The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards the United States. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun (firearm or small arm). Gun-related violence may or may not be considered criminal. Criminal violence includes homicide (except when and where ruled justifiable), assault with a deadly weapon, and suicide, or attempted suicide, depending on jurisdiction. Non-criminal violence includes accidental or unintentional injury and death (except perhaps in cases of criminal negligence). Also generally included in gun violence statistics are military or para-military activities.
According to GunPolicy.org, 75 percent of the world's 875 million guns are civilian controlled. Roughly half of these guns (48 percent) are in the United States, which has the highest rate of gun ownership in the world. Globally, millions are wounded and killed by the use of guns. Assault by firearm resulted in 180,000 deaths in 2013 up from 128,000 deaths in 1990. There were additionally 47,000 unintentional firearm-related deaths in 2013.
Levels of gun-related violence vary greatly among geographical regions, countries, and even subnationally. Rates of violent deaths by firearm range from as low as 0.03 and 0.04 per 100,000 population in Singapore and Japan, to 59 and 67 per 100,000 in Honduras and Venezuela. The highest rates of violent deaths by firearm in the world occur in low-income South and Central American countries such as Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala and Jamaica. The United States has the 11th highest rate of gun violence in the world, and by far the largest of any large or highly developed nation, having a gun homicide rate which is 25 times higher, an unintentional gun death rate which is 6 times higher, a firearm suicide rate which is 8 times higher, and an overall firearm death rate which is 10 times higher than the average respective rates of other high income nations. Compared to similarly wealthy nations with strict gun control laws, such as Japan, the United Kingdom, or South Korea, the United States has an overall rate of firearms death per capita, which is 50–100 times greater than many of its peers. The high rates of gun violence in the United States, which has the highest rate of gun-related deaths per capita among developed countries,:29 despite having the highest number of police officers, is sometimes thought to be attributable to its extreme rate of gun ownership, as it is the only nation in which guns exceed people. Nearly all studies have found a positive association between gun ownership and gun-related homicide and suicide rates.
According to the United Nations, deaths from small firearms exceed that of all other weapons combined, and more die each year from gun-related violence than did in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki combined. The global death toll from use of guns may number as high as 1,000 dead each day.
- 1 Prevention
- 2 Types
- 3 Costs of gun-related violence
- 4 By country
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A number of ideas have been proposed on how to lessen the incidence of gun-related violence.
Some propose keeping a gun at home to keep one safer. Studies show that guns in the home is associated with an increased risk of violent death in the home. According to the FBI, gun-related violence is linked to gun ownership and is not a function or byproduct of crime. Their study indicates that more than 90% of gun-related deaths were not part of a commission of a crime, rather they were directly related to gun ownership. Mother Jones reports that "[a] Philadelphia study found that the odds of an assault victim being shot were 4.5 times greater if he carried a gun" and that "[h]is odds of being killed were 4.2 times greater" when armed. Others propose arming civilians to counter mass shootings. FBI research shows that between 2000 and 2013, "In 5 incidents (3.1%), the shooting ended after armed individuals who were not law enforcement personnel exchanged gunfire with the shooters." Another proposal is to expand self defense laws for cases where a person is being aggressed upon, although "those policies have been linked to a 7 to 10% increase in homicides" (that is, shootings where self-defense cannot be claimed).
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
There is a strong relationship between guns in the home, as well as access to guns more generally, and suicide risk, the evidence for which is strongest in the United States. A 1992 case-control study conducted in Tennessee and Washington found that individuals in a firearm owning home are close to five times more likely to commit suicide than those individuals who do not own firearms. A 2002 study found that access to guns in the home was associated with an increased risk of suicide among middle-aged and older adults, even after controlling for psychiatric illness. As of 2008, there were 12 case-control studies that had been conducted in the U.S., all of which had found that guns in the home were associated with an increased risk of suicide. However, a 1996 New Zealand study found no significant relationship between household guns and suicide. Assessing data from 14 developed countries where gun ownership levels were known, the Harvard Injury Control Research Center found statistically significant correlations between those levels and suicide rates. However, the parallels were lost when data from additional nations was included.:30 A 2006 study found a significant effect of changes in gun ownership rates on gun suicide rates in multiple Western countries. During the 1980s and 1990s, the rate of adolescent suicides with guns caught up with adult rates, and the 75-and-older rate rose above all others.:20–21 The use of firearms in suicides ranges from less than 10 percent in Australia to 50 percent in the United States, where it is the most common method and where suicides outnumber homicides 2-to-1. Those who purchased a firearm where found to be high risk for suicide within a week of the purchase The United States has both the highest number of Suicides and Gun ownerships for a developed country and firearms are the most popular method to commit suicide. In the United States when Gun ownerships rise so too does suicide by firearm. Suicide can be an impulsive act, 40% of those who survived a suicide attempt said that they only considered suicide up to five minutes before attempting the act. This impulsivity can lead to the use of a firearm as it is seen as a quick and lethal method.
According to U.S. criminologist Gary Kleck, studies that try to link gun ownership to victimology often fail to account for the presence of guns owned by other people. Research by economists John Lott of the U.S. and John Whitley of Australia indicates that safe-storage laws do not appear to affect juvenile accidental gun-related deaths or suicides. In contrast, a 2004 study led by Daniel Webster found that such laws were associated with slight reductions in suicide rates among children. The same study criticized Lott and Whitley's study on the subject for inappropriately using a Tobit model. A committee of the U.S. National Research Council said ecological studies on violence and firearms ownership provide contradictory evidence. The committee wrote: "[Existing] research studies and data include a wealth of descriptive information on homicide, suicide, and firearms, but, because of the limitations of existing data and methods, do not credibly demonstrate a causal relationship between the ownership of firearms and the causes or prevention of criminal violence or suicide."
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) defines intentional homicide as "acts in which the perpetrator intended to cause death or serious injury by his or her actions." This excludes deaths: related to conflicts (war); caused by recklessness or negligence; or justifiable, such as in self-defense or by law enforcement in the line of duty. A 2009 report by the Geneva Declaration using UNODC data showed that worldwide firearms were used in an average of 60 percent of all homicides.:67 In the U.S. in 2011, 67 percent of homicide victims were killed by a firearm: 66 percent of single-victim homicides and 79 percent of multiple-victim homicides. In 2009, the United States' homicide rate was reported to be 5.0 per 100,000. A 2016 Harvard study claims that in 2010 the homicide rate was about 7 times higher than that of other high-income countries, and that the US gun homicide rate was 25.2 times higher. Another Harvard study found that higher gun availability was strongly correlated with higher homicide rates across 26 high-income countries. Access to guns is associated with an increased risk of being the victim of homicide. Access to firearms is not the sole contributor to increased homicide rates, however, as one study by the Southern Criminal Justice Association in 2011 found. Equally important seems to be the particular societal conditions in a given area, socio-culturally. These conditions include, but are not limited to societal age structure, economic inequality, cultural symbolism associated with firearms and the cultural value of individual life.
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
Some gun control advocates say that the strongest evidence linking availability of guns to death and injury is found in domestic violence studies, often referring to those by public health policy analyst Arthur Kellermann. In response to suggestions by some that homeowners would be wise to acquire firearms for protection from home invasions, Kellermann investigated in-home homicides in three cities over five years. He found that the risk of a homicide was in fact slightly higher in homes where a handgun was present. The data showed that the risk of a crime of passion or other domestic dispute ending in a fatal injury was higher when a gun was readily available (essentially loaded and unlocked) compared to when no gun was readily available. Kellerman said this increase in mortality overshadowed any protection a gun might have deterring or defending against burglaries or invasions. He also concluded that further research of domestic violence causes and prevention are needed.
Critics of Kellermann's study say that it is more directly a study of domestic violence than of gun ownership. Gary Kleck and others dispute the work. Kleck says that few of the homicides that Kellermann studied were committed with guns belonging to the victim or members of his or her household, and that it was implausible that victim household gun ownership contributed to their homicide. Instead, according to Kleck, the association that Kellermann found between gun ownership and victimization reflected that people who live in more dangerous circumstances are more likely to be murdered, but also were more likely to have acquired guns for self-protection.
In studies of nonfatal gun use, it was found that guns can contribute to coercive control, which can then escalate into chronic and more severe violence. Guns can have a negative impact on victims even without being discharged. Threats of gun use or showing a weapon can create damaging and long-lasting fear and emotional stress in victims because they are aware of the danger of having an abuser who has access to a gun.
Robbery and assault
This section needs to be updated.March 2014)(
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime defines robbery as the theft of property by force or threat of force. Assault is defined as a physical attack against the body of another person resulting in serious bodily injury. In the case of gun-related violence, the definitions become more specific and include only robbery and assault committed with the use of a firearm. Firearms are used in this threatening capacity four to six times more than firearms used as a means of protection in fighting crime. Hemenway's figures are disputed by other academics, who assert there are many more defensive uses of firearms than criminal uses. See John Lott's "More Guns, Less Crime".
Accidental firearm deaths
From 1979 to 1997, almost 30,000 people in the United States alone died from accidental firearm injuries. A disproportionately high number of these deaths occurred in parts of the United States where firearms are more prevalent.
The economic cost of gun-related violence in the United States is $229 billion a year,[qualify evidence] meaning a single murder has average direct costs of almost $450,000, from the police and ambulance at the scene, to the hospital, courts, and prison for the murderer. A 2014 study found that from 2006 to 2010, gun-related injuries in the United States cost $88 billion.
Emergency medical care is a major contributor to the monetary costs of such violence. It was determined in a study that for every firearm death in the United States for the year beginning 1 June 1992, an average of three firearm-related injuries were treated in hospital emergency departments.
Children exposed to gun-related violence, whether they are victims, perpetrators, or witnesses, can experience negative psychological effects over the short and long terms. Psychological trauma also is common among children who are exposed to high levels of violence in their communities or through the media. Psychologist James Garbarino, who studies children in the U.S. and internationally, found that individuals who experience violence are prone to mental and other health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and sleep deprivation. These problems increase for those who experience violence as children.
The Port Arthur massacre of 1996 horrified the Australian public. The gunman opened fire on shop owners and tourists, killing 35 people and wounding 23. This massacre, kick started Australia's laws against guns. The Prime Minister at that time, John Howard, proposed a gun law that prevented the public from having all semi-automatic rifles, all semi-automatic and pump-action shotguns, in addition to a tightly restrictive system of licensing and ownership controls.
The government also bought back guns from people. In 1996–2003 it was estimated they bought back and destroyed nearly 1 million firearms. By the end of 1996, whilst Australia was still reeling from the Port Arthur massacre, the gun law was fully in place. Since then, the number of deaths related to gun-related violence dwindled almost every year. In 1979 six hundred and eighty-five people died due to gun violence, and in 1996 it was five hundred and sixteen. The numbers continue to drop, however they were declining also before the gun law was in place.
On the Australia's most mediated gun violence-related incident since Port Arthur, was the 2014 Sydney Hostage Crisis. On 15–16 December 2014, a lone gunman, Man Haron Monis, held hostage 17 customers and employees of a Lindt chocolate café. The perpetrator was on bail at the time, and had previously been convicted of a range of offences.
The following year in August, the New South Wales Government tightened the laws of bail and illegal firearms, creating a new offence for the possession of a stolen firearm, with a maximum of 14 years imprisonment.
Gun violence in Sweden
|Number of 2006-2017 gun homicides in Sweden|
|Source: Police in Sweden|
Sweden witnessed a steep increase in gun violence in males aged 15 to 29 in the two decades prior to 2018, in addition to a rising trend in gun violence there was also a high rate of gun violence in Sweden compared to other countries in Western Europe. According to a report published by academic researchers in 2017, shooting incidents with fatal outcomes are about 4 to 5 times as common in Sweden compared to neighbouring countries such as Germany and Norway when taking population size into account. The city with the highest prevalence of shootings was Malmö. The grave violence in the studied period also changed character, from criminal motorcycle gangs to city suburbs.
According to researcher Amir Rostami at Stockholm University, police statistics for January–November 2018 showed that the number of shootings was at a continued high rate at 274, where up until the end of November 42 people had been shot and killed and 129 wounded compared to 43 in 2017. Rostami also said there had been 100 hand grenade attacks and 1500 shootings in Sweden since 2011, about 40 people are killed annually and 500 had been wounded. Rostami also said that if this violence had been attributed to some form of extremists, this would have considered a form of civil war. Almost half (46%) of all shootings in 2018 happened in public spaces in vulnerable areas. Both victims and perpetrators are becoming younger.
According to police in 2018, at least nine people who were innocent bystanders had been killed in cross-fire incidents in the last few years and the risk to the law-abiding public was therefore rising.
Gun violence in the United States results in tens of thousands of deaths and injuries annually. In 2013, there were 73,505 nonfatal firearm injuries (23.2 injuries per 100,000 U.S. citizens), and 33,636 deaths due to "injury by firearms" (10.6 deaths per 100,000 U.S. citizens). These deaths consisted of 11,208 homicides, 21,175 suicides, 505 deaths due to accidental or negligent discharge of a firearm, and 281 deaths due to firearms use with "undetermined intent". Of the 2,596,993 total deaths in the US in 2013, 1.3% were related to firearms. The ownership and control of guns are among the most widely debated issues in the country.
In 2010, 67% of all homicides in the U.S. were committed using a firearm. In 2012, there were 8,855 total firearm-related homicides in the US, with 6,371 of those attributed to handguns. In 2012, 64% of all gun-related deaths in the U.S. were suicides. In 2010, there were 19,392 firearm-related suicides, and 11,078 firearm-related homicides in the U.S. In 2010, 358 murders were reported involving a rifle while 6,009 were reported involving a handgun; another 1,939 were reported with an unspecified type of firearm.
Firearms were used to kill 13,286 people in the U.S. in 2015, excluding suicide. Approximately 1.4 million people have been killed using firearms in the U.S. between 1968 and 2011, equivalent to a top 10th largest U.S. city in 2016, falling between the populations of San Antonio and Dallas, Texas.
Compared to 22 other high-income nations, the U.S. gun-related murder rate is 25 times higher. Although it has half the population of the other 22 nations combined, the U.S. had 82 percent of all gun deaths, 90 percent of all women killed with guns, 91 percent of children under 14 and 92 percent of young people between ages 15 and 24 killed with guns. In 2010, gun violence cost U.S. taxpayers approximately $516 million in direct hospital costs.
Gun violence is most common in poor urban areas and frequently associated with gang violence, often involving male juveniles or young adult males. Although mass shootings have been covered extensively in the media, mass shootings in the US account for a small fraction of gun-related deaths and the frequency of these events steadily declined between 1994 and 2007, rising between 2007 and 2013.
Legislation at the federal, state, and local levels has attempted to address gun violence through a variety of methods, including restricting firearms purchases by youths and other "at-risk" populations, setting waiting periods for firearm purchases, establishing gun buyback programs, law enforcement and policing strategies, stiff sentencing of gun law violators, education programs for parents and children, and community-outreach programs. Despite widespread concern about the impacts of gun violence on public health, Congress has prohibited the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from conducting research that advocates in favor of gun control. The CDC has interpreted this ban to extend to all research on gun violence prevention, and so has not funded any research on this subject since 1996.
- Armed violence reduction
- List of countries by firearm-related death rate
- Global gun cultures
- Gunfire locator
- Gun violence in the United States
- Alpers, Philip; Wilson, Marcus (2013). "Global Impact of Gun Violence". gunpolicy.org. Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
- "Global Study on Homicide 2011". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Cook, Philip J.; Ludwig, Jens (2000). Gun Violence: The Real Costs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195137934. OCLC 45580985.
- Wintemute, Garen J. (18 March 2015). "The Epidemiology of Firearm Violence in the Twenty-First Century United States". Annual Review of Public Health. 36 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122535. PMID 25533263.
- Dahlberg, Linda L.; et al. (November 15, 2004). "Guns in the Home and Risk of a Violent Death in the Home: Findings from a National Study". American Journal of Epidemiology. 160 (10): 929–936. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh309. PMID 15522849.
- Justice, National Center for Juvenile. "Easy Access to the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports". www.ojjdp.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- "The Gun Violence Stats the NRA Doesn't Want You to Consider". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- "10 Pro-Gun Myths, Shot Down". Mother Jones.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 3, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Brent, David A. (25 January 2006). "Firearms and Suicide". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 932 (1): 225–240. Bibcode:2001NYASA.932..225B. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05808.x.
- Anglemyer, Andrew; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George (21 January 2014). "The Accessibility of Firearms and Risk for Suicide and Homicide Victimization Among Household Members". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (2): 101–110. doi:10.7326/M13-1301. PMID 24592495.
- Kellerman, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P. (August 13, 1992). "Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership". The New England Journal of Medicine. 327 (7): 467–472. doi:10.1056/NEJM199208133270705. PMID 1308093.
- Conwell, Yeates; Duberstein, Paul R.; Connor, Kenneth; Eberly, Shirley; Cox, Christopher; Caine, Eric D. (July 2002). "Access to Firearms and Risk for Suicide in Middle-Aged and Older Adults". The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 10 (4): 407–416. doi:10.1097/00019442-200207000-00007. PMID 12095900.
- Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David (4 September 2008). "Guns and Suicide in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (10): 989–991. doi:10.1056/NEJMP0805923. PMID 18768940.
- Beautrais, Annette L.; Joyce, Peter R.; Mulder, Roger T. (December 1996). "Access to firearms and the risk of suicide: a case control study". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 30 (6): 741–748. doi:10.3109/00048679609065040. PMID 9034462.
- Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David (2001). "Firearm Prevalence and the Risk of Suicide: A Review" (PDF). Harvard Health Policy Review. Exploring Policy in Health Care (EPIHC). 2 (2): 29–37.
One study found a statistically significant relationship between gun ownership levels and suicide rate across 14 developed nations (e.g. where survey data on gun ownership levels were available), but the association lost its statistical significance when additional countries were included.
- Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Killias, Martin; Hepp, Urs; Gadola, Erika; Bopp, Matthias; Lauber, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf (October 2006). "Changing Times: A Longitudinal Analysis of International Firearm Suicide Data". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (10): 1752–1755. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.075812. PMC 1586136. PMID 16946021.
- Ikeda, Robin M.; Gorwitz, Rachel; James, Stephen P.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Mercy, James A. (1997). "Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States 1962–1994". Violence Surveillance Summary. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 3.
- Harrison, James E.; Pointer, Sophie; Elnour, Amr Abou (July 2009). "A review of suicide statistics in Australia" (PDF). aihw.gov.au. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
- McIntosh, JL; Drapeau, CW (November 28, 2012). "U.S.A. Suicide: 2010 Official Final Data" (PDF). suicidology.org. American Association of Suicidology. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Twenty Leading Causes of Death Among Persons Ages 10 Years and Older, United States". National Suicide Statistics at a Glance. Centers for Disease Control. 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Lewiecki, E. Michael; Miller, Sara A (2013), "Suicide, Guns, and Public Policy", American Journal of Public Health, 103 (1): 27–31, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300964, PMC 3518361, PMID 23153127
- Kleck, Gary (2004). "Measures of Gun Ownership Levels of Macro-Level Crime and Violence Research" (PDF). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 41 (1): 3–36. doi:10.1177/0022427803256229. NCJ 203876. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-20.
Studies that attempt to link the gun ownership of individuals to their experiences as victims (e.g., Kellermann, et al. 1993) do not effectively determine how an individual's risk of victimization is affected by gun ownership by other people, especially those not living in the gun owner's own household.
- Lott, John R.; Whitley, John E. (2001). "Safe-Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime" (PDF). Journal of Law and Economics. 44 (2): 659–689. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.180.3066. doi:10.1086/338346.
It is frequently assumed that safe-storage laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides. We find no support that safe-storage laws reduce either juvenile accidental gun deaths or suicides.
- Webster, Daniel W. (4 August 2004). "Association Between Youth-Focused Firearm Laws and Youth Suicides". JAMA. 292 (5): 594–601. doi:10.1001/jama.292.5.594. PMID 15292085.
- National Research Council (2004). "Executive Summary". In Wellford, Charles F.; Pepper, John V.; Petrie, Carol V. Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09124-4.
- "Lethal Encounters: Non-conflict Armed Violence" (PDF). Global Burden of Armed Violence 2008. Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67–88. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. by Geneva Declaration editors using UNODC data.
- Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica L. (December 30, 2013). "Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011". bjs.gov. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- "Global Study on Homicide" (PDF). Unodc.org. 2011. Retrieved 2016-04-01.
- Grinshteyn, E; Hemenway, D (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 266–73. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975.
- Hemenway, D; Miller, M (December 2000). "Firearm availability and homicide rates across 26 high-income countries". The Journal of Trauma. 49 (6): 985–8. doi:10.1097/00005373-200012000-00001. PMID 11130511.
- Altheimer, I; Boswell, M (December 2012). "Reassessing the Association between Gun Availability and Homicide at the Cross-National Level". American Journal of Criminal Justice. 37 (4): 682–704. doi:10.1007/s12103-011-9147-x.
- Kellerman, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P. (October 7, 1993). "Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home". The New England Journal of Medicine. 329 (15): 1084–1091. doi:10.1056/NEJM199310073291506. PMID 8371731.
- Suter, Edgar A. (March 1994). "Guns in the medical literature—a failure of peer review". Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia. 83 (13): 133–148. PMID 8201280.
- Kates, Don B.; Schaffer, Henry E.; Lattimer, John K.; Murray, George B.; Cassem, Edwin H. (1995). Kopel, David B., ed. Guns: Who Should Have Them?. New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 233–308. ISBN 9780879759582. OCLC 32393136. in chapter "Bad Medicine: Doctors and Guns." Orig. pub. 1994 in Tennessee Law Review as "Guns and Public Health: Epidemic of Violence or Pandemic of Propaganda?"
- Kleck, Gary (February 2001). "Can Owning a Gun Really Triple the Owner's Chances of being Murdered?". Homicide Studies. 5 (1): 64–77. doi:10.1177/1088767901005001005.
- Sorenson SB, Schut RA. Nonfatal gun use in intimate partner violence: a systematic review of the literature. Trauma Violence & Abuse. 2016 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print]
- "United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: Data". unodc.org. UNODC. August 29, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- David Hemenway; Deborah Azrael; D Hemenway (2000). "The Relative Frequency of Offensive and Defensive Gun Uses: Results from a National Survey". Violence and Victims. 15 (3): 257–272. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.15.3.257. PMID 11200101.
- Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew (2000). "Gun use in the United States: results from two national surveys". Injury Prevention. 6 (4): 263–267. doi:10.1136/ip.6.4.263. PMC 1730664. PMID 11144624.
- Zimring, Franklin E.; Hawkins, Gordon (1997). Crime Is Not the Problem: Lethal Violence in America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195131055. OCLC 860399367.
- Miller, M; Azrael, D; Hemenway, D (July 2001). "Firearm availability and unintentional firearm deaths". Accident Analysis and Prevention. 33 (4): 477–84. doi:10.1016/s0001-4575(00)00061-0. PMID 11426678.
- (A. Peters. (2015) The Staggering Costs Of Gun Violence In The U.S. Every Year retrieved from http://www.fastcoexist.com/3047682/the-staggering-costs-of-gun-violence-in-the-us-every-year)
- Lee, Jarone; Quraishi, Sadeq A.; Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Zafonte, Ross D.; Masiakos, Peter T. (May 2014). "The economic cost of firearm-related injuries in the United States from 2006 to 2010". Surgery. 155 (5): 894–898. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2014.02.011. PMID 24684950.
- Annest, Joseph L.; Mercy, James A.; Gibson, Delinda R.; Ryan, George W. (June 14, 1995). "National Estimates of Nonfatal Firearm-Related Injuries: Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg". JAMA. 273 (22): 1749–54. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520460031030. PMID 7769767.
- (Kathleen R. Patti L. Richard E.B. (2002) children, youth and gun violence. Retrieved from http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=42&articleid=162§ionid=1035 )
- Garbarino, James; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Vorrasi, Joseph A. (2002). "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence" (PDF). The Future of Children. 12 (2): 72. doi:10.2307/1602739. ISSN 1054-8289. JSTOR 1602739.
- Kreisfeld, Renate. 2006. ‘Australia Revised Firearm Deaths 1979–2003.’ National Injury Surveillance Unit / NISU. Adelaide: Research Centre for Injury Studies, Flinders University of South Australia. 1 March
- GunPolicy.org. 2016. ‘Calculated Numbers of Gun Deaths - Australia.’ Causes of Death, Australia, 2014; 3303.0, Table 1.2 (Chapter XX). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 14 March.
- "Sydney siege: What we do and don't know". 2014-12-15. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- "Victims of Sydney siege hailed as heroes after they die protecting hostages". Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- "Firearms and prohibited weapons offences". www.judcom.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
- Nyheter, SVT. "Siffrorna visar: Kraftig ökning av dödsskjutningar". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
- Sturup, Joakim; Rostami, Amir; Mondani, Hernan; Gerell, Manne; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Edling, Christofer (2018-05-07). "Increased Gun Violence Among Young Males in Sweden: a Descriptive National Survey and International Comparison". European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research: 1–14 / Conclusions. doi:10.1007/s10610-018-9387-0. ISSN 0928-1371.
- Radio, Sveriges. "Fler skjutningar i Sverige än i många andra länder - P4 Stockholm". Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Studie: Fler skjutningar i Sverige än i många andra länder - DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 5 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
- "Polisen: Varannan skjutning sker i utsatta områden". Metro (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Polisen: Risken att oskyldiga skjuts till döds har ökat". Metro (in Swedish). Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- Committee on Law and Justice (2004). "Executive Summary". Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. National Academy of Science. ISBN 978-0-309-09124-4.
- "Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence". The National Academies Press. 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- and, Institute of Medicine (5 June 2013). Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence. doi:10.17226/18319. ISBN 978-0-309-28438-7.
- http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf Page 84, Table 18 (accessed July 31, 2016)
- FastStats: Mortality - All firearm deaths. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm (accessed July 27, 2015).
- http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_02.pdf Page 5 (accessed July 31, 2016)
- Homicides by firearms UNODC. Retrieved: 28 July 2012.
- "Expanded Homicide Data Table 8". FBI.gov. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- Wintemute, Garen J. (18 March 2015). "The Epidemiology of Firearm Violence in the Twenty-First Century United States". Annual Review of Public Health. 36 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122535. PMID 25533263.
- "10 Leading Causes of Injury Death by Age Group Highlighting Violence-Related Injury Deaths, United States" (PDF). National Vital Statistics System. National Center for Health Statistics, CDC. 2010.
- "FBI — Expanded Homicide Data Table 8". Fbi.gov. 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
- "Guns in the US: The statistics behind the violence". BBC News. 5 January 2016.
- "How U.S. gun deaths compare to other countries". CBS. October 7, 2017.
- Howell, Embry M. (September 13, 2013). "The Hospital Costs of Firearm Assaults". Urban Institute. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Bjerregaard, Beth, Alan J. Lizotte (1995). "Gun Ownership and Gang Membership". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86 (1): 37–58. doi:10.2307/1143999. JSTOR 1143999. NCJ 162688.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Wright, James D., Joseph F. Sheley, and M. Dwayne Smith (1993). "Kids, Guns, and Killing Fields". Society. 30 (1). NCJ 140211.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Priorities for Research to Reduce the Threat of Firearm-Related Violence. The National Academies Press. 2013-11-03. ISBN 978-0-309-28438-7.
- Duwe, Grant (January 4, 2013). "Seven Mass Shootings in 2012 Most since 1999". The Washington Times (Washington, DC). Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "FBI Confirms Rise in Mass Shootings in Us". 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015.
- Zwillich, Todd. "Quietly, Congress extends a ban on CDC research on gun violence". Public Radio International (PRI). Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Rubin, Rita (26 April 2016). "Tale of 2 Agencies: CDC Avoids Gun Violence Research But NIH Funds It". JAMA. 315 (16): 1689–91. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.1707. PMID 27050067.
Library resources in your library about gun violence
- Reich, K., Culross P. and Behram R. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations. The Future of Children.
- Gun Violence: Prediction, Prevention, and Policy, APA Report 2013.
- Milne, Tony. Man with Gun. Handmaid Books. ISBN 978-1544085227. This thought-provoking review considers culture, especially film publicity, as a symptom of gun malaise.
- Firearm-related deaths in the United States and 35 other high- and upper-middle-income countries Krug, Powell, and Dahlberg (1998)
- Gun ownership, suicide and homicide: An international perspective Killias (1992)
- GunPolicy.org Armed violence and gun laws, country by country
- Guns and suicide: Possible effects of some specific legislation Rich, Young, Fowler et al. (1990)
- Guns, Violent Crime, and Suicide in 21 Countries Killias, van Kesteren, Rindlisbacher (2001)
- State of crime and criminal justice worldwide United Nations (2010)
- World crime trends and emerging issues and responses in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice United Nations (2013)
- Gun Violence Archive (GVA) Data on each verified gun-related incident, with annual statistics
- Report US Anti-gun violence activist art project, Eileen Boxer (2016)