 Anhui,[1] Beijing[1]
                    • O-F17
                      • O-F377 China, France[17]
                        • O-CTS7789 Han Chinese (Beijing, Shanghai,[25] Fujian, Guangdong,[25] Hunan, Sichuan[25])
                          • O-CTS7789* Beijing,[1] Guangdong[25]
                          • O-F1095
                        • O-CTS7501
                          • O-CTS7501* Zhejiang,[1] Hunan (Han)[1]
                          • O-CTS1621
                      • O-F793 Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangdong[25]
      • O-P201
        • O-M188
        • O-P164
          • O-F996/F3237
          • O-M134: Found frequently among Sino-Tibetan peoples, among members of the Kazakh Naiman tribe with a moderate distribution throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia.[citation needed]
            • O-Y20/PAGES00125 Poland[17]
              • O-F1725
                • O-F1725* Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
                • O-Y31255
                  • O-FGC61200
                    • O-FGC61200* Henan (Han)[1]
                    • O-FGC61168 Sichuan[1]
                  • O-A16615/CTS11009
                    • O-Y85894
                      • O-Y85894* Fujian[1]
                      • O-Y19010 Shandong[1]
                    • O-CTS682/CTS2272
                      • O-BY146675 Korean[1]
                      • O-BY161237 Japan (Tokyo,[1] Kanagawa[1])
              • O-Y12/F314
                • O-Y12* Beijing (Han)[1]
                • O-CTS2643/CTS11192
                  • O-CTS53
                    • O-CTS53* China[1]
                    • O-CTS6373 Hunan (Han),[1] Xishuangbanna (Dai)[1]
                  • O-F876
                    • O-F876* Henan,[1] Shaanxi[1]
                    • O-Y29829 Liaoning[1]
                  • O-F275
                    • O-F275* Henan,[1] Shandong[1]
                    • O-F14411/CTS1011 Japan[17]
                      • O-Z2037 Beijing (Han)[1]
                      • O-CTS2815
                        • O-CTS2815* South Korea[1]
                        • O-F700
                          • O-F700* Hunan,[1] Liaoning,[1] Japan (Tokyo)[1]
                          • O-F14475 Hunan (Han)[1]
                            • O-F2505
                              • O-F2505* Hebei[1]
                              • O-MF194 Korean,[1] Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
                  • O-F634
                    • O-F634* Shandong[1]
                    • O-F209 Beijing (Han)[1]
                      • O-F1391
                        • O-F1391* Zhejiang[1]
                        • O-F4117 Jiangxi,[1] Sichuan (Han)[1]
                      • O-A5034
                        • O-MF357
                          • O-ACT1039
                          • O-MF308 Korean[1]
                        • O-CTS4266
                          • O-F14839 Henan (Han)[1]
                          • O-Z26108
                            • O-Y30135
                              • O-Y30135* Beijing (Han)[1]
                              • O-F2173
                                • O-F2173* Sichuan (Han)[1]
                                • O-F1458 Shandong,[1] Anhui[1]
                            • O-Z26156
                              • O-Z26156* Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
                              • O-BY102696
                                • O-BY102696* Korean[1]
                                • O-BY61500 Guangdong[1]
                  • O-CTS3776/F2887
                    • O-CTS3776* Beijing (Han),[1] Fujian (Han),[1] Japan[17]
                    • O-CTS3763
                      • O-CTS4601 Fujian[1]
                      • O-Y7110
                        • O-Y13527
                          • O-Y13527* Beijing (Han)[1]
                          • O-FGC16888/Z38720 Taiwan[17]
                            • O-MF805 Guizhou,[1] South Korea[1]
                            • O-Y22112
                              • O-FGC16885/FGC16887 Kazakhstan[17]
                        • O-Y7111
                          • O-MF13415 China[1]
                          • O-F4249/SK1769 China, South Korea[17]
                          • O-CTS335 Zhejiang,[1] Jiangsu,[1] Gansu[1]
                            • O-CTS335* Japan (Tokyo),[1] Xibo[1]
                            • O-Y142071
                              • O-Y142071* Anhui[1]
                              • O-CTS3856
                                • O-CTS3856* Beijing (Han)[1]
                                • O-CTS5741
                                  • O-CTS1174 Hunan (Han)[1]
                                  • O-F15948 Jiangxi,[1] Thailand[1]
            • O-M117/PAGE23
              • O-MF1380/CTS4960 China, Korea, Japan,[17] Indonesia[17]
                • O-MF1380* Guangdong[1]
                • O-MF2636
                  • O-MF2636* Chongqing[1]
                  • O-CTS374 Jiangsu,[1] Beijing (Han)[1]
              • O-M133/M1706 Shandong[1]
                • O-M1706* Japan (Tokyo)[1]
                • O-YP4864
                  • O-YP4864* Korean[1]
                  • O-Z44076 Shandong,[1] Philippines (Cebu)[1]
                • O-CTS7634
                  • O-CTS7634* Fujian (Han),[1] Beijing (Han),[1] Mongolia (Selenge),[1] Russia[1]
                  • O-F2188
                    • O-MF23641
                      • O-MF23641* China[1]
                      • O-Y169190 Fujian[1]
                    • O-Y29861 Henan,[1] Fujian,[1] Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
                    • O-F3039 Shandong,[1] Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh),[1] Philippines (Cebu)[1]
                • O-M1726
                  • O-A9457
                    • O-A9457*
                    • O-MF15246 Zhejiang,[1] Korean[1]
                    • O-F17158
                      • O-F15367
                        • O-F15367* Guangdong[1]
                        • O-Y174543 Hunan,[1] Japan (Tokyo)[1]
                  • O-CTS9678
                    • O-CTS9678* Tianjin[1]
                    • O-M1513
                      • O-M1513* Shandong[1]
                      • O-F18746 Fujian (Han)[1]
                    • O-Z39663 Russia,[1] Liaoning,[1] Shandong,[1] Fujian (Han)[1]
                • O-A9459
                  • O-F6800
                    • O-F6800* Shanxi[1]
                    • O-Y8389
                      • O-Y8389* Japan (Tokyo)[1]
                      • O-Y9144
                        • O-Y9144* Guangdong[1]
                        • O-Y8387
                          • O-Y8387* Shanghai,[1] Chongqing[1]
                          • O-CTS5481 Japan (Tokyo)[1] Korean[1]
                  • O-F14249
                    • O-F14249* Liaoning[1]
                    • O-ACT4506 Mongol (Hulunbuir),[1] Guangdong[1]
                    • O-Y81597 South Korea,[1] North Korea (North Hamgyong Province)[1]
                    • O-F14347
                      • O-F14347* Beijing (Han)[1]
                      • O-CTS5063
                        • O-CTS5063* Sichuan,[1] Jiangxi,[1] Fujian[1]
                        • O-Z44927
                          • O-Z44927* Anhui[1]
                          • O-MF21798 Zhejiang,[1] Xishuangbanna (Dai)[1]
                        • O-CTS1154
                          • O-CTS1154* Fujian,[1] Guangxi[1]
                          • O-Z25902
                            • O-Z25902* Hebei,[1] Fujian[1]
                            • O-Z42620 Fujian,[1] Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
                  • O-F438 Japan (Tokyo)[1]
                    • O-F438* Hunan (Han)[1]
                    • O-Y17728
                      • O-Y17728* Beijing (Han),[1] Shandong[1]
                      • O-Y170157 Shandong,[1] Korean[1]
                      • O-F1754
                        • O-F1754* Beijing (Han)[1]
                        • O-F2137
                          • O-F2137* Jiangsu[1]
                          • O-F1123 Jilin,[1] Zhejiang[1]
                      • O-F316
                        • O-F316* Anhui[1]
                        • O-CTS1304
                          • O-CTS1304* Jiangsu,[1] Shandong[1]
                          • O-F813
                            • O-F813* Shandong,[1] Jiangxi,[1] Guangdong[1]
                            • O-Y138426 Shandong,[1] Chongqing[1]
                            • O-Y154488 Hunan[1]
                            • O-Y20928 Henan[1]
                              • O-Y20928* Inner Mongolia,[1] Beijing (Han),[1] Shandong,[1] Anhui[1]
                              • O-Y174105
                                • O-Y174105* Henan[1]
                                • O-Y137637 Shandong,[1] Jiangsu[1]
                  • O-CTS1642
                    • O-CTS1642* Bangladesh[1]
                    • O-CTS5308
                      • O-CTS5308* Beijing (Han)[1]
                      • O-F20067
                      • O-Y34065
                      • O-MF1012
                        • O-MF1012* Nyingchi (Tibetan)[1]
                        • O-Y67478
                          • O-Y67478*
                          • O-CTS5672 Japanese[1]
                    • O-F14408
                      • O-Y101264 Shigatse (Tibetan),[1] Northeast India (Riang)[1][28]
                      • O-F14422
                        • O-F14422* Northeast India (Riang),[1][28] Myanmar (Yangon)[1]
                        • O-A9463
                          • O-A9463* Bangladesh[1]
                          • O-Y34067 Northeast India (Riang)[1][28]
                        • O-F14665 Xishuangbanna (Dai),[1] Naxi[1]
                        • O-Y7080
                          • O-Y7080* Xishuangbanna (Dai),[1] Guangdong[1]
                          • O-ACT1169 Guangdong,[1] Fujian[1]
                          • O-Z26030
                            • O-Z26030* Guangxi[1]
                            • O-F14479 Guangdong,[1] Xishuangbanna (Dai),[1] Ho Chi Minh City (Kinh)[1]
O-M324 (O2a)[edit]
O-F742 (O2b)[edit]

Language families and genes[edit]

Haplogroup O is associated with populations which speak Austric languages. The following is a phylogenetic tree of language families and their corresponding SNP markers, or haplogroups, sourced mainly from Edmondson 2007 and Shi 2005. This has been called the "Father Tongue Hypothesis" by George van Driem (vanDriem 2011). It does not appear to account for O-M176, which is found among Japanese, Korean, and Manchurian males.

(M175) 
O2 (M122) 
 Sino-Tibetan O2a2b1 (M134) 

 Sinitic O2a2b1a2 (F114) 

 Tibeto-Burman O2a2b1a1 (M117) 

 Hmong–Mien O2a2a1a2 (M7) 

 Hmong (Miao) 

 She (Ratliff 1998

 Mien (Yao) 

O1 (F265) ("Austric") 
 Austroasiatic O1b1a1a (M95) 

 Munda 

 Mon–Khmer 

 Austro-Tai O1a (M119) 
 Austronesian 

 Formosan 

 Malayo-Polynesian 

 Kra–Dai 

 Kadai [Note 2] 

 Kam–Tai 

 Kam–Sui 

 Tai 

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic history[edit]

Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being, above all, timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.

YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand) (α) (β) (γ) (δ) (ε) (ζ) (η) YCC 2002 (Longhand) YCC 2005 (Longhand) YCC 2008 (Longhand) YCC 2010r (Longhand) ISOGG 2006 ISOGG 2007 ISOGG 2008 ISOGG 2009 ISOGG 2010 ISOGG 2011 ISOGG 2012
O-M175 26 VII 1U 28 Eu16 H9 I O* O O O O O O O O O O
O-M119 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1* O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a O1a
O-M101 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H9 H O1a O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1 O1a1 O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a O1a1a
O-M50 26 VII 1U 32 Eu16 H10 H O1b O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2 O1a2
O-P31 26 VII 1U 33 Eu16 H5 I O2* O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 O2
O-M95 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H11 G O2a* O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a O2a1 O2a1
O-M88 26 VII 1U 34 Eu16 H12 G O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1 O2a1a O2a1a
O-SRY465 20 VII 1U 35 Eu16 H5 I O2b* O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b O2b
O-47z 5 VII 1U 26 Eu16 H5 I O2b1 O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1a O2b1a O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1 O2b1
O-M122 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3* O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3 O3
O-M121 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3a O3a O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1 O3a1a O3a1a
O-M164 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H6 L O3b O3b O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a2 O3a1b O3a1b
O-M159 13 VII 1U 31 Eu16 H6 L O3c O3c O3a3a O3a3a O3a3 O3a3 O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a O3a3a
O-M7 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d* O3c O3a3b O3a3b O3a4 O3a4 O3a3b O3a3b O3a3b O3a2b O3a2b
O-M113 26 VII 1U 29 Eu16 H7 L O3d1 O3c1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 - O3a4a O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a3b1 O3a2b1 O3a2b1
O-M134 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e* O3d O3a3c O3a3c O3a5 O3a5 O3a3c O3a3c O3a3c O3a2c1 O3a2c1
O-M117 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1* O3d1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a5a O3a5a O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a3c1 O3a2c1a O3a2c1a
O-M162 26 VII 1U 30 Eu16 H8 L O3e1a O3d1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a5a1 O3a5a1 O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a3c1a O3a2c1a1 O3a2c1a1

Original Research Publications[edit]

The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC Tree.

Phylogenetic trees[edit]

ISOGG 2017 tree(ver.12.244).[29]

  • O (M175)
    • O1 (F265/M1354, CTS2866, F75/M1297, F429/M1415, F465/M1422)
      • O1a (M119)
        • O1a1 (B384/Z23193)
          • O1a1a (M307.1/P203.1)
            • O1a1a1 (F446)
              • O1a1a1a (F140)
                • O1a1a1a1 (F78)
                  • O1a1a1a1a (F81)
                    • O1a1a1a1a1 (CTS2458)
                      • O1a1a1a1a1a (F533)
                        • O1a1a1a1a1a1 (F492)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1a (F656)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a1 (A12440)
                              • O1a1a1a1a1a1a1a (A12439)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a2 (A14788)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a3 (F65)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a4 (MF1068)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1a5 (Z23482)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1b (FGC66168)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1b1 (CTS11553)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1c (Y31266)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1c1 (Y31261)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1d (A12441)
                          • O1a1a1a1a1a1e (MF1071)
                            • O1a1a1a1a1a1e1 (MF1074)
                        • O1a1a1a1a1a2 (CTS4585)
                    • O1a1a1a1a2 (MF1075)
                • O1a1a1a2 (YP4610/Z39229)
                  • O1a1a1a2a (AM00330/AMM480/B386)
                    • O1a1a1a2a1 (AM00333/AMM483/B387)
                      • O1a1a1a2a1a (B388)
                  • O1a1a1a2b (SK1555)
              • O1a1a1b (SK1568/Z23420)
                • O1a1a1b1 (M101)
                • O1a1a1b2 (Z23392)
                  • O1a1a1b2a (Z23442)
                    • O1a1a1b2a1 (SK1571)
            • O1a1a2 (CTS52)
              • O1a1a2a (CTS701)
                • O1a1a2a1 (K644/Z23266)
          • O1a1b (CTS5726)
        • O1a2 (M110)
          • O1a2a (F3288)
            • O1a2a1 (B392)
              • O1a2a1a (B393)
        • O1a3 (Page109)
      • O1b (M268)
        • O1b1 (F2320)
          • O1b1a (M1470)
            • O1b1a1 (PK4)
              • O1b1a1a (M95)
                • O1b1a1a1 (F1803/M1348)
                  • O1b1a1a1a (F1252)
                    • O1b1a1a1a1 (F2924)
                      • O1b1a1a1a1a (M111)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1a1 (F2758)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1a1a (Z24083)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1 (Z24089)
                              • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a (F923)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1 (CTS2022)
                                  • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1a (F1399)
                                    • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1a1 (F2415)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a2 (Z24131)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1a3 (Z24100)
                              • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1b (SK1627/Z24091)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1a1a1b1 (Z39410)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1a1a2 (Z24088)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1a2 (F2890)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1a2a (Z24048)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1a2a1 (Z24050)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1a2b (Z24014)
                      • O1b1a1a1a1b (CTS5854)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1b1 (Z23810)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1b1a (CTS7399)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1b1a1 (FGC19713/Y14026)
                              • O1b1a1a1a1b1a1a (Z23849)
                                • O1b1a1a1a1b1a1a1 (FGC61038)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1b1b (CTS651)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1b1b1 (CTS9884)
                        • O1b1a1a1a1b2 (F4229)
                          • O1b1a1a1a1b2a (F809)
                            • O1b1a1a1a1b2a1 (F2517)
                    • O1b1a1a1a2 (SK1630)
                      • O1b1a1a1a2a (SK1636)
                  • O1b1a1a1b (F789/M1283)
                    • O1b1a1a1b1 (FGC29900/Y9322/Z23667)
                      • O1b1a1a1b1a (B426/FGC29896/Y9033/Z23671)
                        • O1b1a1a1b1a1 (FGC29907/YP3930)
                        • O1b1a1a1b1a2 (B427/Z23680)
                      • O1b1a1a1b1b (Z39485)
                      • O1b1a1a1b1c (B418)
                    • O1b1a1a1b2 (SK1646)
                • O1b1a1a2 (CTS350)
                • O1b1a1a3 (Page103)
              • O1b1a1b (F838)
                • O1b1a1b1 (F1199)
            • O1b1a2 (Page59)
              • O1b1a2a (F993)
                • O1b1a2a1 (F1759)
                  • O1b1a2a1a (CTS1127)
              • O1b1a2b (F417/M1654)
                • O1b1a2b1 (F840)
                  • O1b1a2b1a (F1127)
                • O1b1a2b2 (CTS1451)
              • O1b1a2c (CTS9996)
        • O1b2 (P49, M176)
          • O1b2a (F1942/Page92)
            • O1b2a1 (CTS9259)
              • O1b2a1a (F1204)
                • O1b2a1a1 (CTS713)
                  • O1b2a1a1a (CTS1875)
                    • O1b2a1a1a1 (CTS10682)
                  • O1b2a1a1b (Z24598)
                  • O1b2a1a1c (CTS203)
                • O1b2a1a2 (F2868)
                  • O1b2a1a2a (L682)
                    • O1b2a1a2a1 (CTS723)
                      • O1b2a1a2a1a (CTS7620)
                      • O1b2a1a2a1b (A12446)
                        • O1b2a1a2a1b1 (PH40)
                  • O1b2a1a2b (F940)
                • O1b2a1a3 (CTS10687)
                  • O1b2a1a3a (CTS1215)
              • O1b2a1b (CTS562)
            • O1b2a2 (Page90)
    • O2 (M122)
      • O2a (M324)
        • O2a1 (L127.1)
          • O2a1a (F1876/Page127)
            • O2a1a1 (F2159)
              • O2a1a1a (F1867/Page124)
                • O2a1a1a1 (F852)
                  • O2a1a1a1a (F2266)
                    • O2a1a1a1a1 (L599)
                      • O2a1a1a1a1a (Z43961)
                        • O2a1a1a1a1a1 (Z43963)
                  • O2a1a1a1b (F854)
                    • O2a1a1a1b1 (Z43966)
                  • O2a1a1a1c (Page130)
              • O2a1a1b (F915)
                • O2a1a1b1 (F1478)
                  • O2a1a1b1a (PF5390)
                    • O2a1a1b1a1 (CTS1936)
                    • O2a1a1b1a1a (Z43975)
                    • O2a1a1b1a2 (FGC33994)
          • O2a1b (M164)
          • O2a1c (IMS-JST002611)
            • O2a1c1 (F18)
              • O2a1c1a (F117)
                • O2a1c1a1 (F13)
                  • O2a1c1a1a (F11)
                    • O2a1c1a1a1 (F632)
                      • O2a1c1a1a1a (F110/M11115)
                        • O2a1c1a1a1a1 (F17)
                          • O2a1c1a1a1a1a (F377)
                            • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1 (F1095)
                              • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a (F856)
                                • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a1 (F1418)
                                • O2a1c1a1a1a1a1a2 (Z25097)
                            • O2a1c1a1a1a1a2 (CTS7501)
                          • O2a1c1a1a1a1b (F793)
                        • O2a1c1a1a1a2 (Y20951)
                          • O2a1c1a1a1a2a (Y20932)
                    • O2a1c1a1a2 (F38)
                    • O2a1c1a1a3 (F12)
                    • O2a1c1a1a4 (F930)
                      • O2a1c1a1a4a (F2685)
                    • O2a1c1a1a5 (F1365/M5420/PF1558)
                      • O2a1c1a1a5a (Y15976)
                        • O2a1c1a1a5a1 (Y16154)
                          • O2a1c1a1a5a1a (Y26383)
                            • O2a1c1a1a5a1a1 (SK1686)
                      • O2a1c1a1a5b (FGC54486)
                        • O2a1c1a1a5b1 (FGC54507)
                    • O2a1c1a1a6 (CTS12877)
                      • O2a1c1a1a6a (F2527)
                        • O2a1c1a1a6a1 (CTS5409)
                        • O2a1c1a1a6a2 (F2941)
                    • O2a1c1a1a7 (F723)
                    • O2a1c1a1a8 (CTS2107)
                    • O2a1c1a1a9 (SK1691)
                  • O2a1c1a1b (PH203)
              • O2a1c1b (F449)
                • O2a1c1b1 (F238)
                  • O2a1c1b1a (F134)
                    • O2a1c1b1a1 (F1273)
                    • O2a1c1b1a2 (F724)
                • O2a1c1b2 (F1266)
              • O2a1c1c (CTS498)
            • O2a1c2 (FGC3750/SK1673)
        • O2a2 (IMS-JST021354/P201)
          • O2a2a (M188)
            • O2a2a1 (F2588)
              • O2a2a1a (CTS445)
                • O2a2a1a1 (CTS201)
                  • O2a2a1a1a (M159/Page96)
                • O2a2a1a2 (M7)
                  • O2a2a1a2a (F1276)
                    • O2a2a1a2a1 (CTS6489)
                      • O2a2a1a2a1a (F1275)
                        • O2a2a1a2a1a1 (M113)
                        • O2a2a1a2a1a2 (N5)
                        • O2a2a1a2a1a3 (Z25400)
                    • O2a2a1a2a2 (F1863)
                      • O2a2a1a2a2a (F1134)
                        • O2a2a1a2a2a1 (F1262)
                  • O2a2a1a2b (Y26403)
              • O2a2a1b (F1837)
            • O2a2a2 (F879)
              • O2a2a2a (F1226)
                • O2a2a2a1 (F2859)
          • O2a2b (P164)
            • O2a2b1 (M134)
              • O2a2b1a (F450/M1667)
                • O2a2b1a1 (M117/Page23)
                  • O2a2b1a1a (M133)
                    • O2a2b1a1a1 (F438)
                      • O2a2b1a1a1a (Y17728)
                        • O2a2b1a1a1a1 (F155)
                          • O2a2b1a1a1a1a (F813/M6539)
                            • O2a2b1a1a1a1a1 (Y20928)
                        • O2a2b1a1a1a2 (F1754)
                          • O2a2b1a1a1a2a (F2137)
                            • O2a2b1a1a1a2a1 (F1442)
                              • O2a2b1a1a1a2a1a (F1123)
                                • O2a2b1a1a1a2a1a1 (F1369)
                            • O2a2b1a1a1a2a2 (A16636)
                        • O2a2b1a1a1a3 (Z25907)
                    • O2a2b1a1a2 (FGC23469/Z25852)
                      • O2a2b1a1a2a (F310)
                        • O2a2b1a1a2a1 (F402)
                          • O2a2b1a1a2a1a (F1531)
                    • O2a2b1a1a3 (CTS7634)
                      • O2a2b1a1a3a (F317)
                        • O2a2b1a1a3a1 (F3039)
                        • O2a2b1a1a3a2 (Y29861)
                      • O2a2b1a1a3b (CTS5488)
                    • O2a2b1a1a4 (Z25853)
                      • O2a2b1a1a4a (CTS5492)
                        • O2a2b1a1a4a1 (CTS6987)
                          • O2a2b1a1a4a1a (Z42620)
                        • O2a2b1a1a4a2 ( F20963)
                    • O2a2b1a1a5 (CTS10738/M1707)
                      • O2a2b1a1a5a (CTS9678)
                        • O2a2b1a1a5a1 (Z39663)
                        • O2a2b1a1a5a2 (M1513)
                      • O2a2b1a1a5b (A9457)
                        • O2a2b1a1a5b1 (F17158)
                    • O2a2b1a1a6 (CTS4658)
                      • O2a2b1a1a6a (CTS5308)
                      • O2a2b1a1a6b (Z25928)
                        • O2a2b1a1a6b1 (SK1730/Z25982)
                          • O2a2b1a1a6b1a (Z26030)
                          • O2a2b1a1a6b1b (Z26010)
                        • O2a2b1a1a6b2 (A9462)
                        • O2a2b1a1a6b3 (B456)
                    • O2a2b1a1a7 (YP4864)
                      • O2a2b1a1a7a (Z44068)
                        • O2a2b1a1a7a1 (F5525/SK1748)
                      • O2a2b1a1a7b (Z44071)
                    • O2a2b1a1a8 (Z44091)
                      • O2a2b1a1a8a (Z44092)
                  • O2a2b1a1b (CTS4960)
                • O2a2b1a2 (F114)
                  • O2a2b1a2a (F79)
                    • O2a2b1a2a1 (F46/Y15)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1a (FGC16847/Z26091)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1a1 (F48)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a1a (F152)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a1a1 (F2505)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a1b (CTS3149)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1a2 (F242)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a2a (CTS4266)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a2a1 (Z26108)
                              • O2a2b1a2a1a2a1a (F2173)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1a3 (F2887)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a3a (F3607)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a3a1 (F3525)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1a3b (CTS3763)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a3b1 (A9472)
                            • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2 (FGC16863/Y7110)
                              • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2a (L1360)
                                • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2a1 (FGC16889)
                              • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b (SK1768/Y7112/Z26257)
                                • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b1 (F4249)
                                  • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b1a (FGC23868)
                                • O2a2b1a2a1a3b2b2 (CTS335)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1b (CTS53)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1b1 (CTS6373)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1b1a (A9473)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1c (F3386)
                      • O2a2b1a2a1d (Y29828)
                        • O2a2b1a2a1d1 (F735)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1d1a (FGC34973)
                          • O2a2b1a2a1d1b (F1739)
                  • O2a2b1a2b (F743)
                    • O2a2b1a2b1 (CTS8481)
                      • O2a2b1a2b1a (CTS4325)
                        • O2a2b1a2b1a1 (A16629)
                        • O2a2b1a2b1a2 (CTS682)
                    • O2a2b1a2b2 (F748)
                      • O2a2b1a2b2a (F728)
                  • O2a2b1a2c (Page101)
            • O2a2b2 (AM01822/F3223)
              • O2a2b2a (AM01856/F871)
                • O2a2b2a1 (N7)
                  • O2a2b2a1a (F4110)
                    • O2a2b2a1a1 (F4068)
                    • O2a2b2a1a2 (SK1780)
                  • O2a2b2a1b (F4124)
                    • O2a2b2a1b1 (IMS-JST008425p6)
                    • O2a2b2a1b2 (BY15188)
                      • O2a2b2a1b2a (F16411)
                • O2a2b2a2 (AM01845/F706)
                  • O2a2b2a2a (F717)
                    • O2a2b2a2a1 (F3612)
                    • O2a2b2a2a2 (SK1783)
                  • O2a2b2a2b (AM01847/B451)
                    • O2a2b2a2b1 (A17418)
                    • O2a2b2a2b2 (AM01756)
                      • O2a2b2a2b2a (B450)
                      • O2a2b2a2b2b (AM00472/B452)
                        • O2a2b2a2b2b1 (F18942)
                      • O2a2b2a2b2c (A16427)
              • O2a2b2b (A16433)
                • O2a2b2b1 (A16438)
                  • O2a2b2b1a (SK1775)
                    • O2a2b2b1a1 (SK1774)
                  • O2a2b2b1b (A16440)
        • O2a3 (M300)
        • O2a4 (M333)
      • O2b (F742)
        • O2b1 (F1150)
          • O2b1a (F837)
            • O2b1a1 (F1025)
        • O2b2 (F1055)
          • O2b2a (F3021)

See also[edit]

Genetics[edit]

Y-DNA O subclades[edit]

Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
B CT
DE CF
D E C F
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
G HIJK
IJK H
IJ K
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
N O Q R

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ O-M175(xM119,M95,M122) is sometimes incorrectly called "O*".
  2. ^ The outlier Kadai branch is called "Kra" by Thai linguist Weera Ostapirat and "Geyang" by Chinese linguists.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt mu mv mw mx my mz YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.04 at 16 May 2017
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Monika Karmin, Lauri Saag, Mário Vicente, et al., "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture." Genome Research (2015) 25: 459-466. doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114
  3. ^ a b G. David Poznik, Yali Xue, Fernando L. Mendez et al. (2016), "Punctuated bursts in human male demography inferred from 1,244 worldwide Y-chromosome sequences." Nature Genetics 2016 June ; 48(6): 593–599. doi:10.1038/ng.3559.
  4. ^ ISOGG 2017
  5. ^ a b E. E. Ashirbekov, D. M. Botbaev, A. M. Belkozhaev, A. O. Abayldaev, A. S. Neupokoeva, J. E. Mukhataev, B. Alzhanuly, D. A. Sharafutdinova, D. D. Mukushkina, M. B. Rakhymgozhin, A. K. Khanseitova, S. A. Limborska, N. A. Aytkhozhina, "Distribution of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups of the Kazakh from the South Kazakhstan, Zhambyl, and Almaty Regions." Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, ISSN 2224-5227, Volume 6, Number 316 (2017), 85 - 95.
  6. ^ Dulik MC, Osipova LP, Schurr TG (2011), "Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions." PLoS ONE 6(3): e17548. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017548
  7. ^ Lu Yan (2011), "Genetic Mixture of Populations in Western China." Shanghai: Fudan University, 2011: 1-84. (Doctoral dissertation in Chinese: 陆艳, “中国西部人群的遗传混合”, 上海:复旦大学,2011: 1-84.)
  8. ^ a b c Yan, Shi; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Wei; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Lan-Hai; Wang, Yi; Pan, Xue-Dong; Fu, Wen-Qing; He, Yun-Gang; Xiong, Li-Jun; Jin, Wen-Fei; Li, Shi-Lin; An, Yu; Li, Hui; Jin, Li (2013). "Y Chromosomes of 40% Chinese Are Descendants of Three Neolithic Super-grandfathers". PLoS ONE. 9 (8): e105691. arXiv:1310.3897. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j5691Y. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105691.
  9. ^ Msaidie, Said; et al. (2011). "Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. 19 (1): 89–94. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.128. PMC 3039498. PMID 20700146. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  10. ^ Hurles, Matthew E.; Sykes, Bryan C.; Jobling, Mark A.; Forster, Peter (2005). "The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages". American Journal of Human Genetics. 76: 894–901. doi:10.1086/430051. PMC 1199379. PMID 15793703.
  11. ^ Tofanelli, Sergio; Bertoncini, Stefania; Castrì, Loredana; et al. (September 2009). "On the Origins and Admixture of Malagasy: New Evidence from High-Resolution Analyses of Paternal and Maternal Lineages". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (9): 2109–2124. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp120. PMID 19535740.
  12. ^ Cox, Murray P.; Mirazón Lahr, Marta (2006). "Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands". American Journal of Human Biology. 18 (1): 35–50. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20459. PMID 16378340.
  13. ^ Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Khoyt, Sanj; Woźniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Zakharov, Ilya (2013). "Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels". Journal of Human Genetics. 58 (12): 804–811. doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.108. PMID 24132124.
  14. ^ V. N. Kharkov, K. V. Khamina, O. F. Medvedeva, K. V. Simonova, E. R. Eremina, and V. A. Stepanov, "Gene Pool of Buryats: Clinal Variability and Territorial Subdivision Based on Data of Y-Chromosome Markers." ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 180–190. Original Russian Text © V.N. Kharkov, K.V. Khamina, O.F. Medvedeva, K.V. Simonova, E.R. Eremina, V.A. Stepanov, 2014, published in Genetika, 2014, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 203–213. DOI: 10.1134/S1022795413110082
  15. ^ Di Cristofaro J, Pennarun E, Mazieres S, Myres NM, Lin AA, et al. (2013) "Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge." PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748
  16. ^ Gregory R Magoon; et al. (2013-11-22). "Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using "next-generation" sequencing data". bioRxiv 000802.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Y-DNA Haplotree at Family Tree DNA
  18. ^ a b c O Y-Haplogroup Project at Family Tree DNA
  19. ^ Yan, Shi; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Li, Hui; Li, Shi-Lin; Jin, Li; Schurr, Theodore G; Santos, Fabricio R; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; John Mitchell, R; Jin, Li; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Cooper, Alan; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Royyuru, Ajay K; Platt, Daniel E; Parida, Laxmi; Blue-Smith, Jason; Soria Hernanz, David F; Spencer Wells, R (2011). "An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4". European Journal of Human Genetics. 19 (9): 1013. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.64. PMC 3179364. PMID 21505448.
  20. ^ a b c Peter de Barros Damgaard, Nina Marchi, Simon Rasmussen, et al. (2018), "137 ancient human genomes from across the Eurasian steppes." Nature, volume 557, pages 369–374 (2018).
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zhang X, Kampuansai J, Qi X, Yan S, Yang Z, et al. (2014), "An Updated Phylogeny of the Human Y-Chromosome Lineage O2a-M95 with Novel SNPs." PLoS ONE 9(6): e101020. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101020
  22. ^ a b Sebastian Lippold, Hongyang Xu, Albert Ko, Mingkun Li, Gabriel Renaud, Anne Butthof, Roland Schröder, and Mark Stoneking, "Human paternal and maternal demographic histories: insights from high-resolution Y chromosome and mtDNA sequences." Investigative Genetics 2014, 5:13. http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/5/1/13
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Wibhu Kutanan, Jatupol Kampuansai, Metawee Srikummool, et al., "Contrasting Paternal and Maternal Genetic Histories of Thai and Lao Populations." Mol. Biol. Evol. doi:10.1093/molbev/msz083 Advance Access publication April 12, 2019.
  24. ^ a b Cai, X; Qin, Z; Wen, B; Xu, S; Wang, Y; et al. (2011). "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes". PLoS ONE. 6 (8): e24282. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...624282C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024282. PMC 3164178. PMID 21904623.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Xiaotian Yao, Senwei Tang, Beilei Bian, Xiaoli Wu, Gang Chen, and Chuan-Chao Wang, "Improved phylogenetic resolution for Y-chromosome Haplogroup O2a1c-002611." Scientific Reports 7: 1146. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-01340-z
  26. ^ Li, Hui; Huang, Ying; Mustavich, Laura F.; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Jing-Ze; Ling-; Wang, E; Qian, Ji; Gao, Meng-He; Jin, Li (2007). "Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River". Human Genetics. 122 (3–4): 383–388. doi:10.1007/s00439-007-0407-2. PMID 17657509.
  27. ^ Sae Naitoh, Iku Kasahara-Nonaka, Kiyoshi Minaguchi, and Phrabhakaran Nambiar, "Assignment of Y-chromosomal SNPs found in Japanese population to Y-chromosomal haplogroup tree." Journal of Human Genetics (2013) 58, 195–201; doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.159.
  28. ^ a b c d Mondal M, Casals F, Xu T, et al. (2016), "Genomic analysis of Andamanese provides insights into ancient human migration into Asia and adaptation." Nat Genet. 2016 Sep;48(9):1066-70. doi: 10.1038/ng.3621.
  29. ^ "Y-DNA Haplogroup D-M174 and its Subclades - 2017".

Works cited[edit]

Journal articles
Websites

External links[edit]