Ecomusicology

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Ecomusicology is an area of study that explores the relationships between music or sound, and the natural environment.[1] It is a study which encompasses a variety of academic disciplines including Musicology, Biology, Ecology and Anthropology. Ecomusicology combines these disciplines to explore how sound is produced by natural environments and, more broadly how cultural values and concerns about nature are expressed through sonic mediums.[2] Ecomusicology explores the ways that music is composed to replicate natural imagery, as well as how sounds produced within the natural environment are used within musical composition.[1] Ecological studies of sounds produced by animals within their habitat are also considered to be part of the field of Ecomusicology.[3] In the 21st century, studies within the field the Ecomusicology have also become increasingly interested in the sustainability of music production and performance.[4]

Ecomusicology is concerned with the study of music, culture, and nature, and considers musical and sonic issues, both textual and performative, related to ecology and the natural environment. It is in essence a mixture of ecocriticism and musicology (rather than "ecology" and "musicology"), in Charles Seeger's holistic definition.[5][6] Ecomusicology is regarded as a field of research rather than a specific academic discipline.[7] Because Ecomusicology focuses on a vast variety of disciplines as well as areas of research, it can be imagined as a space in which studies of sound in relation with the environment are conducted.[8]

Ecomusicology's relevance to such a wide range of other research areas is exactly what makes it somewhat ambiguous to define.[1] On one hand, Ecomusicology is a unique field of research which helps to make connections between a variety of music-related and environmental studies. Yet, by functioning as a collective term, it is often difficult to frame Ecomusicology within a static set of descriptive definitions. Musicologist Aaron S. Allen, the author of multiple published works on Ecomusicology, defines Ecomusicology as “the study of music, culture, and nature in all the complexities of those terms. Ecomusicology considers musical and sonic issues, both textual and performative, related to ecology and the natural environment.” [1]

Background[edit]

Ecomusicology as a field of study is often traced back to musical composer and environmentalist R. Murray Schafer who used the term to explain the sonic nature of particular physical environments or Soundscapes.[8] The idea of sound or music as something which creates or captures a particular atmosphere, was initially professed by Murray R. Schafer through his development of the concept of Soundscape ecology in the late 1970s.[9] Schafer used this term to encompass the vast acoustic environment which constitutes all the varied sounds, audible to the human ear. A soundscape might entail for example, the all audible sounds heard within a specific area of land, such as a mountain range, a forest or field.[9][10]

From the 1970s, there has been an increase in interest in the term ecomusicology, which was established as a term in the early 21st century in North American and Scandinavian circles.[5] As a field, ecomusicology was created out of a common area of interest between the fields of ecocriticism and musicology, expressed by a range of scholars and artists such as composers, acoustic ecologists, ethnomusicologists, biomusicologists, and others.[11]

Ecomusicology embraces what is today considered the field of historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and related interdisciplinary fields, which while at the same time may enable specialists within each of these fields to interact with academics in the other fields in their approach, it also provides individuals with flexibility to approach an ecocritical study of music through a variety of disciplines and fields.[5]

In October 2012, the first international Ecomusicology-conference took place in New Orleans.

Sustainability / Environmental Ethics[edit]

See also Sociomusicology

Ecomusicology considers aspects of environmental sustainability within music production and performance. For example, the relationship between a demand for a certain musical instrument as well as the costs and impacts of its production, has been an area of interest for Ecomusicologists investigating the sustainability of the consumption and production of music or musical instruments.[12] This includes the impact which the demand for musical instruments, merchandise or live experiences such as concerts has on the natural environment.[13] Music-Journalist and Anthropologist Mark Pedelty, has written on the Ecomusicological relationship between human musical activities and the health of the environment.[14] Having written about the pollutive impacts that international music touring often has on the environment, Pedelty explores Ecomusicological concerns of ethicality regarding the production of carbon emissions created by vehicles used to a move band members, instruments and/or any extensive staging or crew.[14]

Live Earth Concert at Wembley Stadium, 2007

Part of Ecomusicology's investigation of environmental ethics, are the ways in which discussions around projects of sustainability are positioned within popular music and media.[14] In 2010, music magazine Rolling Stone compiled a list of “The 15 Most Eco-Friendly Rockers”, selecting artists based on various criteria regarding their support or consideration for the environment within their musical practice.[15] This included assessments of the amount of money donated to environmentally sustainable causes, or an artist's effort to perform and act in carbon-neutral ways.[16] Some of the artists included Green Day for their work with the Natural Resources Defence Council, as well as Hip-Hop group The Roots for hosting multiple music events aimed at promoting social and environmental awareness.[16][17]

Environmental Activism / Ecocriticism[edit]

See also Ecocriticism

A key area of focus for studies within Ecomusicology are the ways in which sound and music is used to create or express concerns about the environment.[18] Jeff Todd Titon has described Ecomusicology which focuses more on conceptual aspects of Ecocriticism as “the study of music, culture, sound and nature in a period of environmental crisis.” [1] The occurrence of live music events aimed at promoting awareness about environmental destruction and climate change is one area in which Ecomusicology continues to be engaged.

Marching band at Climate Strike in Toronto 27 Sep 2019

Numerous music events including Live Earth (2007 concert) and, more recently, [[Make It Rain (Australia, 2020)[19] among others, have either been involved in promoting climate-change awareness, or to raising funds for the alleviation of the effects of climate change on humans and animals.[20] The investigation of eco-friendly organisations such as Reverb is also relevant to Ecomusicological inquiry. These organisations are often aimed at working with artists to reduce or offset the carbon footprint of their performance and touring emissions, as well as engaging audiences in environmental activism by reducing waste production at music events.[21]

Romantic Landscape with Spruce (Elias Martin) - National museum - 21679

Ecomusicology also considers the relationships between music or sound, and the promotion of ideas surrounding Environmental activismenvironmental activism. Ecomusicologists may for example examine the conceptual basis of songs written specifically about environmental degradation or, consider how and to what effect the use of simple short, repetitive vocal chants may assist in voicing the environmental concerns central to projects of climate activism.[22] The ways in which music has been used to prompt social and political action to protect the environment is of notable relevance to the focuses of Ecomusicology at large.[22]

Representations of the natural world[edit]

See also Ecopoetry

Ecomusicology investigates the creation of music which attempts to reflect or capture feelings or experiences provoked by the Natural environment.[23] Experiences of nature which are often expressed through poetry or art, are frequently analysed within Ecomusicology to identify the cognitive and emotional impacts which specific sounds might have on humans.[24]

Ecology[edit]

Ecomusicology is often closely paired with the study of Ecology, assisting in the analysis of the behavioural patterns of animals and ecosystems through the investigation of sound data. Ecological studies of Bird and the characteristics of their song, have revealed ways in which sounds and spaces in their natural environment have shaped certain behaviours.[3] Here, Ecomusicology applies concepts related to sound and Music theory with research regarding animal behaviours to reveal information about how sound is manipulated by animals in relation to their environment.[3]

By measuring musicological qualities such as volume, pitch and Frequency within a particular bird’s song, Ecologists have discovered that certain birds will sing louder in noisier, built-environments compared to birds of the same species found in rural environments.[3] Similarly, some birds may pitch their song differently in order to be heard across greater distances or more densely vegetative, and therefore more sound-absorbent environments.[3] Other ecological studies on non-human animals include research on Whale vocalization as well as the acoustics of bat (Echolocation (animal)) and insect communication otherwise known as Biophonics.[25]

Research Methods[edit]

Ecomusicology utilises both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, however, the type of data as well as methods of data collection vary depending on what the subject of study may be.[26] Ecomusicological research aimed at understanding aspects of social engagement with Ecocritism might for example primarily involve the use of qualitative data collected through interviews and field research of particular social events.[27] Conversely, research regarding the communicative behaviours of certain animal species would likely be pursued through a comparison of quantitative data collected through audio recordings of a specific environment.

Henri Roger Ouellet, 1938-1999 - Canadian field-naturalist collecting audio data from a forest environment

Environment-Focused[edit]

Ecomusicological field research of animal behaviours within a particular environment often includes methods of passive recording/listening. This is usually undertaken with the use of multi-directional Microphone which are often hidden and left within a species’ habitat to record the array of sounds created in its environment.[28] Hydrophones (microphones that can be submerged beneath water) may also be used to collect sound data from marine environments. By replaying passive (data collected without being present at the source) recordings, Ecologists are able to study the amount, frequency and variation of a particular sound within that environment to reveal insights about the population or behaviours of a particular animal species.[28]

Human-Focused[edit]

See also Ethnomusicology

Human-focused studies in Ecomusicology are often conducted using similar Field research methods to that of Anthropology or Sociology. This includes conducting interviews, collecting various numerical data, surveys as well as on-site observation.[29] These varied methods of data collection are used to make a qualitative analysis of the ways in which sound and music may influence behaviours as well as systems of value and meaning within a particular social context.[2]

Musical Theory / Instrumentation[edit]

Ecomusicology considers the ways in which Musical instruments and other forms of sound manipulation are used to recreate or represent features of specific environments or Soundscapes. Music produced within the conceptual spectrum of Ecomusicology often tries to replicate sounds found in the Natural environment.[30] This can include the use of orchestral instruments or vocal sounds to mimic sounds produced within the natural environment, such as the melodic chirp of a bird’s song, or the rhythmic gushing of stream. Sound effects are also used in a variety of ways to recreate sound textures produced within particular environments. An example might be the application of echo or reverb effects to an instrument to reproduce the distant echoing of sound as it rebounds off hard surfaces across a canyon or valley.[30]

A screen of music production software Ableton Live

The work of composer and sound-artist Maggi Payne often features the creation and combination of different sounds to convey natural processes or reflect elements of the natural environment.[31] In her sound work ‘Distant Thunder', Payne uses a combination of different sound sources including “boiling water, a resonant floor furnace, and unrolling adhesive tape” [32] to recreate the distinctive soundscape of desert storm.[32]

A common feature of musical compositions related to Ecomusicology, is the use of field recordings that capture the ambient sound produced within a specific environment. Field recordings can originate from urban settings to rural or natural environments, or anywhere else where an audio recording device may be used to record the sounds produced within a particular location.[33] The creation and use of field recordings form part of Ecomusicology’s analysis of soundscapes and the ways in which different environments may be experienced through their distinctive aural features.[34]

Also of interest to studies within Ecomusicology, are the ways in which sound is processed and manipulated through technological software to compose new soundscapes or sound environments. Musical Composition methods which involve music production software has allowed for music’s relationship with nature to be imagined in new ways, many of which are useful and relevant to Ecomusicological analysis.[35]

Education[edit]

Since its increased presence within academic discourse in the 21st Century, a number of teaching methods have been devised to integrate the study of Ecomusicology into school learning environments. Daniel J. Shevock, an academic of musicology whom has written extensively on Ecomusicological theory,[36] has designed and taught a variety of lessons concerning ideas and practices of Ecomusicology which can be applied to primary/highschool learning environments.

Shevock has outlined a series of possible practice-based learning activities focused on informing students about environmental concerns central to the study of Ecomusicology. This includes tasks which involve the creation of songs or poems inspired by the natural environment or other social concerns about sustainability and the health of ecologies.[18] Shevock has also devised a range of theoretical tasks which include listening to and discussing the conceptual and structural elements of nature-focused music.[22]

As a field of study which encompasses more than one area of interest, both Allen and Shevock have discussed the potential advantages that studies of Ecomusicology might have in extending an understanding of other subject areas taught within schools.[18][37] For example, the teaching of some of Ecomusicology’s research methods and findings within the study of ecologies, may be useful in expanding students’ comprehension of some ideas taught within the subject of Biology.[38]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Allen and Dawe, Ecomusicologies, 2.
  2. ^ a b Margaret Q. Guyette and Jennifer C. Post, “Ecomusicology, Ethnomusicology, and Soundscape Ecology,” in Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, ed. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe (New York: Routledge, 2016) 45.
  3. ^ a b c d e W Alice Boyle and Ellen Waterman, “The Ecology of Musical Performance: Towards a Robust Performance,” in Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, ed. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe (New York: Routledge, 2016), 28.
  4. ^ Mark Pedelty, “Pop Goes the Planet,” in Ecomusicology, Rock, Folk and the Planet, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012), 26.
  5. ^ a b c Allen, Aaron S. (forthcoming 2013), "Ecomusicology", Grove Dictionary of American Music, New York: Oxford University Press Check date values in: |year= (help)
  6. ^ "Ecomusicology.info – Main Page". Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  7. ^ Allen and Dawe, Ecomusicologies, 10.
  8. ^ a b Allen and Dawe, Ecomusicologies, 3.
  9. ^ a b Schafer, Soundscape, 65.
  10. ^ Daniel J Shevock, “Ecomusicology,” in Eco-literate Music Pedagogy, (New York: Routledge, 2018), 59.
  11. ^ Allen, Aaron S. (Summer 2011). "Ecomusicology: Ecocriticism and Musicology" (PDF). Journal of the American Musicological Society. 64 (2): 392–393. doi:10.1525/jams.2011.64.2.391. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  12. ^ Robin Ryan, “No Tree-No Leaf: Applying Resilience Theory to Eucalypt-Derived Musical Tradition,” in Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, ed. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe (New York: Routledge, 2016), 57.
  13. ^ Ryan “No Tree”, 57.
  14. ^ a b c Pedelty, Pop, 26.
  15. ^ “Culture-Lists: The 15 Most Eco-Friendly Rockers,” Rolling Stone Magazine, accessed April 23, 2020, http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-lists/the-15-most-eco-friendly-rockers-10751/the-roots-13-76091/
  16. ^ a b Pedelty, Pop, 31.
  17. ^ “Rolling Stone, “Culture-Lists.”
  18. ^ a b c Shevock, Ecomusicology, 63.
  19. ^ “Make It Rain: Fund the Firies 2020,” Make It Rain Group, accessed April 24, 2020, http://makeitrain2020.com.au/.
  20. ^ Pedelty, Pop, 24.
  21. ^ “About: About Us,” Reverb Organisation, accessed April 24, 2020,  http://reverb.org/about/.
  22. ^ a b c Shevock, Ecomusicology, 57.
  23. ^ Titan, Thoreau?, 76.
  24. ^ Jeff Todd Titon, “Why Thoreau?,” in Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, ed. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe (New York: Routledge, 2016), 69.
  25. ^ Guyette and Post, Ecology, 40.
  26. ^ Boyle and Waterman, Performance, 26.
  27. ^ Boyle and Waterman, Performance, 30.
  28. ^ a b Guyette and Post, Ecology 41.
  29. ^ Boyle and Waterman, Performance, 33.
  30. ^ a b Thomas, “Malheur Symphony.”
  31. ^ Sabine Feisst, “Negotiating Nature and Music through Technology,” in Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, ed. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe (New York: Routledge, 2016), 249.
  32. ^ a b Feisst, Negotiating, 249.
  33. ^ Schafer, Soundscape, 78.
  34. ^ Guyette and Post, Ecology, 45.
  35. ^ Feisst, Negotiating, 245.
  36. ^ Daniel J Shevock, “Prelude,” in Eco-literate Music Pedagogy, (New York: Routledge, 2018), 64.
  37. ^ Allen and Dawe, Ecomusicologies, 4.
  38. ^ Shevock, Prelude, 6.

Citations[edit]

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  • Dawe, Kevin; Allen, Aaron S., eds. (2016). Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138062498.
  • Boyle, Alice W, and Waterman, Ellen. “The Ecology of Musical Performance: Towards a Robust Performance.” In Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, edited by Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe, 25-39. New York: Routledge, 2016.
  • Fedl, Steven (1990). Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Penn. ISBN 9780812212990.
  • Feisst, Sabine “Negotiating Nature and Music through Technology.” In Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, edited by. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe 245-257. New York: Routledge, 2016.
  • Garrard, Greg (2004). Ecocriticism. The New Critical Idiom. 2004, 6. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415196925.
  • Gray, Patricia M; Krause, Bernie; Atema, Jelle; Payne, Roger; Krumhansl, Carol; Baptista, luis (5 January 2001), "The Music of Nature and the Nature of Music", Science, 291 (5501): 52–54, doi:10.1126/science.10.1126/SCIENCE.1056960
  • Guy, Nancy (2009), "Flowing Down Taiwan's Tasumi River: Towards an Ecomusicology of the Environmental Imagination", Ethnomusicology, 53 (2): 218–248, JSTOR http://www.jstor.org/stable/25653067
    • Guyette, Margaret Q, and Post, Jennifer C. “Ecomusicology, Ethnomusicology, and Soundscape Ecology.” In Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, edited by Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe, 40-56. New York: Routledge, 2016.
  • Hart, Heidi (2018). Music and the Environment in Dystopian Narrative : Sounding the Disaster. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9783030018146.
  • Ingram, David (2010). The Jukebox in the Garden. Nature, Culture and Literature. 7. Amsterdam: Rodolpi. ISBN 9789042032095.
  • Mark, Andrew (2017), "The Sole Mbira: An Ecomusicological Critique of Singularity and North American Zimbabwean Music", TOPIA: Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies, 37: 157–188, doi:10.3138/topia.37.157
  • Make It Rain Group. “Make It Rain: Fund the Firies 2020.” Accessed April 24, 2020. http://makeitrain2020.com.au/
  • Mark, Andrew (2016), "Keepin' It Real: Musicking and Solidarity, The Hornby Island Vibe", in Allen, Aaron S.; Dawe, Kevin (eds.), Current Directions in Ecomusicology, Routledge Research in Music, 13, New York: Routledge, ISBN 9781138804586
  • Mark, Andrew (2016), "Don't Organize, Mourn: Environmental Loss and Musicking", Ethics and the Environment, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 21 (2): 51–77, doi:10.2979/ethicsenviro.21.2.03
  • Mark, Andrew (2015), What is Music For?: Utopian Ecomusicologies and Musicking Hornby Island, York University
  • Mark, Andrew (2014), "Refining Uranium: Bob Wiseman's Ecomusicological Puppetry", Environmental Humanities, 4: 69–94, doi:10.1215/22011919-3614935
  • Pedelty, Mark (2012). Ecomusicology: Rock, Folk, and the Environment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 9781439907115.
  • Pedelty, Mark (2016). A Song to Save the Salish Sea: Musical Performance as Environmental Activism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253022684.
  • Rehding, Alexander (2002). "Eco-Musicology". Journal of the Royal Musical Association. 127 (2): 305–320. doi:10.1093/jrma/127.2.305.
  • Reverb Organisation. “About: About Us.” Accessed April 24, 2020.  http://reverb.org/about/.
  • Rolling Stone Magazine. “Culture-Lists: The 15 Most Eco-Friendly Rockers.” Accessed April 23, 2020. http://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-lists/the-15-most-eco-friendly-rockers-10751/the-roots-13-76091/
  • Ryan, Robin. “No Tree-No Leaf: Applying Resilience Theory to Eucalypt-Derived Musical Tradition.” In Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, ed. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe, 57-68. New York: Routledge, 2016.
  • Schafer, Murray R. The Soundscape : Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books, 1994.
  • Shevock, Daniel J. (2018). Eco-Literate Music Pedagogy. Routledge New Directions in Music Education Series. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415792578.
  • Sorce Keller, Marcelo (2013), "The Windmills of my Mind – Musings about Haydn, Kant, Sonic Ecology, and Hygiene", Music-Dance-Environment, UPM Book Series on Music Research, 5, Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press, pp. 1–30, ISBN 9789673443376
  • Toliver, Brooks (2004), "Eco-ing in the Canyon: Ferde Grofé's Grand Canyon Suite and the Transformation of Wilderness", Journal of the American Musicological Society, 57 (2): 325–368, doi:10.1525/jams.2004.57.2.325
  • Thomas, Chris. “Composing the "Malheur Symphony: Finding Healing with Bird Songs.” Filmed March 30, 2019 at TEDxBend, Bend, OR .Video, 15:32. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KVbxJTjDio.
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  • Titon, Jeff Todd (2013), "The Nature of Ecomusicology", Música e Cultura: revista da ABET, 8 (1): 8–18
  • Titan, Jeff Todd. “Why Thoreau?.” In Current Directions in Ecomusicology: Music, Culture, Nature, edited. Aaron S. Allen, and Kevin Dawe, 69–79. New York: Routledge, 2016.
  • Troup, Malcom, ed. (1972), Review, Guildhall School of Music and Drama
  • Von Glahn, Denise (2003). The Sounds of Place: Music and the American Cultural Landscape. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 9781555535834.
  • Von Glahn, Denise (2013). Music and the Skillful Listener: American Women Compose the Natural World. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253006622.

External links[edit]