East Germanic languages
|Varying depending on time (4th-18th centuries), currently none (all languages are extinct)|
Until late 4th century:
Central and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea)
late 4th—early 10th centuries:
Much of southern, western, southeastern, and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea) and North Africa
early 10th—late 18th centuries:
Isolated areas in eastern Europe (as far as Crimea)
The only East Germanic languages of which texts are known are Gothic and its later close relative, Crimean Gothic. Other languages that are assumed to be East Germanic include Vandalic and Burgundian, though very few texts in these languages are known. Crimean Gothic, the last remaining East Germanic language, is believed to have survived until the 18th century in isolated areas of Crimea.
By the 1st century AD, the writings of Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Tacitus indicate a division of Germanic-speaking peoples into large groupings with shared ancestry and culture. (This division has been taken over in modern terminology about the divisions of Germanic languages.)
Based on accounts by Jordanes, Procopius, Paul the Deacon and others, as well as linguistic, toponymic, and archaeological evidence, it was formerly believed that the East Germanic tribes, the speakers of the East Germanic languages related to the North Germanic tribes, had migrated from Scandinavia into the area lying east of the Elbe. In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today's northern Poland from c. 1300–1100 BC (Nordic Bronze Age sub-period III) onwards was so considerable that this region is sometimes included in the Nordic Bronze Age culture (Dabrowski 1989:73).
There is also archaeological and toponymic evidence which has been taken as suggesting that Burgundians lived on the Danish island of Bornholm (Old Norse: Burgundaholmr), and that Rugians lived on the Norwegian coast of Rogaland (Old Norse: Rygjafylki).
However, the so-called Gotho-Nordic hypothesis is considered outdated, and East Germanic is thought to be a primary branch of Germanic (presumably native to the north of Central Europe, especially modern Poland), and likely even the first branch to split off Proto-Germanic in the first millennium BC.
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Possible East Germanic-speaking tribes include:
- Ingvaeonic languages
- Irminonic languages
- Istvaeonic languages
- North Germanic languages
- West Germanic languages
- Balto-Slavic languages
Notes and references
- From origins until the beginning of the Migration Period.
- From the onset of the Migration Period until extinctions of major East Germanic languages with the last one occurring in the early 10th century.
- From the last major extinction until the 18th century demise of Crimean Gothic.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "East Germanic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- The Penguin Atlas of World History, Hermann Kinder and Werner Hilgemann; translated by Ernest A. Menze; with maps designed by Harald and Ruth Bukor. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051054-0, 1988. Volume 1, p. 109.
- Dabrowski, J. (1989) Nordische Kreis und Kulturen Polnischer Gebiete. Die Bronzezeit im Ostseegebiet. Ein Rapport der Kgl. Schwedischen Akademie der Literatur, Geschichte und Altertumsforschung über das Julita-Symposium 1986. Ed Ambrosiani, Björn Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Konferenser 22. Stockholm. ISBN 91-7402-203-2
- Demougeot, E. La formation de l'Europe et les invasions barbares, Paris: Editions Montaigne, 1969–74.
- Kaliff, Anders. 2001. Gothic Connections. Contacts between eastern Scandinavia and the southern Baltic coast 1000 BCE – 500 CE.
- Musset, L. Les invasions: les vagues germanique, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1965.
- Nordgren, I. 2004. Well Spring of The Goths. About the Gothic Peoples in the Nordic Countries and on the Continent.