|Education||Ph.D., Social Policy and Social Work|
|Alma mater||University of Edinburgh|
|Known for||Family Studies, Father-child relationships, Shared parenting|
|Awards||Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal|
|Institutions||University of British Columbia|
Edward Kruk is a Canadian sociologist, scientist and family policy expert who has done internationally recognized research on child custody determination, shared parenting, family mediation, divorced fathers, parental alienation, parental addiction, child protection and grandparent access to their grandchildren. He is an associate professor of social work at the University of British Columbia. Kruk is the founding president of the International Council on Shared Parenting.
Education and personal life
Kruk was born in England. As an undergraduate he studied sociology and psychology at University of Toronto, obtaining a B.A. degree. He continued his studies there earning a master's degree in social work. He subsequently moved to Scotland where he obtained a Ph.D. in social policy and social work at the University of Edinburgh.
Dr. Kruk is a single father with two sons. Outside of his professional work he is active on the musical scene. He works as DJ Raven on Tree Frog Radio, playing a mix of downtempo, hip hop, electronica, dub, and drum n base music, mixed in with stories on child and family matters. Kruk was one of the founding members of the Bounce Collective, a group of progressive West Coast DJ's.
Dr. Kruk has conducted research equal or close to equal shared parenting after divorce or separation. His research has shown the importance of the fathers presence the life of their children. He has also studied the effect on father when losing close contact with their children.
Kruk has also studied the effect of mother's without custody. He has noted that "when accusations are made that court systems are biased in favor of mothers in the US and Canada, they have responded by increasing rates of paternal custody (as opposed to shared parenting) legal determinations. This places mothers' relationships with their children at serious risk." Taking an international perspective, he has noted that the gender aspect of the shared parenting discussion is very different across the world. In countries like Iceland, shared parenting is seen by women as an important gender equality issue. As a contrast, many women's organizations in Canada and the United States are against shared parenting, with some going so far as characterizing it as a "fathers' rights conspiracy". In yet other countries, such as Turkey and Iran, shared parenting is seen by women as an important women's rights issue, as paternal sole custody is the current norm. Kruk has concluded that "The characterization of parental alienation and shared parenting as 'fathers' rights' issues has rendered invisible the plight of many mothers, and negatively affected the global campaign to establish shared parenting as the foundation of family law as a fundamental right of women and their children."
He has evaluated the reasons for push-back against shared parenting. According Kruk, there has been three waves of criticism against shared parenting as a legal presumption and the default custody arrangement for most children. In the first wave, shared parenting was considered outlandish as it was thought (i) that children need one single primary attachment figure to bond with, (ii) that child development suffer from frequent moves back and forth between two households, and (iii) that one should not disrupt the status quo. When scientific research showed these to be false, a second wave of criticism argued that shared parenting increases parental conflict and that shared parenting is only suitable for parents who get along well as co-parents. When research showed the opposite to be true, a third wave of criticism acknowledges that shared parenting may be the best solution for most children, but that there should be no presumptions in family law, so that each judge can decide what he or she thinks is in the best interest of a child.
Grandparents and grandchildren
As part of his work on family mediation, Kruk has studied how important grandparents are for children affected by divorce. He has concluded that "grandparents often play a vital role in helping grandchildren adjust to the consequences of parental divorce, providing a sanctuary for the emotional needs of their grandchildren at a time when parents, faced by the multiple losses and transitions attendant to divorce, may be less emotionally available and responsive to their children."
Defining is as a form of family violence, Kruk and collegues has argued that "parental alienation has been like the historical social and political denial or other forms of abuse in many parts of the world (e.g., child abuse a century ago)." In order to prevent and overcome parental alienation, Kruk has argued for establishing shared parenting as the foundation of family law, effective legal enforcement parenting orders, professional recognition of parental alienation as a form of child abuse and the provision of effective treatment programs and reunification services for alienated parents and their children.
Public education and media
Kruk writes a regular column on "Co-Parenting After Divorce" for Psychology Today, covering a wide range of topics related to co-parenting, family mediation, child custody, shared parenting and parental alienation. He has been interviewed and his research has been quoted by both national and international media, including The Salt Lake Tribune, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Daily Herald, The Daily Caller, Click at Life, the Post Millennial, Deseret News, the Gospel Herald, the National Review, The Gleaner, the Sun Sentinel, The Telegraph, Diário de Notícias, Religión en Libertad, Aargauer Zeitung, Delfi, News 247, Aftonbladet, and Fam Times.
- Edward Kruk, Divorce and Disengagement: Patterns of Fatherhood Within and Beyond Marriage, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 1993.
- Edward Kruk, Mediation and Conflict Resolution in Social Work and the Human Services, Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1997.
- Edward Kruk, Divorced Fathers: Children's Needs and Parental Responsibilities, Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2011.
- Edward Kruk, The Equal Parent Presumption: Social Justice in the Legal Determination of Parenting After Divorce, Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2013.
- Kruk E. "Psychological and structural factors contributing to the disengagement of noncustodial fathers after divorce". Family Court Review. 1992 Jan;30(1):81-101.
- Kruk E. "The disengaged noncustodial father: Implications for social work practice with the divorced family". Social work. 1994 Jan 1;39(1):15-25.
- Kruk E. "Grandparent visitation disputes: Multigenerational approaches to family mediation". Mediation Quarterly. 1994 Sep;12(1):37-53.
- Kruk E, Hall BL. "The disengagement of paternal grandparents subsequent to divorce". Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 1995 Sep 7;23(1-2):131-48.
- Kruk E, "Collateral Damage: The Lived Experiences of Divorced Mothers Without Custody". Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 2010:51,526-543.
- Kruk E. "A model equal parental responsibility presumption in contested child custody". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 2011 Oct 1;39(5):375-89.
- Kruk E. "Arguments for an equal parental responsibility presumption in contested child custody". The American Journal of Family Therapy. 2012 Jan 1;40(1):33-55.
- Kruk E. "The lived experiences of non-custodial parents in Canada: A comparison of mothers and fathers". International Journal for Family Research and Policy. 2015;1(1).
- Kruk E. "Arguments Against a Presumption of Shared Physical Custody in Family Law". Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 2018 Jul 4;59(5):388-400.
- Harman JJ, Kruk E, Hines DA. "Parental alienating behaviors: An unacknowledged form of family violence". Psychological bulletin. 2018, 144:1275.
- Edward Kruk, "Father Absence, Father Deficit, Father Hunger: The Vital Importance of Paternal Presence in Children's Lives", Psychology Today, May 23, 2012.
- Edward Kruk, "The Voices of Children of Divorce: Listening to the real experts on the 'best interests of the child'", Psychology Today, November 12, 2013.
- Edward Kruk, "Equal shared parenting — best for parents, best for children: The current adversarial system in family law is unsustainable", National Post, March 25, 2014.
- Edward Kruk, "What Exactly Is 'The Best Interest of the Child'?", Psychology Today, February 22, 2015.
- Edward Kruk, "Grandparents Affected by Adult Child Divorce: Responding to the trauma of grandparental alienation", Psychology Today, March 15, 2017.
- Edward Kruk, "Understanding Children's Best Interests in Divorce: Conclusions of the Third International Conference on Shared Parenting", Psychology Today, June 26, 2017.
- Edward Kruk, "Parental Alienation: What Is the Solution? A call to action to combat and eliminate parental alienation", Psychology Today, November 16, 2017.
- Edward Kruk, "Coparenting as a Women's Rights Issue: The hidden problem of maternal alienation from children's lives", Psychology Today, February 24, 2018.
- Edward Kruk, "On Father's Day, Remember the Alienated Father The forced estrangement of children is a form of collective abuse", Psychology Today, June 15, 2018.
- Edward Kruk, "The Forced Removal of Children from Parental Care: Parallels between two different forms of parental alienation", Psychology Today, June 20, 2018.
- Grangeat M, Kruk E, Bergström M, Marinho S. "Are joint custody and shared parenting a child's right?", The Conversation, October 4, 2018.
- Edward Kruk, "Countering Arguments Against Shared Parenting in Family Law: Have we reached a tipping point in the child custody debate?", Psychology Today, October 10, 2018.
- Edward Kruk, "Parental Alienation as Child Abuse and Family Violence: A form of emotional aggression and intimate terrorism", Psychology Today, January 10, 2019.
- Edward Kruk, Biography
- Kruk E. Psychological and structural factors contributing to the disengagement of noncustodial fathers after divorce. Family Court Review. 1992 Jan;30(1):81-101.
- Kruk E. The disengaged noncustodial father: Implications for social work practice with the divorced family. Social work. 1994 Jan 1;39(1):15-25.
- Kruk E. The grief reaction of noncustodial fathers subsequent to divorce. Men's Studies Review. 1991;8(2):17-21.
- Edward Kruk, Father Absence, Father Deficit, Father Hunger: The Vital Importance of Paternal Presence in Children's Lives, Psychology Today, May 23, 2012.
- Kruk, E. (2013). The Equal Parent Presumption: Social Justice in the Legal Determination of Parenting After Divorce. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press.
- Edward Kruk, The Voices of Children of Divorce: Listening to the real experts on the "best interests of the child", Psychology Today, November 12, 2013.
- Kruk E, Collateral Damage: The Lived Experiences of Divorced Mothers Without Custody. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 2010:51,526-543.
- Kruk, E. (2015). The Lived Experiences of Non-custodial Parents in Canada: A Comparison of Mothers and Fathers. International Journal for Family Research and Policy, 1 (1), 80-95.
- Edward Kruk, "Co parenting as a Women's Rights Issue: The hidden problem of maternal alienation from children's lives", Psychology Today, February 24, 2018.
- Kruk E. Arguments Against a Presumption of Shared Physical Custody in Family Law. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 2018 Jul 4;59(5):388-400.
- Edward Kruk (October 10, 2018). "Countering Arguments Against Shared Parenting in Family Law: Have we reached a tipping point in the child custody debate?". Psychology Today.
- Kruk E, Hall BL. The disengagement of paternal grandparents subsequent to divorce. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage. 1995 Sep 7;23(1-2):131-48.
- Edward Kruk, "Grandparents Affected by Adult Child Divorce: Responding to the trauma of grandparental alienation", Psychology Today, March 15, 2017.
- Edward Kruk, "Grandparent Visitation Disputes: Multigenerational Approaches to Family Mediation", Mediation Quarterly, 1994.
- Harman JJ, Kruk E, Hines DA. Parental alienating behaviors: An unacknowledged form of family violence. Psychological bulletin. 2018, 144:1275.
- Kruk E. Divorced Fathers at Risk of Parental Alienation: Practice and Policy Guidelines for Enhancing Paternal Responsibility. New Male Studies. 2016 Mar 1;5(1).
- Kruk E, "Parental Alienation: What Is the Solution? A call to action to combat and eliminate parental alienation", Psychology Today, November 16, 2017.
- Edward Kruk, "Co-Parenting After Divorce: A child-centered approach to parental separation", Psychology Today
- John Seaman, "Parent's deployment can do harm to children", The Salt Lake Tribune, January 6, 2019
- Jason Proctor, "Mother battles daycare after operator refers to children in 'inappropriate manner'", Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, November 7, 2018.
- Michelle Jones, "Avoid the woozles and zombies of shared parenting", Daily Herald, February 13, 2018.
- Terry Brennan, "The establishment creates fatherless kids", The Daily Caller, March 26, 2018.
- "Η Κοκκινοσκουφίτσα αλλιώς και ένα σχόλιο για το διαζύγιο σε μια έκθεση", Click at Life, January 29, 2019 (in Greek).
- Barbara Kay, "Shared parenting after separation – Canadians want it, but Bill C-78 stubbornly clings to outdated winner-takes-all model", The Post Millennial, November 23, 2018.
- Megan McNulty, "How to make your children feel comfortable around both parents after divorce", Deseret News, May 22, 2016
- Aileen McConville, "Fathers, Where Are You? Perilous For Policy Makers to Ignore Impact of Fatherlessness On Sexuality of Teen Girls/Young Women", The Gospel Herald, January 12, 2006.
- Robert Franklin, "Children Need Both Parents Even after Divorce", The National Review, May 18, 2015.
- Martin Henry, "The cost of absent fathers", The Jamaica Gleaner, May 26, 2013.
- Robert Franklin, "Gov. Scott fails children, parents with veto of alimony bill", The Sun Sentinel, April 19, 2016.
- Neil Lyndon, "We must stop turning children against divorced fathers", The Telegraph, January 20, 2015.
- Céu Neves, "Mais e melhor formação para técnicos da área da família", Diário de Notícias, May 13, 2016 (in Portuguese)
- J.L.,"Violencia, drogas, suicidio..: 8 efectos negativos para los niños de crecer sin una figura paterna", Religión en Libertad, May 25, 2017 (in Spanish).
- Karen Schärer, Wenn Scheidungskinder sowohl bei "Papa wie bei Mama zu Hause sind", Aargauer Zeitung, March 12, 2014 (in German).
- Birutė van der Weg-Bražiūnienė, "Po audringų reakcijų sulaukusio straipsnio pasipiktino: ko siekia D. Šakalienė?", Delfi, May 13, 2016, (in Lithuanian),
- Yannis Paparrigopoulos, "Συνεπιμέλεια: Πρέπει να ακούσουμε την επιστήμη", News 247, April 12, 2017 (in Greek)
- Matts Hertsberg, "Även pappor måste få skydda sina barn", Aftonbladet, January 4, 2019 (in Swedish).
- "더 큰 불화의 씨앗 '부모 따돌림', 어떻게 대처할까?", Fam Times, March 15, 2018 (in Korean).