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A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress. This may also include the instances when the conduct was neither justified by medical or hospital treatment.[vague] Like forced sterilization, forced abortion may include a physical invasion of female reproductive organs.
People's Republic of China
Forced abortions associated with administration of the one-child policy have occurred in the People's Republic of China; they are a violation of Chinese law and are not official policy. They result from government pressure on local officials who, in turn, employ strong-arm tactics on pregnant mothers. On September 29, 1997 a bill was introduced in the United States Congress titled Forced Abortion Condemnation Act, that sought to "condemn those officials of the Chinese Communist Party, the government of the People's Republic of China and other persons who are involved in the enforcement of forced abortions by preventing such persons from entering or remaining in the United States". In June 2012 Feng Jianmei was forcibly made to abort her 7 month old fetus after not paying a fine for breaking the one-child policy. Her case was widely discussed on the internet in China to general revulsion after photos of the stillborn baby were posted online. A fortnight after the forced abortion she continued to be harassed by local authorities in Shanxi Province. On July 5, the European Parliament passed a resolution saying it "strongly condemns" both Feng's case specifically and forced abortions in general "especially in the context of the one-child policy."
Part of the work of the activist "barefoot lawyer" Chen Guangcheng also concerned excesses of this nature. By 2012, disagreement with forced abortion was being expressed by the public in China despite its reduced use, and repeal of the one-child policy was reportedly being discussed in some quarters for this and other reasons. Even after the shift to a two-child policy in January 2016, the practice still occurs.
North Korean refugees repatriated from China
The People's Republic of China returns all illegal immigrants from North Korea which usually imprisons them in a short term facility. Many North Korean escapees assert that forced abortions and infanticide are common in these prisons.
In United States Sex Trafficking
In a series of focus groups conducted around the United States by anti-trafficking activist Laura Lederer in 2014, over 25% of survivors of domestic sex trafficking who responded to the question reported that they had been forced to have an abortion.
- David Barboza (June 15, 2012). "China Suspends Family Planning Workers After Forced Abortion". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- Edward Wong (July 22, 2012). "Reports of Forced Abortions Fuel Push to End Chinese Law". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "H.R. 2570 (105th): Forced Abortion Condemnation Act". Govtrack.us. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- Evan Osnos (June 15, 2012). "Abortion and Politics in China" (Blog by reporter in reliable source). The New Yorker. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- Edward Wong (June 26, 2012). "Forced to Abort, Chinese Woman Under Pressure". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "EU Parliament condemns China forced abortions". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Agence France-Presse. July 6, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- Pan, Philip P. (8 July 2006). "Chinese to Prosecute Peasant Who Resisted One-Child Policy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Forced abortion sparks outrage, debate in China CNN, June 2012
- Steven W. Mosher (October 26, 2016). Fact-Check: No, Hillary, China has not stopped doing forced abortions. National Right to Life News Today. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- James Brooke (June 10, 2002). "N. Koreans Talk of Baby Killings". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- David Hawk (2012). The Hidden Gulag Second Edition The Lives and Voices of "Those Who are Sent to the Mountains" (PDF) (Second ed.). Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. pp. 111–155. ISBN 0615623670. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
- Kirby, Michael Donald; Biserko, Sonja; Darusman, Marzuki (7 February 2014). "Report of the detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - A/HRC/25/CRP.1". United Nations Human Rights Council. Archived from the original on Feb 27, 2014.
- Lederer, Laura (11 September 2014). ""Examining H.R. 5411, the Trafficking Awareness Training for Health Care Act of 2014"" (PDF). US House of Representatives, Energy and Commerce Committee, Witness Hearings. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
- Lederer, Laura; Wetzel, Christopher A. (2014). "The health consequences of sex trafficking and their implications for identifying victims in healthcare facilities" (PDF). Annals Health. 23: 61. Retrieved 1 August 2017.