English of Northumbria
This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Region||Northumbria (Durham and Northumberland)|
Northumbria English is a dialect of Northern English ("Northumbrian Language" typically only refers to broadly spoken Northumbrian whereas Northumbrian English may just refer to Standard English as spoken in Northumbria  and featuring various Northumbrian words and forms) linguistically closest to Lowland Scots. Northumbrian is made up of ten or more dialects, with the Geordie dialect (Tyneside) being perhaps the most famous dialect spoken in Northumbria. The other dialects are Northern (spoken north of the River Coquet), Southern or Pitmatic (spoken in mining towns such as Ashington), Mackem (spoken in Wearside) Smoggie (Teesside) tyke (North Yorkshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire) . It is spoken in diluted form in the modern day counties of Northumberland, Tyne and Wear, Durham, North Yorkshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire. The Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria was much more extensive than this, covering all of Yorkshire, Lancashire and some parts of Cumbria, and Southern Scotland.
- Traditionally, [ɹ] is uvularised to [ʀ], a feature known as the Northumbrian burr. Once widespread across Northumberland, Tyneside and Northern Durham, this feature is now largely confined to older residents in rural areas in Northumberland and northern County Durham.
- Verbs ending in [t] are often rhotacised, becoming [ɹ]/[ʀ], especially if the following word begins with a vowel. Therefore, the phrase "get away" becomes gerr away or gerr awaa in Northumbrian.
|Stop||p b||t d||t͡ʃ d͡ʒ||k ɡ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||x||ʁ||h|
- The vowel [ɜː] typically becomes [ɔː] ,and so work would rhyme with fork in Northumbrian. For instance, certainly becomes sortainly [sɔːtn̩li] and surge becomes sorge [sɔːd͡ʒ] etc.
- The letter "i" in words like find, blind or pint is pronounced as [ɪ], as opposed to [aɪ], and so would rhyme with wind (noun) or stint
- Words ending in [ŋ] (like in the gerund "-ing") are often pronounced as [n], and so the word shopping becomes shoppin or shopp'n
- The vowel sound [ɔː] as in call becomes [aː] (represented by aa). And so call, walk and talk become caal, waak and taak in Northumbrian.
- This creates some minimal pairs based upon phonemic vowel length, such as tack /tak/ vs. taak /taːk/
- The diphthong [aʊ̯] in words such as down and town is usually pronounced as the long vowel [uː] or [yː] (written as "oo"), therefore becoming in "doon" and "toon" in Northumbrian. However, [aʊ̯] is [ʊ] when followed by [nd], so "pound" and "found" become "pund" and "fund".
- The diphthong [eɪ] corresponds to [jɛ] in dialectal Northumbrian speech, such as tjek (take) and fjess (face), but is often pronounced typically as [e̞ː] as in Northumbrian Standard English.
- Long vowel [uː] or in words such as book and cook, a featured shared with other Northern English dialects. In traditional Northumbrian dialect, it may correspond to other sounds, such as [jʊ] in the Geordie word schjul (school), or [ʉə] in the Mackem schewel.
- Words such as strut, cut, blood, lunch usually take [ʊ], as in other Northern English varieties.
- Words with the Received Pronunciation diphthong [əʊ], as in goat, usually have the monophthong [oː] instead. This corresponds to [jɛ] in some words in traditional Northumbrian dialect, such as bjeth and hjem for both and home
The major Northumbrian dialects today are Geordie, North Northumbrian, West Northumbrian, Southern Northumbrian or Pitmatic, Mackem, and arguably Smoggie and Eastern Yorkshire dialects, which are transitional between North East English and contemporary Yorkshire dialects. To an outsider's ear the similarities between the dialects far outweigh the differences between the dialects.
One of the main differences between Northern Northumbrian and the Geordie dialect of Newcastle is the fronting of short vowels in Northern Northumbrian, the seaside town of Amble is most famous for this occurrence. Therefore, words like "mam" (mother) are pronounced as "mairm" and can and tab become "cairn" and "tairb" etc. Sometimes, however, this vowel change is shorter, and becomes in effect like the letter "e" as in "to have a wesh" for "to have a wash". In addition, this is true with "o", words like doorknob and no become doorknerb and ner thus adopting an "err" sound.
Comparison with Scots language
Northumbrian has a very close relationship with the Scots language and both are sometimes considered as the same Anglic language or as distinct but close relatives, with the two being essentially the same language, albeit with minor differences. This is not commonly or formally recognised, however, due to sensitivities on both side of the border.
Northumbrian includes some strong plurals such as ee/een (eye/eyes), hoose/hoosen (house/houses), pee/pesen (pea/peas), coo/kye (cow/cows) and shough/shoon (shoe/shoes) that survived from Old English into Northumbrian but have become weak plurals in Standard Modern English – ox/oxen and child/children being exceptions
Northumbrian uses the singular second-person pronouns thoo and thee. This is a T form in the T–V distinction.
- aa / aw - I
- aboot - about
- aalreet (/'a:lɹi:t/) - a variation on "alright" or "hello" (often used in the phrase "aalreet mate")
- aye - yes
- bairn/grandbairn - child/grandchild
- bari - "good" or "lovely"
- banter - chat/gossip
- belta - "really good", used in the film Purely Belter
- bess - "please ya bess" for "please yourself"
- te boule - to roll, however te boule aboot means to "mess around"
- cannit or canna - cannot
- canny - "pleasant", or like in Scots "quite" (therefore something could be described as "canny canny")
- chud - chewing gum
- clart or clarts - "mud" as in "thar's clarts on yor bjuts"
- craic - pronounced "crack", meaning "good time" or "banter"
- cuddy - a small horse or a pony
- te dee - do
- deeks - "look" as in "Gi’z a deeks" - "Gimme a look"
- divvent, dinnit or dinna - "don't"
- divvie - an insult, referring to a stupid person
- doon - down,
- ee - oh, an exclamation of shock
- fitha, faatha or fadder - "father"
- te gaan or gaannin - to go
- gadgie - man
- get awesh - "go away"
- geet, varry - very
- gi'z- "Give me", compare "Gimme"
- haad - "hold" example: keep a haad means "keep a hold" or "luck after", and haad yor gob means "keep quiet".]
- hev or hae - have
- hacky - "dirty"
- haddaway - "get away"
- hairn (or hen) - similar to "hinny", see below
- hinny a term of endearment - "Honey"
- hoose - house
- ho'wair, ho'way or ha'way - "come on"
- te hoy - to throw 
- hjem / hjam - "home"
- uz- me, for example Pass uz the gully meaning "Pass me the knife"
- ket - sweets
- te knaa - know
- lekky - electricity, or electric
- te lend - often used for borrow, (lend uz a bi meaning "Can I borrow a pen?")
- like - used in many sentences; usually every other word, e.g. like, is he on aboot me or like, summat, like?
- ma for "my
- mair for "more" (compare with German "mehr")
- mam/maa a variation of Mother
- man - often used as a generic term of address, as in "Giv is it heor now man" or "haway man"
- marra - Friend. Used like "mate" - aalreet marra meaning "hello friend")
- me - my (compare: myself > meself or mesel)
- mollycoddle - overprotect, "wrap in cotton wool"
- muckle - similar to "canny", in the sense of meaning "quite". It can also mean "big", for instance "Yon hoose hed a muckle winda" means "that house had a big window"
- ner, na or nar - no
- neb - nose (nebby = nosey)
- neet - night
- nettie - toilet
- nivver - never
- noo - now
- nowt - nothing
- owt - anything
- pet - a term of address or endearment towards a woman or a child
- radge or radgie - crazy
- sel - "self" as in mesel = myself, yersel = yourself, hesel = himself, horsel = herself, waselves, thaselves
- shuttin - "shooting", shortening the "oo" vowel sound
- summat or summick - something
- tab - cigarette
- tiv or te - to. The former is usually used when the following word begins with a vowel. Thar's nowt tiv hit - "there's nothing to it"
- thae - they as in "What are thae deein?" meaning "What are they doing?"
- toon - town (or specifically Newcastle)
- willent, winnit - "won't"
- wor - our, used primarily to denote a family member, such as "wor bairn"
- wa - "our". used in a more general sense unlike "wor" below as in "Divvint touch wa bags" means "Don't touch our bags"
- wu- "us" as in What ye deein te wu? means "What are you doing to us?"
- ye or 'ee for you as in What are 'ee deein meaning "What are you doing?"
- yor, thee - your
Northumbrian Language Society
The Northumbrian Language Society, founded in 1983, exists to research, preserve and promote the Northumbrian language.
- http://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/northumbria. Missing or empty
- "The Northumbrian Language Society". Northumbriana.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- "North East dialect origins and the meaning of 'Geordie'". Northeastengland.talktalk.net. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- "Newcastle English (Geordie)". Hawaii.edu. 2000-05-06. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- Riley. Geordie and Northumbria Dialect: Resource Book for North East English Dialect. CreateSpace. p. 10.
- "Can Scots be English? - BadLinguistics". Badlinguistics.posterous.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
- Ridley, Brendan (2016). Geordie and Northumbria Dialect: Resource book for North East English dialect. p. 81.
- "Northumbrian Language Dictionary". geordiedictionary.tripod.com.
- MorpethNet. "Northumbrian Language Society". www.northumbriana.org.uk.
- "Peter Arnold speaks up for the Northumbrian dialect".
- Bill Griffiths, A Dictionary of North East Dialect, 2005