List of domesticated animals

  (Redirected from Domesticated animals)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This page gives a list of domestic animals,[1] also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Archaeozoology has identified three classes of animal domesticates:

  1. Pets (dogs, cats, hamsters, etc.)
  2. Livestock (cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, etc.)
  3. Beasts of burden (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.)[2]

To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix CE and BCE dates.

Domesticated animals[edit]

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purposes Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)[3] Extinct Pleistocene population of the gray wolf (Canis lupus spp.)[4] 13000 BCE[5][6] China,[7][8][9]

Europe[6]

pets, hunting, herding, guarding, pest control, draft, pack, working, show, racing, sport, meat, rescuing, guiding, fighting, service, research, policing, narcotics detection, fiber, truffle harvesting, education, therapy, leather Pembroke Welsh Corgi 600.jpg Tame (with exceptions),[10] significant physical changes, probably significant behavioral changes as well Domestic and feral dogs both very common,[10] ancestor or nearest wild relative less common, but not rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) Bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) 10000 BCE[11][12][13] Iran milk, meat, fiber, skin, vellum, show, racing, fighting, clearing land, pets, horns, guarding, weed control, manure, lawn mowing Capra, Crete 4.jpg Slight physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild, feral populations common 1b Bovidae
Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) Anatolian boar (Sus scrofa libycus),[14] Northern Chinese boar (Sus scrofa moupinensis)[15] 9000 BCE[16][17][18][19] China, Western Asia meat, leather, research, show, racing, fighting, truffle harvesting, pets, tusks, guarding, manure, weed control Sow with piglet.jpg Some physical changes Common in the wild, much more common in captivity, feral animals common in some areas 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)[3] Unknown ancestor,[20] possibly the Armenian mouflon (Ovis gmelini gmelini) 9000 BCE to 8500 BCE[21][22] Anatolia, Iran meat, milk, fiber, leather, pelts, vellum, pets, show, racing, research, guarding, fighting, ornamental, horns, lawn mowing, weed control, hides, manure Pair of Icelandic Sheep.jpg Some physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
European cattle or taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus)[3][23][24] Eurasian aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius)† 8000 BCE[25][26] China,[27] Western Asia meat, milk, leather, hides, working, plowing, draft, vellum, blood, soil fertilization, fighting, show, racing, pets, horns, guarding, dung, mount, fiber, weed control, lawn mowing Koe in weiland bij Gorssel.JPG Some physical changes Very common in captivity, wild relatives extinct, feral cattle fairly common 1b Bovidae
Zebu, Brahman cattle, indicine cattle or humped cattle (Bos primigenius indicus)[3] Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus)† 8000 BCE India meat, milk, leather, hides, working, plowing, draft, vellum, blood, soil fertilization, fighting, show, racing, pets, horns, dung, mount, lawn mowing Female zebu cattle.JPG Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, wild relatives extinct 1b Bovidae
Domestic cat or house cat (Felis catus)[3] North African wildcat (Felis lybica lybica)[28] 8000–7500 BCE[28] the Near East pets, meat, pest control, show, pelts, research Jammlich crop.jpg Tame, some physical changes Very abundant in captivity; true wild cats less abundant, though not rare, feral populations very common 1c Carnivora
Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Indian red junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) with some contribution from the Grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) 6000 BCE[29] India and Southeast Asia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, show, racing, ornamental, fighting, pest control, pets, guarding, manure, weed control Poltava chicken breed female.jpg Some physical changes, considerable reproductive changes Very common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) Montane guinea pig (Cavia tschudii) 5000 BCE Peru pets, meat, show, racing, research, lawn mowing, weed control, manure Caviaklein.jpg Tame, slight physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic donkey or domestic ass (Equus africanus asinus) Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis)[30] 5000 BCE[31][32] Egypt pack, working, plowing, draft, mount, meat, milk, pets, racing, guarding, lawn mowing, manure, weed control Donkey in Clovelly, North Devon, England.jpg Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity and as feral animals, wild relatives critically endangered 1e Other mammals
Domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Common mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) 4000 BCE China meat, feathers, eggs, pets, show, ornamental, guarding, pest control, weed control, manure Pekin Ducks cropped.jpg Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, but more abundant in the wild 2a Anseriformes
Domestic water buffulo (Bubalus bubalis)[3] Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) 4000 BCE India, China, the Philippines working, plowing, draft, mount, fighting, meat, show, racing, milk, horns, dung, lawn mowing Water Buffalo, Phayao Lake.jpg Mainly unchanged from the wild animal Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Dromedary or Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius)[33] Thomas's camel (Camelus thomasi)†[34] 4000 BCE Arabia, the Horn of Africa pack, hunting, mount, show, milk, meat, pets, urine Camelcalf-feeding.jpg Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, small feral population in original range, significant feral population in Australia, truly wild dromedaries may be extinct 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus) Extinct unknown population of the wild horse, possibly the tarpan or European wild horse (Equus ferus ferus)†[35] 3500 BCE[36] Kazakhstan milk, meat, working, guiding, servicing, execution, plowing, draft, mount, pack, fighting, show, racing, pets, hair, manure, lawn mowing, weed control Nokota Horses cropped.jpg Tame, some physical changes, mainly in coloration Common in captivity, very rare in the wild, feral populations common 1e Other mammals
Domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) Wild silkmoth (Bombyx mandarina) 3000 BCE China silk, animal feed, pets Silkworms3000px.jpg Tame/held captive, some physical changes Fairly common in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 6b Other insects
Domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Rock dove (Columba livia) 3000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin show, ornamental, messenger, meat, racing, pets, manure Homing pigeon.jpg Artificially selected into many varieties, including meat breeds, racing/messenger breeds, and fancy plumage breeds Relatively common in captivity, very common in the wild, feral populations extremely abundant 2c Columbiformes
Domestic goose and domestic swan goose (Anser anser domesticus and Anser cygnoides domesticus) Graylag goose (Anser anser) and swan goose (A. cygnoides) 3000 BCE for A. anser, date uncertain for A. cygnoides[37] Egypt (A. anser), China (A. cygnoides) meat, eggs, feathers, show, guarding, pest control, pets, weed control, manure Neugierige Hausgans.JPG Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Domestic yak (Bos grunniens)[3] Wild yak (Bos mutus) 2500 BCE Tibet, Nepal milk, pack, working, plowing, mount, racing, fighting, show, meat, fiber, guarding, pets, horns, dung The Yak.jpg Tame, slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) 2500 BCE Central Asia (Afghanistan) milk, pack, mount, show, meat, milk, hair, pets, dung Temee.jpg Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, critically endangered in the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Llama (Lama glama)[3] Guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis)[38] 2400 BCE[39] Peru, Bolivia working, draft, pack, meat, show, racing, pets, guarding, weed control, fiber, manure, lawn mowing Pack llamas posing near Muir Trail.jpg Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Alpaca (Vicugna pacos)[3] Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis)[38] 2400 BCE[39] Peru, Bolivia fiber, meat, show, pets, guarding, milk, lawn mowing, weed control, manure Corazon Full.jpg Considerable physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic guineafowl (Numida meleagris domesticus) West African helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeatus) 2400 BCE[40] Africa meat, eggs, pest control, show, alarming, pets, guarding, manure Domesticated Guineafowl - geograph.org.uk - 543901.jpg Mainly unaltered from the wild population Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Fuegian dog (Lycalopex culpaeus)† Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus) date uncertain[41] Argentina, Chile hunting, pets, warmth, guarding Fuegian dog (1863).jpg Tame, slight physical changes Extinct in captivity, common in the wild 1c Carnivora
Domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) European polecat (Mustela putorius) 1500 BCE[42] Europe pets, hunting, pest control, show, racing Ferret 2008.png Tame, slight physical changes Common in captivity, somewhat common in the wild, feral populations rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata domestica) Wild Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata moschata) 700–600 BCE[39] South America meat, feathers, eggs, show, pets, guarding, pest control, manure MuscovyDuck.jpg Tame, some physical changes Common in captivity, feral populations are rare 2a Anseriformes
Barbary dove or ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia risoria) African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) 500 BCE North Africa show, pets, meat Feral Barbary Dove.jpg Slight physical changes Common in both captivity and feral populations 2c Columbiformes
Bali cattle (Bos javanicus domesticus) Javan banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) date uncertain Bali, Indonesia meat, milk, show, working, plowing, draft, horns, dung Banteng Domesticated Bali Bull.PNG Slight physical changes Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Gayal (Bos frontalis)[3] Gaur (Bos gaurus) date uncertain Southeast Asia, Northeast India meat, milk, horns, dung Bos gaurus (Gayal) male.JPG Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) South Mexican wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo) 180 CE[39] Mexico meat, feathers, eggs, show, pets, pest control, guarding, manure White turkeys.jpg Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Domestic goldfish (Carassius auratus) Prussian carp

(Carassius gibelio)

300 CE to 400 CE China pets, show, racing, ornamental, pest control Gullfiskur.jpg Tame/held captive, significant physical changes Very common and abundant in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) Iberian rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus)[43] 600 CE[44] Europe pelts, fiber, pets, show, racing, research, meat, lawn mowing, weed control, manure EnglishSpotRabbitChocolate1(cropped).jpg Tame, significant physical changes Common in captivity, rare in native habitat, common in introduced range 1e Other mammals
Koi (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) the 11th century CE Japan ornamental, show, pets Six koi.jpg Tame/held captive, considerable physical changes Fairly common in captivity, threatened in the wild 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica) Atlantic canary (Serinus canaria) the 15th century CE the Canary Islands, Europe pets, research, show, mining, fighting Zwei Kanarienvögel.JPG Slight physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Society finch (Lonchura striata domestica) White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata striata) with some contribution from the Indian silverbill (Euodice malabarica) unknown, may have been introduced to Japan sometime around the early 18th century CE[45] Japan pets, research, show Rbruni.JPG Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; no longer exists in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Fancy mouse and laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domestica) Western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) 1100 BCE (China), then the 17th century CE (Europe)[46] China pets, research, racing, animal feed Minimouse.jpg Tame, significant physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata);[47] Cauca (P. caucana), Amazon (P. formosa), sailfin (P. latipinna), shortfin (P. mexicana), liberty (P. salvatoris), common (P. sphenops), and Yucatan mollies (P. velifera); Endler's livebearer (P. wingei) Guppy (Poecilia reticulata); Cauca (P. caucana), Amazon (P. formosa), sailfin (P. latipinna), shortfin (P. mexicana), liberty (P. salvatoris), common (P. sphenops), and Yucatan mollies (P. velifera); Endler's livebearer (P. wingei) date uncertain Barbados, Brazil, El Salvador, Guyana, Mexico, Venezuela pets, research, bait, pest control Guppy coppia gialla.jpg Some physical and behavioral changes, domestication status is a point of contention Common in captivity 5b Other fish
Fancy rat and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus domestica) Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) the 19th century CE[48] the United Kingdom pets, research, show, animal feed Ratte-Vache.jpeg Tame, some physical and psychological changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic mink (Neovison vison domesticus)[49] American mink (Neovison vison) the 19th century CE North America fur, hunting, pest control, pets
American Mink - White.jpg
Some physical and psychological changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora
Domesticated silver fox (Vulpes vulpes amicus) Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) the 1950s the Soviet Union, Russia fur, pelts, research, pets Silberfuchs 08.jpg Tame, some physical changes Very small domestic population, wild relatives fairly common 1c Carnivora
Domesticated hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) Four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) the 1980s Central and Eastern Africa pets Baxter flower.jpg Slight physical changes Common in the wild, somewhat rare in captivity 1e Other mammals
Domesticated striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) the 19th century CE North America pets, pest control, pelts Zoo des 3 vallées - Mouffette rayée - 2015-01-02 - i3441.jpg Tame when captive-bred, significant physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora

Tame and partially domesticated animals[edit]

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what precisely constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans, albeit not to the point that they are regarded as distinct forms (therefore no separate wild ancestors are noted). Many could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purpose Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) including subspecies Indian (Elephas maximus indicus), Sri Lankan (E. m. maximus), Sumatran (E. m. sumatranus), Bornean (E. m. borneensis), and Syrian elephants (E. m. asurus)†[50][51][52] - 2000 BC (uncertain for E. m. maximus, E. m. sumatranus, E. m. borneensis and E. m. asurus)† India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Nepal, Borneo, China, Indochina, Iran mount, working, transportation, hunting, show, racing, fighting, worship, patrol, dung IndianElephant.jpg Semi-domesticated (captured from the wild and tamed) Syrian subspecies extinct in captivity and in the wild; other subspecies somewhat common in captivity, but endangered in the wild[53][54] 1e Other mammals
Domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus domesticus) - 3000 BCE Fennoscandia, western Russia (possibly eastern Russia),[55] China, Mongolia meat, milk, transportation, mount, hides, leather, antlers, pets Caribou using antlers.jpg Semi-domesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Gemsbok (Oryx gazella)[56] - date uncertain Southern Africa meat, hides, horns Spiessbock-Etosha-01.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Arabian ostrich or Syrian ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus)†[57] - date uncertain Mesopotamia meat, feathers, eggs, sacrifice Arabian Ostrich hunt.jpg Extinct in the wild and in captivity 2f Other birds
Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) - date uncertain the Middle East, Egypt meat, horns Reem-Lavan001.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas)[58] - date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, pets Gazella dorcas.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana)[59] - date uncertain Egypt meat, horns PikiWiki Israel 4287 Capra.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) - 2320–2150 BCE Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices Scimitar oryx1.jpg Held/tame in captivity Small captive population, but nearly extinct in the wild 1b Bovidae
Serval (Leptailurus serval)[60] - date uncertain Egypt pest control, pets Serval in Tanzania.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Caracal (Caracal caracal)[61] - date uncertain Egypt, India, Southern Africa hunting, pest control, pets Caracl (01), Paris, décembre 2013.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) including subspecies Northeast African (A. j. soemmeringii), Asiatic (A. j. venaticus) and Southeast African cheetahs (A. j. jubatus)[62][63] - date uncertain Egypt, India, the Middle East, South Africa hunting, tourism, pets Gepard soemmeringii.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus)† - date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices Bubalhartebeest-londonzoo.jpg Extinct in the wild and in captivity 1b Bovidae
Syrian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemippus)†[64] - date uncertain Mesopotamia draught SyrianWildAss-London Zoo.jpg Extinct in the wild and in captivity 1e Other mammals
Przewalski's horse or Mongolian wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii)[65][66][67][68] - date uncertain Kazakhstan mount, milk, meat Przewalski's Horse at The Wilds.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Wood duck (Aix sponsa) - date uncertain North America meat, ornamental, pets, pest control Male Aix sponsa portrait.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) - pre-modern China (date uncertain) China ornamental, pets, pest control Aix galericulata - Zürich - Hafen Riesbach 2011-01-14 15-58-32.JPG Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) - date uncertain Egypt meat, eggs, ornamental, guarding, pets, feathers Alopochen-aegyptiacus.jpg Held/tame in captivity Common in captivity, feral populations very common 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) - ancient Egypt (date uncertain) Egypt pest control, pets Herpestes ichneumon Египетский мангуст, или фараонова крыса, или ихневмо́н.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)[69] - 5000 BCE China pest control, pets Bengalkatze.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Common (Genetta genetta),[70] Cape (G. tigrina), pardine (G. pardina) and rusty-spotted genets (G. maculata) - date uncertain Africa pest control, pets Genetta genetta felina (Wroclaw zoo).JPG Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) including subspecies Chinese (A. c. cerana), Indian (A. c. indica) and Japanese honey bees (A. c. japonica) - date uncertain South Asia, Thailand, Japan, China honey, pollination, wax Apis cerana, Asiatic honey bee - Khao Yai National Park.jpg Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Common fallow (Dama dama) and Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)[71] - 1000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin, the Levant meat, hides, antlers, pets Fallow deer in field.jpg Semi-domesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)[72][73] - 800 BCE Europe, Asia bloodletting, surgery, therapy, pets, research, saliva Svømmende blodigle.JPG Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) - 700–500 BCE[39] Chile, Peru, Mexico dye Dactylopius coccus (Barlovento) 04 ies.jpg Held/tame in captivity Very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Indian (Pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (P. muticus) - 500 BCE (uncertain for P. muticus) India, Java show, feathers, meat, ornamental, pets, guarding, pest control Indian Peahens I IMG 9647.jpg Held/tame in captivity Fairly common in the wild 2b Galliformes
Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) - kept in ancient Greece, date of captive breeding uncertain Greece pets, talking bird Beo-2.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) including subspecies Indian (P. k. manillensis) and African rose-ringed parakeets (P. k. krameri) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) West Africa, India pets, talking bird Rose-ringed Parakeet I IMG 9797.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)[74][75]including subspecies Caspian (C. e. maral), Norwegian (C. e. atlanticus) and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) - ~0 CE China, Russia, Europe, the United Kingdom, Iran meat, velvet, hides, leather, antlers, pets, milk Deer Stag AdF.jpg Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Roman (Helix pomatia) and Turkish snails (H. lucorum) - 100 CE (uncertain for H. lucorum) Europe meat, pets, shells, slime, eggs Helix pomatia 89a.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Stingless bees (Melipona beecheii), (M. scutellaris), (M. bicolor), (M. quadrifasciata) and (M. subnitida) - 180 CE Mexico, the Amazon basin honey, wax, pollination, propolis, pets M. scutellaris Hive.jpg Semi-domesticated 6a Hymenoptera
White cockatoo (Cacatua alba) - the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE) China, Indonesia pets, show Cacatua alba -pet-8a.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) including subspecies Triton (C. g. triton) and Eleonora cockatoos (C. g. eleonora) - date uncertain Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea pets, show Cacatua galerita Tas 2.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) including subspecies Citron-crested (C. s. citrinocristata) and Timor cockatoos (C. s. parvula) - date uncertain Sulawesi, the Masalembu Islands, the Tukangbesi Islands, Tanah Jampea, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Timor, the Lesser Sundas, Sumba pets Lesser-sulphur crested cockatoo 31l07.JPG Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Japanese (Phalacrocorax capillatus), neotropic (P. brasilianus) and great cormorants (P. carbo) - 960 CE (uncertain for P. brasilianus) Japan, China, Peru fishing Phalacrocorax carbo ja01.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Whooper (Cygnus cygnus), trumpeter (C. buccinator), black-necked (C. melancoryphus) and black swans (C. atratus) - date uncertain Eurasia, North America, South America, Australia meat, ornamental, feathers, guarding, pets Cygnus cygnus, Whooper Swan, Singschwan.jpg Semi-domesticated 2a Anseriformes
Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) including subspecies Bewick's (C. c. bewickii) and whistling swans (C. c. columbianus) - date uncertain Russia, North America ornamental, guarding, pets Cygnus bewickii 01.jpg Semi-domesticated 2a Anseriformes
Mute swan (Cygnus olor) - 1000-1500 CE Europe, the United Kingdom meat, ornamental, feathers, guarding, pets CygneVaires.jpg Semi-domesticated 2a Anseriformes
House cricket (Acheta domesticus) - the 12th century CE Southwestern Asia, China, Japan animal feed, meat, fighting, pets Acheta domesticus, adultes Weibchen.jpg Held in captivity Somewhat common in captivity, very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Common (Coturnix coturnix) and Japanese quails (C. japonica) - 1100–1900 CE Eurasia, Japan meat, eggs, pets Japanese Quail.jpg Domesticated in captivity 2b Galliformes
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) - 1200–1500 CE Europe, Asia meat, pets, eggs LakePowellCarp5437.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Siamese fighting fish or betta (Betta splendens); Akar (B. akarensis), giant (B. anabantoides), slim (B. bellica), Toba (B. rubra), spotted (B. picta), Krabi mouth-brooding (B. simplex), Penang (B. pugnax), peaceful (B. imbellis), emerald green (B. smaragdina), spotfin (B. macrostoma), and Howong bettas (B. unimaculata) - the 19th century CE (uncertain for B. akarensis, B. anabantoides, B. bellica, B. rubra, B. picta, B. simplex, B. pugnax, B. imbellis, B. smaragdina, B. macrostoma and B. unimaculata) Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo fighting, show, pets HM Orange M Sarawut.jpg Tame/held captive, very significant physical and slight behavioral changes 5b Other fish
Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) - the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 CE) China pets Buberel Lonchura oryzivora 3.jpg Non-wild coloration pied and fancy colored Java sparrows from long Asian captivity lines are hand tamable Threatened in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) including subspecies masked bobwhite (C. v. ridgwayi) - date uncertain the United States, Sonora meat, feathers, eggs, pets Virginiawachtel 2007-06-16 065.jpg Captive-bred Plumage changes 2b Galliformes
Crested bobwhite (Colinus cristatus) - date uncertain South America meat, eggs, pets Colinus cristatus -Curacao, Netherlands Antilles-8a.jpg Captive-bred 2b Galliformes
European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) - date uncertain Europe pets, singing Carduelis carduelis close up.jpg Captive-bred 2d Passeriformes
Red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) and silver-eared mesia (L. argentauris) - date uncertain China, Japan pets, singing Leiothrix lutea -Chester Zoo, Cheshire, England-8a.jpg Captive-bred 2d Passeriformes
Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) - date uncertain India fighting, pest control, pets Herpestes edwardsii at Hyderaba.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Gambian pouched (Cricetomys gambianus), southern giant pouched (C. ansorgei), and Emin's pouched rat (C. emini) - at least 1997,[76] but possibly the early 1990s (uncertain for C. emini and C. ansorgei) Sub-Saharan Africa meat, pets, landmine detection, TB detection, pest control Food Reward.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) - date uncertain India pets Indian Palm Squirrel Bangalore 2009.jpg Easy to tame 1d Rodentia
Black (Francolinus francolinus) and grey francolins (F. pondicerianus) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, pets, fighting Black Francolin.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Golden (Chrysolophus pictus) and Lady Amherst's pheasants (C. amherstiae) - date uncertain China ornamental, pets, pest control Male Golden Pheasant DC.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Common (Phasianus colchicus) and green pheasants (P. versicolor) - date uncertain Asia, Japan meat, eggs, pets, pest control Pheasant.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Sika deer (Cervus nippon)[77] - date uncertain Japan, China, Taiwan meat, antlers, hides, tourism, pets Sikahjort.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) including subspecies East African common (T. o. pattersonianus) and Livingstone's common elands (T. o. livingstonii) - date uncertain Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya meat, milk, leather, hides, horns Taurotragus oryx.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
American (Alligator mississippiensis) and Chinese alligators (A. sinensis)[78] - date uncertain the United States, China pets, meat, hides, teeth, blood American Alligator.jpg Captive-bred Both species once uncommon in the wild; captive breeding has led to the American species recovering across and repopulating much of its range, while the Chinese species is nearly extinct in the wild 3c Other reptiles
Moose (Alces alces)[79] including subspecies Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas) - date uncertain Russia, Finland, Sweden, Alaska research, milk, antlers, mount, draft, transportation, working, meat, hides, pets Milkmaid-and-Moose-Cow-hp4080.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
North African (Struthio camelus camelus) and Masai ostriches (S. c. massaicus) - date uncertain North Africa, West Africa, East Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding, pets Yaen001.jpg Semi-domesticated 2f Other birds
South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) - the 19th century CE South Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding, pets Ostrich (Struthio camelus) male (13994461256).jpg Semi-domesticated 2f Other birds
Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) - date uncertain Kenya meat, eggs, feathers, mount, racing, guarding, pets Somali ostrich.jpg Semi-domesticated 2f Other birds
Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) - the 1850s Australia pets, show, talking bird Melopsittacus undulatus -Zoo Atlanta-8a.jpg Plumage changes, some breeds are physically larger Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) - the 1870s Australia pets, show, talking bird Nymphicus hollandicus -garden-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity Common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Major Mitchell's cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) - date uncertain Australia pets, show Cacatua leadbeateri -SW Queensland-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Rocky Mountain (Cervus canadensis nelsoni), Roosevelt's (C. c. roosevelti), tule (C. c. nannodes) and Manitoban elk (C. c. manitobensis); Altai (C. c. sibiricus), Manchurian (C. c. xanthopygus) and Tian Shan wapiti (C. c. songaricus) - date uncertain North America, Russia, China meat, velvet, hides, leather, antlers, pets Rocky Mountain Bull Elk.jpg Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Stoat or short-tailed weasel (Mustela erminea) - the 1800s Eurasia fur, pest control, pets Mustela erminea upright.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
European mink (Mustela lutreola) - the 1800s Europe, Russia fur Mink1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Coypu or nutria (Myocastor coypus) - the late 19th to the early 20th century CE Argentina fur, meat, aquatic weed control, pets Ratao do banhado 1 REFON.jpg Captive-bred 1d Rodentia
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) including subspecies Italian (A. m. ligustica), German (A. m. mellifera), Greek (A. m. cecropia), Carniolan (A. m. carnica), Caucasian (A. m. caucasia), Saharan (A. m. sahariensis) and Egyptian honey bees (A. m. lamarckii) - 4000 BCE (the 1880s for A. m. ligustica, the modern era for A. m. mellifera, uncertain for A. m. carnica, A. m. caucasia, A. m. cecropia, A. m. sahariensis and A. m. lamarckii) Europe, Asia and Africa honey, wax, pollination, pollen, bee brood, royal jelly, propolis, research, venom Bee-apis.jpg Tame/held in captivity; see Western honey bee for details Very common in captivity, feral populations common, extent of status in the wild unclear[80] 6a Hymenoptera
Common fruit fly or vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster) - the 1910s Australia, South Africa research, animal feed Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) - the 1920s China research, biotechnology, pets Chinesedsaffa.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Rosy-faced (Agapornis roseicollis), yellow-collared (A. personatus), Fischer's (A. fischeri), Lilian's (A. lilianae), black-cheeked (A. nigrigenis), black-winged (A. taranta), red-headed (A. pullarius) and grey-headed lovebirds (A. canus) - the 1920s (uncertain for A. roseicollis, A. lilianae, A. nigrigenis, A. taranta, A. pullarius and A. canus) Africa, Madagascar pets Agapornis fischeri -Ueno Zoo, Japan -three-8a-4c.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae; various species and subspecies) - the 1920s northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay, and the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia pets, pest control Red m boesemani.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5b Other fish
Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) - the 1930s Syria, Turkey pets, research Golden hamster front 1.jpg Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) - the 20th century CE Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey pets, research Turkish hamster.jpg Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) - the 1930s the Andes pets, fur, research Chinchilla lanigera1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) - the 1930s the Andes fur Chinchilla brevicaudata.jpg Raised in captivity Critically endangered in the wild 1d Rodentia
Water flea (Daphnia magna) - the 1930s North America, Eurasia, Africa research, animal feed Daphnia magna-female adult.jpg Held/tame in captivity 6c Other arthropods
African (Xenopus laevis) and western clawed frogs (X. tropicalis) - the 1950s (uncertain for X. tropicalis) South Africa, West Africa pets, research Xenopus laevis 1.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Sea-monkey (Artemia nyos) - the 1950s the United States pets, research SeaMonkiesInAquarium.JPG Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Ball (Python regius), Indian (P. molurus), Angolan (P. anchietae), Borneo (P. breitensteini), Sumatran short-tailed (P. curtus) and Brongersma's short-tailed pythons (P. brongersmai) - the 1960s (uncertain for P. molurus, P. anchietae, P. breitensteini, P. curtus and P. brongersmai) Africa, India, Sumatra, Borneo, Malaysia pets Ball python lucy.JPG Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
African rock python (Python sebae) including subspecies southern African rock python (P. s. natalensis) - date uncertain Africa pets Python sebae.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Burmese python (Python bivittatus) including subspecies dwarf Burmese python (P. b. progschai)[81][82] - date uncertain Myanmar, Thailand, Bali, Java, Sulawesi pets, meat, skins, medicine Python bivittatus тигровый питон.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Campbell's dwarf (Phodopus campbelli), winter white dwarf (P. sungorus) and Roborovski dwarf hamsters (P. roborovskii) - the 1960s Mongolia, Russia, China pets, research Phodopus roborovskii side.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Zebra (Taeniopygia guttata) and double-barred finches (T. bichenovii) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for T. bichenovii) Australia pets, show Zebra finch arp.jpg Plumage changes, some breeds are physically larger 2d Passeriformes
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum); tiger (A. tigrinum), barred tiger (A. mavortium), Anderson's (A. andersoni), long-toed (A. macrodactylum), spotted (A. maculatum), marbled (A. opacum) and mole salamanders (A. talpoideum) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for A. tigrinum, A. mavortium, A. andersoni, A. macrodactylum, A. maculatum, A. opacum and A. talpoideum) Mexico, the United States research, pets Ambystoma mexicanum at Vancouver Aquarium.jpg Slight physical changes Critically endangered in the wild 4b Other amphibians
Palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus) - date uncertain Australia, Papua New Guinea pets Probosciger aterrimus-20030511.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Common leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) including subspecies Afghan leopard gecko (E. m. afghanicus) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for E. m. afghanicus) Pakistan, Afghanistan pets Male Leopard Gecko.JPG Slight physical modification Somewhat common in captivity 3b Lacertilia
Iranian fat-tailed (Eublepharis angramainyu), West Indian leopard (E. fuscus), East Indian leopard (E. hardwickii), Satpura (E. satpuraensis) and Turkmenistan eyelid geckos (E. turcmenicus) - date uncertain Iran, Iraq, India, Turkmenistan pets Eublepharis angramainyu.JPG Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
American bison (Bison bison) including subspecies wood bison (B. b. athabascae) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for B. b. athabascae) North America meat, leather, hides, horns, guarding, fiber, pets Tatanka.jpg Semi-domesticated 1b Bovidae
Companion parrot (Psittaciformes; various species and subspecies)[83][84] - the 1980s and 1990s Australia, Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, South America, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji pets, talking bird, ornamental, guarding, show, education, therapy Congo African Grey pet on a perch.JPG Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Turqoise (Neophema pulchella), blue-winged (N. chrysostoma), elegant (N. elegans) and scarlet-chested parrots (N. splendida) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for N. chrysostoma, N. elegans and N. splendida) Australia pets, show Neophema pulchella -Rainbow Jungle -Australia-8a.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Dyeing (Dendrobates tinctorius), green and black (D. auratus), yellow-banded (D. leucomelas) and yellow-striped poison dart frogs (D. truncatus) - the mid- to late 20th century CE Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, French Guiana, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela pets Dendrobates tinctorius - Karlsruhe Zoo 05.jpg Slight physical changes; loss of toxicity 4a Anura
Diamond (Geopelia cuneata) and zebra doves (G. striata) - date uncertain Australia, Southeast Asia pets Geopelia cuneata03.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2c Columbiformes
Common kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) including subspecies Eastern (L. g. getula), California (L. g. californiae), Desert (L. g. splendida), Black (L. g. nigra), Speckled (L. g. holbrooki), Florida (L. g. floridana), Mexican black (L. g. nigrita) Brooks' (L. g. brooksi) and Apalachicola kingsnakes (L. g. meansi) - date uncertain Arizona, Florida, Mexico, California pets Lampropeltis getula getula.jpg Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Grey-banded (Lampropeltis alterna), scarlet (L. elapsoides), Mandrean mountain (L. knoblochi), variable (L. leonis), Arizona mountain (L. pyromelana), Ruthven's (L. ruthveni), and California mountain kingsnakes (L. zonata) - date uncertain Mexico, Guatemala, Florida, Iowa, Alabama, Arizona, Texas, California pets, pest control Serpent roi bandes grises 01.JPG Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Mexican kingsnake (Lampropeltis mexicana) including subspecies Thayer's kingsnake (L. m. thayeri) - date uncertain Mexico pets Lampropeltis mexicana mexicana 01.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Prairie kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster) including subspecies mole kingsnake (L. c. rhombomaculata) - date uncertain the southeastern United States, Texas pets Lampropeltis calligaster calligaster.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) including subspecies Guatemalan (L. t. abnorma), Andean (Lampropeltis triangulum andesiana), Mexican (L. t. annulata), Pueblan (L. t. campbelli), black (L. t. gaigeae), Honduran (L. t. hondurensis), Nelson's (L. t. nelsoni), Sinaloan (L. t. sinaloae), red (L. t. syspila) and eastern milk snakes (L. t. triangulum) - date uncertain Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, Puebla, Panama, Sonora, Indiana, Tennessee pets Lampropeltis-triangulum-sinaloae-013.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Corn snake (Pantherophis gutttatus), eastern rat snake (P. alleghaniensis), Baird's rat snake (P. bairdi), Great Plains rat snake (P. emoryi), eastern fox snake (P. gloydi), western rat snake (P. obsoletus), Slowinski's corn snake (P. slowinskii), gray rat snake (P. spiloides) and fox snake (P. vulpinus) - the 1960s (uncertain for P. alleghaniensis, P. bairdi, P. emoryi, P. gloydi, P. obsoletus,P. slowinskii, P. spiloides and P. vulpinus) the United States pets Kornnatter.jpg Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, common in the wild 3a Serpentes
Muskox (Ovibos moschatus)[85] - the 1960s the United States wool, meat, milk, horns Ovibos moschatus qtl3.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Siberian chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus)[86] - the 1960s Russia pest control, pets Tamias sibiricus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Madagascar hissing (Gromphadorhina portentosa) and wide-horned hissing cockroaches (G. oblongonota) - the 1960s (uncertain for G. oblongonota) Madagascar pets Female Madagascar hissing cockroach.JPG Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Eastern (Pogona barbata) and western bearded dragons (P. minor) - date uncertain Australia pets Eastern-Bearded-Dragon-2.2,-Vic,-3.1.2008.jpg Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) - the 1970s Australia pets Bartagame fcm.jpg Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)[87] - the 1970s China meat, algae control Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Hungary.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) - the 1980s Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands pets Eclectus roratus-20030511.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Salmon-crested (Cacatua moluccensis), blue-eyed (C. ophthalmica), red-vented (C. haematuropygia) and Solomons cockatoos (C. ducorpsii); long-billed (C. tenuirostris), western (C. pastinator), little (C. sanguinea) and Tanimbar corellas (C. goffiniana) - the 1980s (uncertain for C. ophthalmica, C. haematuropygia, C. durcopsii, C. tenuirostris, C. pastinator, C. sanguinea and C. goffiniana) the Maluku Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Tanimbar Islands, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands pets, show, talking bird Cacatua moluccensis - closeup of head.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis) - date uncertain Australia pets Petaurus australis.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps)[88] - the 1980s Australia pets, pest control Petaurus breviceps 1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Rankin's dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) - the 1980s Australia pets Pogona henrylawsoni.jpg Held/tame in captivity 3b Lacertilia
Buff-tailed (Bombus terrestris) and common eastern bumblebees (B. impatiens) - the 1980s (uncertain for B. impatiens) Europe, the United Kingdom, North America wax, pollination Bumblebee October 2007-3a.jpg Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Greater (Rhea americana) and Darwin's rheas (R. pennata)[89] - the 1990s (uncertain for R. pennata) South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, pets Rhea side profile.jpg Semi-domesticated 2f Other birds
Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) - the 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, guarding, pets Emu-wild.jpg Semi-domesticated 2f Other birds
Giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) - date uncertain West Africa meat, leather, hides, horns, milk Houston Giant Eland.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Fringe-eared (Oryx beisa callotis)[90] and common beisa oryx (O. b. beisa) - date uncertain Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns Beisa, Tsawo-Wes, Tanzanië.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Common degu (Octodon degus) - the 1990s the Chilean Andes pets, research Octodon degus -Heidelberg Zoo, Germany-8a.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus); Persian (M. persicus), Libyan (M. libycus), Shaw's (M. shawi), Tristram's (M. tristrami) and Sundevall's jirds (M. crassus) - the 1990s (uncertain for M. persicus, M. libycus, M. shawi, M. tristrami and M. crassus) Mongolia, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Turkey, Egypt pets, research Golden Agouti Male 4-1-05.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Green (Iguana iguana) and Lesser Antillean iguanas (I. delicatissima) - the 1990s (uncertain for I. delicatissima) South America, the Lesser Antilles pets, meat, leather St Thomas Marriott Iguana 9 cropped.jpg Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Carpet python (Morelia spilota) including subspecies coastal (M. s. mcdowelli), southwest (M. s. imbricata) inland (M. s. metcalfei), Darwin (M. s. variegata) and jungle carpet pythons (M. s. cheynei); Diamond python (M. s. spilota) - date uncertain New Guinea, Indonesia, Australia pets Australian-Carpet-Python.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Green tree (Morelia viridis), rough-scaled (M. carinata) and Bredl's pythons (M. bredli) - the mid-1990s (uncertain for M. carinata and M. bredli) New Guinea, Indonesia, Australia pets Morelia-viridis.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Red-tailed black (Calyptorhynchus banksii), yellow-tailed black (C. funereus) and glossy black cockatoos (C. lathami) - the late 1990s (uncertain for C. funereus and C. lathami) Australia pets, education Red tailed Black Cockatoo in flight.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Pin-tailed (Erythrura prasina), tricolored (E. tricolor), tawny-breasted (E. hyperythra), blue-faced (E. trichroa), red-eared (E. coloria), red-throated (E. psittacea) and Fiji parrotfinches (E. pealii) - date uncertain Malaysia, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Burma, Timor, Australia, the Philippines, New Caledonia, Fiji and Thailand pets Erythrura prasina 228.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) - the late 1990s Australia pets, show Male adult Gouldian Finch.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Australian green (Ranoidea caerulea), orange-eyed (R. chloris), leaf green (R. phyllochroa), mountain stream (R. barringtonensis), magnificent (R. splendida), Blue Mountains (R. citropa) and dainty green tree frogs (R. gracilenta); growling grass frog (R. raniformis) - the late 20th century CE (uncertain for R. chloris, R. phyllochroa, R. barringtonensis, R. splendida, R. citropa, R. gracilenta and R. raniformis) Australia pets, research Litoria caerulea - Darwin NT.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Argentine (Ceratophrys ornata), Brazilian (C. aurita), Venezuelan (C. calcarata), Surinam (C. cornuta), Caatinga (C. joazeirensis), Pacific (C. stolzmanni) and Cranwell's horned frogs (C. cranwelli) - the late 20th century CE (uncertain for C. aurita, C. calcarata, C. cornuta, C. joazeirensis, C. stolzmanni and C. cranwelli) Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, Ecuador pets Argentine Horned Frog (Ceratophrys ornata)1.JPG Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crucian (Carassius carassius), Japanese white crucian (C. cuvieri) and Prussian carp (C. gibelio); ginbuna (C. langdorfii) [91] - the 2000s (uncertain for C. cuvieri, C. gibelio and C. langdorfii) England, Russia, Japan meat, pets, research Carassius carassius Prague Vltava 2.jpg Domesticated 5a Cyprinidae
King quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) - date uncertain Asia, Australia pets Excalfactoria chinensis (aka).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Small-billed tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) - date uncertain South America meat, eggs Crypturellus parvirostris 2.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)[92] - date uncertain South America meat, eggs Rhynchotus rufescens -Parque das Aves-8a.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
White-necked (Corvus albicollis), common (C. corax) and Australian ravens (C. coronoides); pied (C. albus), carrion (C. corone), hooded (C. cornix), American (C. brachyrhynchos) and house crows (C. splendens); rook (C. frugilegus)[93][94][95][96][97][98][99] - date uncertain Europe, Africa, India, Australia, North America pest control, pets, research, show Corvus albus -Etosha National Park, Namibia-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Southern ground (Bucorvus leadbeateri) and Abyssinian ground hornbills (B. abyssinicus) - date uncertain South Africa, Ethiopia show, pest control, pets Southern Ground-hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) (21152325325).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster)[100] - date uncertain India fishing Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) 21-Mar-2007 6-10-09 AM.JPG Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Southern (Chauna torquata) and northern screamers (C. chavaria) - date uncertain South America guarding Southern screamer (Chauna torquata).JPG Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Horned screamer (Anhima cornuta)[101] - date uncertain South America guarding Anhima cornuta -near Manu Wildlife Center, Manu National Park, Peru -three-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) - date uncertain South America guarding Red-legged Seriema RWD1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Black-legged seriema (Chunga burmeisteri) - date uncertain South America guarding Blacklegged.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Golden (Aquila chrysaetos),[102]eastern imperial (A. heliaca), Spanish imperial (A. adalberti), wedge-tailed (A. audax), steppe (A. nipalensis), tawny (A. rapax), Bonelli's (A. fasciata) and Verreaux's eagles (A. verreauxii); African hawk-eagle (A. spilogaster) - date uncertain Europe, North America, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Africa, Australia falconry, show, intercepting, pest control, pets Aquila chrysaetos Flickr.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus),[103][104]and white-tailed eagles (H. albicilla); African fish eagle (H. vocifer); white-bellied sea (H. leucogaster) and Steller's sea eagles (H. pelagicus) - date uncertain North America, Africa, Australia, Europe, Russia falconry, show, intercepting, pets, pest control Weisskopf Seeadler haliaeetus leucocephalus 2 amk.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi)[105] - date uncertain the United States falconry, show, pest control, pets Harris Hawk 1b (5087160692).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Northern (Accipiter gentilis),[106] crested (A. trivirgatus) and African goshawks (A. tachiro); Shikra (A. badius), Besra (A. virgatus), sharp-shinned (A. striatus) and Cooper's hawks (A. cooperii); Eurasian (A. nisus), Ovambo (A. ovampensis), collared (A. cirrocephalus), Japanese (A. gularis) and black sparrowhawks (A. melanoleucus) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, North America falconry, show, pest control, pets Accipiter gentilis -owned by a falconer in Scotland -upper body-8a.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo)[107] including subspecies western Siberian (B. b. sibiricus), eastern Siberian (B. b. yenisseensis) and Turkmenian eagle-owls (B. b. omissus) - date uncertain Europe, Russia, Turkmenistan show, pest control, pets Uhu-muc.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) including subspecies northern great horned owl (B. v. subarcticus) - date uncertain Canada pest control, show, pets Great-horned Owl RWD at CRC1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Tawny owl (Strix aluco)[108] - date uncertain Europe, the United Kingdom pest control, show, pets Tawny Owl.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, the Atlantic and Caribbean regions of the Americas meat, eggs, pest control Plegadis falcinellus (aka) background blurred.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) - date uncertain Peru meat, eggs, pest control Plegadis ridgwayi -Huacarpay Lakes, near Cusco, Peru-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Wild boar (Sus scrofa)[109][110]including subspecies Indian wild boar (S. s. cristatus) - date uncertain Europe, the United Kingdom, Thailand meat, tusks, hides, leather, pets Wild Boar Habbitat 3.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Celebes warty pig (Sus celebensis) - date uncertain Sulawesi meat, tusks, pets Sus celebensis.png Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Red-necked (Macropus rufogriseus),[111] tammar (M. eugenii) and Parma wallibies (M. parma); red kangaroo (Osphranter rufus)[112] - the 2000s (uncertain for M. eugenii, M. parma and Osphranter rufus) Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales lawn mowing, pets, tourism, research, meat, leather Red-necked wallaby.gk.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Tiger (Dasyurus maculatus), eastern (D. viverrinus), western (D. geoffroii) and northern quolls (D. hallucatus)[113][114][115][116] - date uncertain Australia pest control, pets Dasyurus maculatus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata)[117] - date uncertain Bangladesh fishing, pets Smooth-coat-otter.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Beech (Martes foina),[118][119]and yellow-throated martens (M. flavigula); sable (M. zibellina) - date uncertain Europe, Russia, India fur, pest control, pets Steinmarder (cropped).jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Fisher (Pekania pennanti) - date uncertain North America fur, research, pest control, pets Fisher-face-snow - West Virginia - ForestWander.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Siberian (Mustela sibirica),[120]least (M. nivalis) and yellow-bellied weasels (M. kathiah); European polecat (M. putorius)[121][122] - date uncertain Russia, Europe, India pest control, pets Mustela sibirica dd winter 2002.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Greater (Galictis vittata) and lesser grisons (G. cuja) - date uncertain South America pest control, hunting, pets Greater grison.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon patagonicus) - date uncertain Argentina, Chile pest control, pets Lyncodon patagonicus1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Northern raccoon (Procyon lotor)[123] - date uncertain North America pest control, show, pets Procyon lotor 7 - am Wasser.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
South American (Nasua nasua)[124] and white-nosed coati (N. narica) - date uncertain South America, Costa Rica pest control, show, pets Nasua nasua.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) and cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)[125] - date uncertain North America, Central America pest control, pets Squaw-ringtail-28073.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Southern (Tamandua tetradactyla) and northern tamanduas (T. mexicana)[126][127] - date uncertain South America, Central America pest control, pets Southern Tamandua and Young - Sunshine international aquarium, Tokyo, Japan.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Lowland (Cuniculus paca) and mountain pacas (C. taczanowskii) - date uncertain Mexico, Argentina, Ecuador meat, pets Cuniculus paca.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Malayan (Hystrix brachyura),[128]Sunda (H. javanica), Indian crested (H. indica), crested (H. cristata), Cape (H. africaeaustralis) and Philippine porcupines (H. pumila) - date uncertain Vietnam, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, India, Africa meat, quills, pets Hystrix brachyura, Malayan porcupine.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Chinese bamboo (Rhizomys sinensis) and large bamboo rats (R. sumatrensis) - date uncertain China meat, pets Rhizomys sinensis - Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology - DSC02460.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Lesser bamboo rat (Cannomys badius)[129] - date uncertain China, Laos meat, pets Lesser bamboo rat.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Desmarest's hutia (Capromys pilorides) - date uncertain Cuba meat, pest control, pets Capromys pilorides.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus) - date uncertain the Eurasian steppe pets Lagurus lagurus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Norway lemming (Lemmus lemmus) - the 20th century CE northern Fennoscandia pets Tunturisopuli Lemmus Lemmus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Pale (Gerbillus perpallidus), lesser Egyptian (G. gerbillus), pleasant (G. amoenus) and greater Egyptian gerbils (G. pyramidum) - date uncertain Egypt, Libya pets Perpallidus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus)[130] - date uncertain Europe pest control, pets Micromysminutus1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Northeastern (Ctenosaura acanthura), black (C. similis), and Mexican spiny-tailed iguana (C. pectinata) - date uncertain Mexico, Central America pets, meat Tolok.jpg Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Chinese cobra (Naja atra)[131] - date uncertain China, India, the Philippines, Africa, Thailand, Cambodia, Arabia, Indonesia venom, skins, show, pets Naja atra juvenile.jpg Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans) including subspecies Adelaide (P. e. adelaidae) and yellow rosellas (P. e. flaveolus) - date uncertain Australia pets Platycercus elegans Wilsons Prom.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Western (Platycercus icterotis), green (P. caledonicus), pale-headed (P. adscitus) and northern rosellas (P. venustus) - date uncertain Australia pets Platycercus icterotis1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius) including subspecies golden-mantled rosella (P. e. elecica) - date uncertain Australia pets Eastern Rosella (36884763426).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Hispaniolan (Trachemys decorata), Colombian (T. callirostris), Cuban (T. decussata), D'Orbigny's (T. dorbigni), Nicaraguan (T. emolli), ornate (T. ornata), Jamaican (T. terrapen) and Meso-American sliders (T. venusta) - date uncertain Haiti, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, Uruguay, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mexico, Jamaica pets Trachemys decorata.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta) including subspecies red-eared (Trachemys scripta elegans), yellow-bellied (T. s. scripta) and Cumberland sliders (T. s. troostii) - date uncertain the United States, especially the southeastern United States pets, meat Sheldonbasking.JPG Easy to domesticate Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 3c Other reptiles
Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)[132] - date uncertain China pets, meat E8976-Namdaemun-Turtles-sold-in-ginseng-shop.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Chinese pond (Mauremys reevesii) and yellow pond turtles (M. mutica)[133] - date uncertain China pets, meat Chinemys reevesii 02.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)[134] - date uncertain Florida pets, meat Common Snapping Turtle.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Golden coin turtle (Cuora trifasciata) - date uncertain China pets, meat Cuora trifasciata.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri) - date uncertain China pets, meat Palea steindachneri.jpeg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Keeled box turtle (Cuora mouhotii)[135] - date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets Mouhotii.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa)[136] - date uncertain Brazil meat, pets Podocnemis expansa INPA.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Nile (Crocodylus niloticus), West African (C. suchus), Siamese, (C. siamensis), Cuban (C. rhombifer), Morelet's (C. moreletii), Orinoco (C. intermedius), American (C. acutus), freshwater (C. johnsoni), Philippine (C. mindorensis), saltwater (C. porosus), New Guinea (C. novaeguineae) and mugger crocodiles (C. palustris)[137][138][139][140][141][142][143] - date uncertain Africa, Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Florida, India, Australia, the Philippines, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Sumatra, Borneo, Myanmar, Peru, Venezuela, Iran meat, hides, teeth, pets, guarding, tourism, show, blood, fat Nilecroc100.jpg Captive-bred 3c Other reptiles
Crimson (Neochmia phaeton), and red-browed finches (N. temporalis) - date uncertain New Guinea and Australia pets, show Neochmia phaeton -Middle Point, Northern Territory, Australia-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Star finch (Bathilda ruficauda) - date uncertain Australia pets, show Neochmia ruficauda.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Plum-headed finch (Aidemosyne modesta) - date uncertain Australia pets, show Plum-headed Finch-Neochmia modesta.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Grey partridge (Perdix perdix) - date uncertain Hungary, the United Kingdom meat, feathers, eggs, pets Perdix perdix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Red-legged (Alectoris rufa), chukar (A. chukar), Philby's (A. philbyi), Arabian (A. melanocephala) and Barbary partridges (A. barbara) - date uncertain France, Afghanistan, North Africa, Yemen, Oman meat, feathers, eggs, pets Perdrix rouge.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Chinese bamboo (Bambusicola thoracicus) and mountain bamboo partridges (B. fytchii) - date uncertain China, India meat, feathers, eggs, pets Bambusicola thoracicus1.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) - date uncertain Nepal meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets Lophophorus impejanus Zoo DU 2.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Kalij (Lophura leucomelanos), Swinhoe's (L. swinhoii), Salvadori's (L. inornata), silver (L. nycthemera) and Edwards's pheasants (L. edwardsi); Siamese fireback (L. diardi) - date uncertain Nepal, Taiwan, Vietnam, Sumatra, China, Thailand meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets Swinhoe's Pheasant 0673.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Red (Gallus gallus), Green (G. varius), Grey (G. sonneratii) and Sri Lankan junglefowl (G. lafayettii) - date uncertain India, Sri Lanka, Java, Thailand meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets Red Junglefowl - Thailand.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Scaled (Callipepla squamata), elegant (C. douglasii), Gambel's (C. gambelii) and California quail (C. californica) - date uncertain Mexico, Utah, California meat, feathers, eggs, pets Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) (20164244389).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) - date uncertain California meat, feathers, eggs, pets Oreortyx pictus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) - date uncertain Mexico meat, feathers, eggs, pets Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) - date uncertain Ethiopia meat, pest control, pets Acryllium vulturinum -Tsavo East National Park, Kenya-8.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Harlequin (Coturnix delegorguei), rain (C. coromandelica) and stubble quail (C. pectoralis) - date uncertain Africa, India, Australia meat, feathers, eggs, pets Harlequin Quail (Coturnix delegorguei) (6035291347).jpg Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Edible-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus)[144] - date uncertain Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore nests AerodramusFuciphagus.LipKee.jpg Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Tarantulas (Theraphosidae, various species and subspecies)[145] - date uncertain North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia pets, research, venom Brachypelma smithi 2009 G09.jpg Captive-bred Common in captivity, becoming rare in the wild 6c Other arthropods
Crested (Correlophus ciliatus) and suras geckos (C. sarasinorum) - date uncertain New Caledonia pets Gekkoninae Rhacodactylus ciliatus tete.png Captive-bred Somewhat common in captivity, nearly extinct in the wild 3b Lacertilia
Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)[146] - date uncertain Florida meat Florida Manatee FWS 20.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Sable (Hippotragus niger)[147]and roan antelope (H. equinus)[148] - date uncertain South Africa meat, horns Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) adult male.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros),[149] nyala (T. angasii),[150]and Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus) - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets Male greater kudu.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Blue (Connochaetes taurinus)[151] and black wildebeest (C. gnou)[152] - date uncertain South Africa, Kenya meat, hides, horns, leather, pets Blue Wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) (6451904975).jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) including subspecies blesbok (D. p. phillipsi)[153] - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns Blesbok at NC zoo.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)[154] - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets Nilgauantilope Boselaphus tragocamelus Tierpark Hellabrunn-10.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) - date uncertain Southeast Asia pets, research Lonchura punctulata (Nagarhole, 2004).jpg Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets Blackbuck male female.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, horns, pets Chinkara Ranthambhore National Park.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis)[155] - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets Springbok etosha.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia)[156] - date uncertain North Africa meat, horns BarbarySheep4.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)[157][158] - date uncertain South Africa meat, leather, horns African Buffalo.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu)[159] - date uncertain Brazil meat, pets Collared peccary02 - melbourne zoo.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) - date uncertain South Africa tourism, pets South African Giraffes, fighting.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris)[160] - date uncertain China meat, antlers CervusAlbirostris2.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
White-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus)[161] and mule deer (O. hemionus) - date uncertain Virginia, West Virginia, Colombia, Florida, Montana, Canada meat, hides, antlers, pets White-tailed deer.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Chital or axis deer (Axis axis) - date uncertain India meat, hides, antlers, pets Chital Stag.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Water deer (Hydropotes inermis) - date uncertain China meat, tusks, pets Hydropotes inermis male.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Dwarf (Moschus berezovskii), alpine (M. chrysogaster), white-bellied (M. leucogaster) and Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)[162][163][164] - date uncertain China, India, Russia meat, hides, tusks, musk Moschustier.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)[165] - date uncertain Peru fiber, pets, guarding Crazy Guanaco (5464058504).jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)[166] - date uncertain Peru fiber, pets Vicunacrop.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)[167] - date uncertain South Africa horns Ceratotherium simum Kruger Park 02.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)[168] - date uncertain South Africa horns Muddy Rhino (377658490).jpg Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Fishing (Prionailurus viverrinus) and rusty-spotted cats (P. rubiginosus)[169][170] - date uncertain India pest control, pets Rostkatze Zoo Berlin.JPG Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta)[171][172][173][174] - date uncertain South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria hunting, guarding, waste management, show, tourism, pets Spotted Hyena, Ngorongoro.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) including subspecies Japanese raccoon dog (N. p. viverrinus) - date uncertain China, Japan pest control, pets, fur Nyctereutes procyonoides 4 (Piotr Kuczynski).jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnvora
Arctic (Vulpes lagopus), red (V. vulpes) fennec (V. zerda),[175] corsac (V. corsac), pale (V. pallida), swift (V. velox) and kit foxes (V. macrotis) - date uncertain Europe, North America, North Africa, Central Asia, Sudan fur, pest control, pets Polarfuchs 1 2004-11-17.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and island foxes (U. littoralis)[176] - date uncertain the eastern United States, the Channel Islands pest control, pelt, pets Urocyon littoralis pair.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) - date uncertain Africa pest control, show, pets Otocyon megalotis - Etosha 2014.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)[177] - date uncertain South America pest control, pets Cerdocyon thous MG 9503.jpg Easy to domesticate 1c Carnivora
Dingo and New Guinea singing dog (Canis lupus dingo); Eurasian (C. l. lupus), Iberian (C. l. signatus), steppe (C. l. campestris), Mongolian (C. l. chanco), Arabian (C. l. arabs), Indian (C. l. pallipes), Arctic (C. l. arctos), Greenland (C. l. orion) and northwestern wolves (C. l. occidentalis)[178][179][180][181][182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193] - date uncertain Australia, Papua New Guinea, Europe, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, the Middle East, Canada, Greenland guarding, pest control, warmth, hunting, tourism, education, research, show, pets, therapy, draft Dingo walking.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Coyote (Canis latrans) and side-striped jackal (C. adustus)[194][195] - date uncertain North America, South Africa pest control, pets Canis latrans.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Meerkat (Suricata suricatta)[196][197] - date uncertain South Africa pest control, show, pets, research, education, therapy, tourism Meerkat feb 09.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) - date uncertain West Africa pets, pest control Cusimanse.jpg Captive-bred 1c Carnivora
Ruddy (Herpestes smithii),[198]and Javan mongoose (H. javanicus)[199] - date uncertain India, Southeast Asia pest control, pets Ruddy-mongoose.jpg Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) - date uncertain Thailand, Indonesia meat, pets Kissfish.jpg Domesticated 5b Other fish
Giant (Osphronemus goramy),[200][201] giant red tail (O. laticlavius) and elephant ear gouramis (O. exodon) - date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, weed control, pets Osphronemus Gourami (better).png Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Red-bellied (Pygocentrus nattereri), San Francisco (P. piraya) and black spot piranha (P. cariba) - date uncertain South America meat, pets, research, teeth Gregory Moine - Red bellied Piranha (by).jpg Semi-domesticated Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 5b Other fish
Southern bluefin (Thunnus maccoyii), Pacific bluefin, (T. orientalis), bigeye (Thunnus obesus), Atlantic bluefin (T. thynnus) and yellowfin tunas (T. albacares)[202][203] - date uncertain North America, Europe, East Asia, Australia, Hawaii meat, eggs Pacific bluefin tuna.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
White (Acipenser transmontanus), shortnose (A. brevirostrum), Persian (A. persicus), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii), starry (A. stellatus) and European sea sturgeons (A. sturio)[204][205][206][207] - date uncertain Alaska, California, Canada, Iran, Russia, Albania, the Aegean Sea, Europe meat, eggs, pets 4803 white sturgeon swart odfw (4455050144).jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Malabar (Epinephelus malabaricus), giant (E. lanceolatus), greasy (E. tauvina), areolate (E. areolatus), dusky (E. marginatus), wavy-lined (E. undulosus), six-bar (E. sexfasciatus) and orange-spotted groupers (E. coioides)[208][209][210] - date uncertain Asia, Australia, Fiji, South Africa, Italy, the Indo-Pacific meat Epinephelus malabaricus in UShaka Sea World 1098.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) - date uncertain Europe, North America, Asia meat, eggs Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (cropped).jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) including subspecies amago (O. m. macrostomus) - date uncertain Russia, Japan, Korea meat Oncorhynchus masou in Aquarium 2011-09-11.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) - date uncertain Europe, the United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Russia, Australia, Tasmania, Alaska meat, eggs Salmo salar-Atlantic Salmon-Atlanterhavsparken Norway.JPG Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer),[211] Japanese lates (L. japonicus) and Nile perch (L. niloticus)[212] - date uncertain the United Kingdom, Poland, the United States, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, Africa meat, pets Barramundi.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) - date uncertain the United States, Asia, Panama, Mexico meat Cobia fingerlings.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) - date uncertain Europe meat Dicentrarchus labrax01.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Milkfish (Chanos chanos)[213] - date uncertain the Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia meat Chanidae - Chanos chanos.JPG Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern pike (Esox lucius)[214] - date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, pets, research Esox lucius ZOO 1.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Alligator (Atractosteus spatula), Cuban (A. tristoechus) and tropical gars (A. tropicus)[215][216][217] - date uncertain North America, Cuba, Costa Rica meat, pets Alligator Gar 10.JPG Captive-bred 5 Other fish
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) - date uncertain China meat, weed control Ctenopharyngodon idella 01 Pengo.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) - date uncertain China meat, pest control, medicine Mylopharyngodon piceus.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) - date uncertain China meat Hypophthalmichthys-nob.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Giant barb (Catlocarpio siamensis)[218] - date uncertain Vietnam meat, pets Giant Barb.jpg Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Arapaima (Arapaima gigas)[219][220] - date uncertain the Amazon basin meat, pets Arapaima gigas at Beijing aquarium.JPG Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Wels catfish (Silurus glanis)[221] - date uncertain Europe meat European Catfish (Silurus glanis) (13532570755).jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Iridescent shark (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Mekong giant catfish (P. gigas)[222] - date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, pets Iridescent shark.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus)[223] - date uncertain California, Colorado meat Mugil cephalus Minorca.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Green (Etroplus suratensis),[224]and orange chromides (E. maculatus); Canara pearlspot (E. canarensis) - date uncertain India meat, pets Etroplus suratensis.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus) - date uncertain the Caribbean Sea meat, tourism 2006-10-06 18 - Yellowtail Snapper.JPG Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus)[225] - date uncertain the Gulf of Mexico meat, research Red snapper 2.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Japanese (Seriola quinqueradiata), greater (S. dumerili) and yellowtail amberjacks (S. lalandi); longfin yellowtail (S. rivoliana)[226][227] - date uncertain Japan, the Mediterranean Sea, Chile, Hawaii meat Seriola dumerili by NPS.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Southern (Paralichthys lethostigma) and olive flounders (P. olivaceus)[228] - the 1980s (uncertain for P. lethostigma) United States, Japan, China, Korea meat Paralichthys lethostigma.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European (Anguilla anguilla), American (A. rostrata), short-finned (A. australis), New Zealand longfin (A. dieffenbachii) and Japanese eels (A. japonica)[229][230][231][232] - date uncertain Europe, North America, Asia, New Zealand, Australia meat, pets, research, medicine Anguilla anguilla.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) and Indian stingless bee (T. iridipennis) - date uncertain Australia, India honey, pollination, propolis, wax Sugarbag bee.jpg Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia) - date uncertain Central and South America animal feed, pets Dubia-cockroach-female-near-ruler.jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mealworm (Tenebrio molitar) and superworm (Zophobas morio) - date uncertain Europe animal feed, meat, research Zophobas morio larva - top (aka).jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) - date uncertain the United States research Tribolium castaneum.jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)[233] - date uncertain the United States meat, animal feed, pollination, decomposing Hermetiaillucens.jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Waxworms (Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella) - date uncertain Europe? animal feed, meat, bait, research Achroia grisella caterpillars kleine wasmot rupsen (1).jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mopane moth (Gonimbrasia belina)[234] - date uncertain Southern Africa meat, silk Mopane Worm by Arne Larsen.jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)[235] - date uncertain North America meat, pets, medicine American-cockroach.jpg Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Pacific beetle cockroach (Diploptera punctata)[236][237][238][239] - date uncertain Hawaii research Diploptera punctata.png Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Flame jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum)[240] - date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets Rhopilema esculentum at Monterey Bay Aquarium.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)[241] - date uncertain Japan, Korea meat, pets, research Enteroctopus dolfeini.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Common (Octopus vulgaris), common Sydney (O. tetricus), big blue (O. cyanea), Mexican four-eyed (O. maya), California two-spot ( O. bimaculoides), Gould's (O. mimus), long arm (O. minor), Caribbean dwarf (O. mercatoris), East Pacific red (O. rubescens) and Caribbean reef octopuses (O. briareus)[242][243][244][245][246][247] - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America, Western Australia, Hawaii, the Caribbean Sea meat, ink, pets, research Octopus vulgaris 2.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Webfoot (Amphioctopus fangsiao)[248] and coconut octopus (A. marginatus) - date uncertain South Korea, Sulawesi meat, pets, research Ocellated octopus.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) - date uncertain Europe meat, shells Littorina littorea 001.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Garden snail (Cornu aspersum) - date uncertain Europe meat, shells, pets, slime, eggs Snail1web.jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Giant Ghana African (Achatina achatina)[249]and African land snail (A. albopicta) - date uncertain Ghana, Kenya meat, shells, eggs, pets, slime Giant tiger land snail (Achatina achatina).jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Giant East African land snail (Achatina fulica)[250] - date uncertain East Africa meat, shells, pets, slime, education Snail in Ubud, Bali, 2010 (1).jpg Captive-bred 7 Other animals
Pacific (Eptatretus stoutii) and inshore hagfishes (E. burgeri)[251][252] - date uncertain the United States, South Korea, Japan meat, slime, skins Eptatretus stoutii 1.jpg Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Mangrove horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda)[253] - date uncertain Asia meat, blood, eggs, pets Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (mangrove horseshoe crab).jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) - date uncertain North America meat, blood, research, pets Limulus polyphemus (aq.).jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Japanese (Tachypleus tridentatus) and Indo-Pacific horseshoe crabs (T. gigas) - date uncertain Japan, China, India meat, blood, pets Tachypleus tridentatus.jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Mud crab (Scylla serrata) - date uncertain Asia meat, pets Scylla serrata Mud Crab.jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Blue swimmer crab (Portunus armatus)[254][255] - date uncertain Australia meat Portunus pelagicus male.jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Spanner crab (Ranina ranina)[256] - date uncertain Australia meat Ranina ranina.jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
European (Homarus gammarus) and American lobsters (H. americanus)[257][258][259] - date uncertain Europe, the United States meat KreeftbijDenOsse.jpg Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) and northern leopard frog (L. pipiens) - date uncertain North America meat, pets, education North-American-bullfrog1.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Northern green frog (Lithobates clamitans melanota) - date uncertain North America pets Male Green Frog - Hunterdon County, NJ.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pool (Pelophylax lessonae) and marsh frogs (P. ridibundus)[260] - date uncertain Europe meat, pets RanaLessonae1.JPG Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pig frog (Lithobates grylio) - date uncertain China meat Rana grylio.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crab-eating frog (Fejervarya cancrivora) - date uncertain Java meat Fejer cancri 050403 002 tdp.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese edible frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) and Indus Valley bullfrog (H. tigerinus) - date uncertain China, Thailand meat, pets Hoplobatrachus rugulosus 2.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa) - date uncertain China meat Quasipaa spinosa.jpg Captive-bred 4a Anura
Edible dormouse (Glis glis)[261] - classical antiquity (date uncertain) Europe meat, fur, fat, pets Glis glis 0738.JPG Captured in the wild and fattened Extended in the wild, no longer kept in captivity 2b Rodentia
Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) - the 14th century CE Europe meat Blue mussel Mytilus edulis.jpg Captured in the wild or captive-bred Extended in the wild and in captivity 7 Other animals
New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) - the 1970s New Zealand meat Green Lipped Mussel (314300764).jpg Captured in the wild and captive-bred 7 Other animals
Purple dye murex (Bolinus brandaris) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) The central and western Mediterranean Sea Tyrian purple, meat Brandhorn Bolinus brandaris 2.jpg Captive-bred No longer bred 7 Other animals
Banded dye-murex (Hexaplex trunculus) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) The Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean near the Mediterranean Purple dye, meat Stumpfte Stachelschnecke-Hexaplex trunculus.jpg Captive-bred No longer bred 7 Other animals

Taxonomical groupings[edit]

The categories used in Taxon group column are:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "How did we ever manage to domesticate so many animals?".
  2. ^ Price, T. Douglas; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2011). "The Origins of Agriculture: New Data, New Ideas". Current Anthropology. 52: S163–S174. doi:10.1086/659964. S2CID 128906192.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gentry, A.; Clutton-Brock, J.; Groves, C. P. (2004). "The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science. 31 (5): 645–651. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2003.10.006.
  4. ^ Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K. (2016). "Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves". Genome Research. 26 (2): 163–173. doi:10.1101/gr.197517.115. PMC 4728369. PMID 26680994.
  5. ^ Sablin, Mikhail V.; Khlopachev, Gennady A. (2002). "The Earliest Ice Age Dogs: Evidence from Eliseevichi 11". Current Anthropology. 43 (5): 795–799. doi:10.1086/344372. S2CID 144574445.
  6. ^ a b Thalmann, O.; Shapiro, B.; Cui, P.; Schuenemann, V. J.; Sawyer, S. K.; Greenfield, D. L.; Germonpré, M. B.; Sablin, M. V.; López-Giráldez, F.; Domingo-Roura, X.; Napierala, H.; Uerpmann, H. -P.; Loponte, D. M.; Acosta, A. A.; Giemsch, L.; Schmitz, R. W.; Worthington, B.; Buikstra, J. E.; Druzhkova, A.; Graphodatsky, A. S.; Ovodov, N. D.; Wahlberg, N.; Freedman, A. H.; Schweizer, R. M.; Koepfli, K. -P.; Leonard, J. A.; Meyer, M.; Krause, J.; Pääbo, S.; et al. (2013). "Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs". Science. 342 (6160): 871–4. Bibcode:2013Sci...342..871T. doi:10.1126/science.1243650. hdl:10261/88173. PMID 24233726. S2CID 1526260.
  7. ^ Ding, Z.-L.; Oskarsson, M.; Ardalan, A.; Angleby, H.; Dahlgren, L.-G.; Tepeli, C.; Kirkness, E.; Savolainen, P.; Zhang, Y.-P. (May 2012). "Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA". Heredity. 108 (5): 507–514. doi:10.1038/hdy.2011.114. ISSN 1365-2540. PMC 3330686. PMID 22108628.
  8. ^ Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D.; Irwin, David M. (January 2016). "Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world". Cell Research. 26 (1): 21–33. doi:10.1038/cr.2015.147. ISSN 1748-7838. PMC 4816135. PMID 26667385.
  9. ^ Crapon de Caprona, Marie-Dominique; Savolainen, Peter (2013). "Extensive Phenotypic Diversity among South Chinese Dogs". ISRN Evolutionary Biology. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  10. ^ a b Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-85530-1.[page needed]
  11. ^ Zeder, Melinda A. (2011). "The Origins of Agriculture in the Near East". Current Anthropology. 52: S221–S235. doi:10.1086/659307. S2CID 8202907.
  12. ^ Vigne, Jean-Denis (2011). "The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: A major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 334 (3): 171–181. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2010.12.009. PMID 21377611.
  13. ^ "Guard Goat". Archived from the original on 2018-01-23. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  14. ^ "The Domestication of Pigs - Sus scrofa's Two Distinct Histories". ThoughtCo. April 29, 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Pig Domestication in Ancient China". September 12, 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  16. ^ Giuffra, E.; Kijas, J. M.; Amarger, V.; Carlborg, O.; Jeon, J. T.; Andersson, L. (2000). "The origin of the domestic pig: Independent domestication and subsequent introgression". Genetics. 154 (4): 1785–91. PMC 1461048. PMID 10747069.
  17. ^ Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto; Fang, Meiying; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Lowden, Stewart; Finlayson, Heather; Brand, Tina; Willerslev, Eske; Rowley-Conwy, Peter; Andersson, Leif; Cooper, Alan (2005). "Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication". Science. 307 (5715): 1618–21. Bibcode:2005Sci...307.1618L. doi:10.1126/science.1106927. PMID 15761152. S2CID 39923483.
  18. ^ Frantz, Laurent A F.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Cagan, Alex; Bosse, Mirte; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A.; Larson, Greger; Groenen, Martien A M. (2015). "Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes". Nature Genetics. 47 (10): 1141–1148. doi:10.1038/ng.3394. PMID 26323058. S2CID 205350534.
  19. ^ "The Pig Pet Idea Project: Plausible or Unimaginable?". Radio Pet Lady Network. October 14, 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  20. ^ "What species is the ancestor of the domestic sheep?". Retrieverman. February 24, 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  21. ^ Zeder, Melinda A. (2008). "Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (33): 11597–11604. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10511597Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801317105. PMC 2575338. PMID 18697943.
  22. ^ Holt, Ben (13 April 2017). Animal Heroes: True Stories of Extraordinary Creatures. ISBN 9781786851369.
  23. ^ Cailey Rizzo. "Junkyard Owner Replaces Guard Dogs With Two Fighting Bulls Because It's Spain". www.travelandleisure.com.
  24. ^ Govan, Fiona (26 October 2016). "Bulls replace guard dogs at scrap yard in Valencia". www.thelocal.es.
  25. ^ Wendorf, Fred; Schild, Romuald (1998). "Nabta Playa and its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 17 (2): 97–123. doi:10.1006/jaar.1998.0319.
  26. ^ Source : Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Protohistoire de l'Ouest de la France "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-26. Retrieved 2009-04-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), (in French).
  27. ^ "Origins of cattle farming in China uncovered". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  28. ^ a b Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O'Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5612713. PMID 17600185.
  29. ^ West, Barbara; Zhou, Ben-Xiong (1989). "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication". World's Poultry Science Journal. 45 (3): 205–218. doi:10.1079/WPS19890012.
  30. ^ "Identity of Pompeii's mystery horse revealed". University of Cambridge. December 17, 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  31. ^ Beja-Pereira, Albano; et al. (18 June 2004). "African Origins of the Domestic Donkey". Science. 304 (1781): 1781. doi:10.1126/science.1096008. PMID 15205528. S2CID 12783335.
  32. ^ Roger Blench, "The history and spread of donkeys in Africa" (PDF). (235 KB)
  33. ^ "This is why people drink camel urine". Metro. June 11, 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  34. ^ Peters, J. (1997). "The dromedary: Ancestry, history of domestication and medical treatment in early historic times". Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere. 25 (6): 559–565. PMID 9451759.
  35. ^ "The Genetic History of Horses". Genes to Genomes. November 7, 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  36. ^ Outram, Alan K.; Stear, Natalie A.; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P. (2009). "The Earliest Horse Harnessing and Milking". Science. 323 (5919): 1332–5. Bibcode:2009Sci...323.1332O. doi:10.1126/science.1168594. PMID 19265018. S2CID 5126719. see also Domestication of the horse
  37. ^ Buckland, R., & Guy, G. (2002). Goose Production. Chapter 1: Origins and Breeds of Domestic Geese. FAO Agriculture Department.
  38. ^ a b A. Rosati, C. Mosoni and A. Tewolde. [1]
  39. ^ a b c d e D.L Johnson and B.K. Swartz, Jr. Evidence for Pre-Columbian Animal Domestication in the New World
  40. ^ "Thecozynest.com Is For Sale". www.thecozynest.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  41. ^ Martial, L., (2005). Mision al Cabo de Hornos, la expedición científica francesa en la Romanche Julio de 1882 a setiembre de 1883. Ushuaia: Zaguier & Urruty Publications . pp. 225
  42. ^ Glover, James. "The Ancestry Of The Domestic Ferret". PetPeoplesPlace.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  43. ^ "New study reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits". Phys. August 28, 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  44. ^ "American Livestock Breeds Conservancy News". www.albc-usa.org.
  45. ^ Svanberg, Ingvar (2008). "Towards a cultural history of the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura domestica)". Der Zoologische Garten. 77 (5–6): 334–344. doi:10.1016/j.zoolgart.2008.05.003.
  46. ^ Royer, Nichole. "The History of Fancy Mice". American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association. AFRMA.org. Retrieved on 2015-12-25.
  47. ^ Khoo, Gideon; Lim, Kok Fang; Gan, Damien K.Y.; Chen, Fan; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Lim, Tit Meng; Phang, Violet P.E. (2002). "Genetic Diversity Within and Among Feral Populations and Domesticated Strains of the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Singapore". Marine Biotechnology. 4 (4): 367–378. doi:10.1007/s10126-002-0007-z. PMID 14961248. S2CID 8358855.
  48. ^ Royer, Nichole. "The History of Fancy Rats". American Fancy Rat & Mouse Association.
  49. ^ Decuypere. "Is the Mink Domesticated?" (PDF).
  50. ^ Bist, S. S.; Cheeran, J. V.; Choudhury, S.; Barua, P.; Misra, M. K. (2002). "The domesticated Asian elephant in India". In I. Baker; M. Kashio (eds.). In Giants on our hands. Proc. Int. Workshop on the domesticated Asian elephant (PDF). pp. 129–148.
  51. ^ Crawley, Jennie AH; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; et al. (2019). "Investigating changes within the handling system of the largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants". PLOS ONE. 14 (1): e0209701. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1409701C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209701. PMC 6354975. PMID 30703121.
  52. ^ Locke, Piers (2011). "The ethnography of captive elephant management in Nepal: a synopsis" (PDF). Gajah. 34 (1): 32–40.
  53. ^ http://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/a/asian-elephant/#:~:text=The%20Asian%20elephant%20is%20classified,elephants%20left%20in%20the%20wild.
  54. ^ http://theconversation.com/what-should-we-do-about-the-15-000-asian-elephants-still-in-captivity-64620#:~:text=Nearly%20one%20in%20three%20Asian,challenges%2C%20but%20also%20some%20opportunities.
  55. ^ Roed, K. H.; Flagstad, O.; Nieminen, M.; Holand, O.; Dwyer, M. J.; Rov, N.; Vila, C. (2008). "Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1645): 1849–1855. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0332. PMC 2593925. PMID 18460427.
  56. ^ "Cattle farmers learn how to farm game". Farmers Weekly. August 17, 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  57. ^ "Article". opensiuc.lib.siu.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  58. ^ "Ancient Egyptian Pets". www.epiceras-ancientegypt.com.
  59. ^ Zandee, Jan: Festschrift; Voss, Matthieu Sybrand Huibert Gerard Heerma van (6 February 1982). Studies in Egyptian Religion: Dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004067288 – via Google Books.
  60. ^ "Fun Facts - Servals". georginadp6.weebly.com.
  61. ^ www.netboot.ch, Programmierung: Netboot Internet Solutions. "CatSG: Caracal". www.catsg.org.
  62. ^ "Ancient people in India and the Middle East tamed cheetahs and trained them to ride horses". The Vintage News. March 10, 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  63. ^ "Cheetah cub petting is simply a selfie opportunity". Independent Online (South Africa). July 25, 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  64. ^ "History: Bronze Age Sumerians and Akkadians". Warlord Games. January 17, 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  65. ^ Pennisi, Elizabeth (22 February 2018). "Ancient DNA upends the horse family tree". sciencemag.org.
  66. ^ Orlando, Ludovic; Outram, Alan K.; Librado, Pablo; Willerslev, Eske; Zaibert, Viktor; Merz, Ilja; Merz, Victor; Wallner, Barbara; Ludwig, Arne (6 April 2018). "Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses". Science. 360 (6384): 111–114. Bibcode:2018Sci...360..111G. doi:10.1126/science.aao3297. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29472442.
  67. ^ "Ancient DNA rules out archeologists' best bet for horse domestication". ArsTechnica. February 25, 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  68. ^ "Fresh research shows how horse domestication helped shape humanity". Horsetalk. May 10, 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  69. ^ "Farmers in China domesticated Asian Leopard Cats 5,000 Years Ago". Ancient Origins. February 7, 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  70. ^ "Search for the Common Genet (Genetta genetta) and other species in Southern France". Rewilding Foundation. August 31, 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  71. ^ "The Story of the Fallow Deer: An Exotic Aspect of British Globalisation". Environmental History. November 13, 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  72. ^ "People Are Keeping Parasitic Leeches as Pets, And Letting Them Drink Their Blood". Science Alert. July 21, 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  73. ^ "Leech saliva drug could cut heart attacks by a third". The Daily Telegraph. September 3, 2001. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  74. ^ "Milking the potential of deer". Deer Industry New Zealand. October 23, 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  75. ^ "Deer Milk Is Apparently a Real Thing (in New Zealand)". Modern Farmer. June 27, 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  76. ^ User, Super. "We train rats to save lives". APOPO - we train rats to save lives. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  77. ^ "How to (safely) enjoy Japan's famed deer park". CNN. March 29, 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  78. ^ "Alligator Blood May Lead to Powerful New Antibiotics". National Geographic. April 7, 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  79. ^ "Once Upon A Time We Farmed Moose". On Pasture. December 2, 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  80. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  81. ^ "Gucci owner gets teeth into snakeskin market with python farm". The Guardian. January 25, 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  82. ^ "Kering and IUCN Boa & Python Specialist Group announce first report on captive breeding". IUCN. March 31, 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  83. ^ Engebretson, M. (2006). "The welfare and suitability of parrots as companion animals: a review" (PDF). Animal Welfare. 15 (#3): 263–276.
  84. ^ "Therapy Birds: Emotional Support Animal? Or Merely A Pet?". Pet Central. July 17, 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  85. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.uaf.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  86. ^ "Tamias sibiricus (Siberian chipmunk)". Animal Diversity Web.
  87. ^ "USGS NAS silver carp fact sheet". Archived from the original on 2009-05-10. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  88. ^ "Cute native sugar gliders offer pest control solution for southern NSW farmers". ABC News. August 20, 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  89. ^ "Lesser Rheas on a farm in Argentina. | Download Scientific Diagram". Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  90. ^ King, J. M. (1979). "Game domestication for animal production in Kenya: Field studies of the body-water turnover of game and livestock". The Journal of Agricultural Science. 93: 71–79. doi:10.1017/S0021859600086147.
  91. ^ Nanjo, A.; Shibata, T.; Saito, M.; Yoshii, K.; Tanaka, M.; Nakanishi, T.; Fukuda, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Kato, G.; Sano, M. (2017). "Susceptibility of isogeneic ginbuna Carassius auratus langsdorfii Temminck et Schlegel to cyprinid herpesvirus‐2 (CyHV‐2) as a model species". Journal of Fish Diseases. 40 (2): 157–168. doi:10.1111/jfd.12500. PMID 27150547.
  92. ^ Cromberg, VU; Stein, MS; Boleli, IC; Tonhati, H.; Queiroz, SA (2007). "Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) in groups with different sex ratios". Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola. 9 (3): 161–166. doi:10.1590/S1516-635X2007000300004.
  93. ^ "Hooded Crows as Pets: Keeping the World's Most Intelligent Bird". 12 May 2015.
  94. ^ Woolfson, Esther (22 April 2013). "Crazy for crows" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  95. ^ "Crows as Pets: The African Pied Crow, a Most Intelligent Bird". 6 May 2013.
  96. ^ "CA Fish and Game seek to euthanize pet raven". CNN iReport. Archived from the original on 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  97. ^ "Corvus brachyrhynchos (American crow)". Animal Diversity Web.
  98. ^ "Corvus frugilegus (rook)". Animal Diversity Web.
  99. ^ "I never knew a crow could be so attached to human beings". The Times of India. April 26, 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  100. ^ Stonor, CR (1948). "Fishing with the Indian Darter (Anhinga melanogaster) in Assam". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 47 (4): 746–747.
  101. ^ "Anhima cornuta (horned screamer)". Animal Diversity Web.
  102. ^ "Eagles vs drones: French army trains birds of prey for combat". The Irish Times. November 18, 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Eagles Trained To Take Down Drones". GearJunkie. February 2, 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  104. ^ "Bald eagles deployed to defend beachgoers from 'scary' seagull attacks". The Daily Telegraph. April 18, 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  105. ^ "Couple's falconry business takes off". Darlington & Stockton Times. February 18, 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  106. ^ "Couple's falconry business takes off". Darlington and Stockton Times.
  107. ^ Association, Press (29 July 2015). "Overdue recognition: owl issued library card after solving university's gull woes". The Guardian.
  108. ^ "Strix aluco (tawny owl)". Animal Diversity Web.
  109. ^ "Aldens". www.aldenoxford.co.uk.
  110. ^ "Mad about the boar". Newburytoday. July 27, 2015. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  111. ^ "Gardeners buy wallabies as lawnmowers". The Daily Telegraph. May 11, 2009. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  112. ^ "Forget cattle, kangaroos are the future of farming". Stuff. November 8, 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  113. ^ "Senator wants to kick start discussion about allowing certain native animals as pets". news.com.au. March 19, 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  114. ^ "Dasyurus viverrinus (eastern quoll)". Animal Diversity Web. Archived from the original on 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  115. ^ "Dasyurus geoffroii (western quoll)". Animal Diversity Web.
  116. ^ "Dasyurus hallucatus (northern quoll)". Animal Diversity Web.
  117. ^ Feeroz, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2011). "Fishing with Otters: a Traditional Conservation Practice in Bangladesh". Proceedings of XIth International Otter Colloquium. IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin (28A): 14–21.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  118. ^ Parsons, Eleanor. "The 1830s seamstress who solved Aristotle's octopus mystery". New Scientist.
  119. ^ "Martes foina (beech marten)". Animal Diversity Web.
  120. ^ "Posts Tagged 'Kolonok'". Retrieverman. May 15, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  121. ^ "The Weasel in Antiquity: Pet or Pest?". Found In Antiquity. October 28, 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  122. ^ "Mustela kathiah (yellow-bellied weasel)". Animal Diversity Web.
  123. ^ "Are Raccoons Good to Have Around the Yard?". homeguides.sfgate.com.
  124. ^ "Nasua nasua (South American coati)". Animal Diversity Web.
  125. ^ "Why This Critter Was The Must-Have Pet For Gold Miners". io9. July 22, 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  126. ^ "Tamandua tetradactyla (southern tamandua)". Animal Diversity Web.
  127. ^ "Tamandua mexicana (northern tamandua)". Animal Diversity Web.
  128. ^ "Porcupines Expose Pitfalls of Wildlife Farming". ScienceLine. December 16, 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  129. ^ "Weekend trip to Dong Nai porcupine, bamboo rat farm". Vietnam.net Bridge. January 16, 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  130. ^ "Micromys minutus (Eurasian harvest mouse)". Animal Diversity Web.
  131. ^ Aust, P. W.; Van Tri, N.; Natusch, D. J.; Alexander, G. J. (2017). "Asian snake farms: conservation curse or sustainable enterprise?". Oryx. 51 (3): 498–505. doi:10.1017/S003060531600034X.
  132. ^ Dharmananda, Subhuti, Endangered species issues affecting turtles and tortoises in Chinese medicine, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon, retrieved 5 September 2016
  133. ^ Haitao, Shi; Parham, James F.; Zhiyong, Fan; Meiling, Hong; Feng, Yin (2008). "Evidence for the massive scale of turtle farming in China". Oryx. 42. doi:10.1017/S0030605308000562.
  134. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-01-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  135. ^ "Accounts" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  136. ^ Aguiar, Julio C.; Adriano, Edson A.; Mathews, Patrick D. (2017). "Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new Myxidium species (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting the farmed turtle Podocnemis expansa (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Brazilian Amazon". Parasitology International. 66 (1): 825–830. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2016.09.013. PMID 27693559.
  137. ^ "Crocodile farming in Africa – An Interesting Niche Business Many People Don't Know About, and a Success Story from Kenya - Smallstarter Africa". www.smallstarter.com. 2015-10-19.
  138. ^ "Buwama Crocodile Farm Uganda, Crocodile Tourism in Uganda". Speedway Safaris.
  139. ^ "Crocodiles Guarding Thai Home Have Kept Thieves Away for Years". 2013-04-11.
  140. ^ "Crocodile Farm:: trade technology  Project Information". www.primaryinfo.com.
  141. ^ "Crocodile farming in Australia" – via www.ft.com.
  142. ^ Crocodile Farming in Papua New Guinea - Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics - The National Academies Press. 1983. doi:10.17226/18531. ISBN 978-0-309-29386-0.
  143. ^ "Crocodile Blood: Could be the New Source for Antibiotics and HIV Cure". The Science Times. April 21, 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  144. ^ "Bird's nest boom". Inside Indonesia. April 18, 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  145. ^ "Spider venom key to pain relief without side-effects". ScienceDaily. April 14, 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  146. ^ "University of Antarctica News: Restaurant Scandal". antarcticaedu.com.
  147. ^ "Big bucks for game ranchers". Mail & Guardian. January 6, 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  148. ^ "The many rewards of game farming in the Karoo". Farmers Weekly. May 27, 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  149. ^ "Optimizing game production in a new era: The road to financial success". Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (South Africa). November 17, 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  150. ^ "Breeding high-value game species in North West". Farmers Weekly. November 19, 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  151. ^ "The York family & Breeding Golden Wildebeest". Farmer's Weekly. July 29, 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  152. ^ "Transforming game farming". ANN7. March 13, 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  153. ^ "Eastern Cape farmer earns big with blesbok variants". Farmers Weekly. April 1, 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  154. ^ "Farmer bridles blue bull to plough fields in Ujjain district". The Times of India. February 7, 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  155. ^ "How to start farming high-value game species". Farmer's Weekly. July 10, 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  156. ^ "Barbary sheep: farming potential?". Farmer's Weekly. July 22, 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  157. ^ "Black gold: disease-free buffalo farming". Farmers Weekly. October 11, 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  158. ^ "Commercial buffalo breeding: 'It's not just for the rich'". Farmers Weekly. July 6, 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  159. ^ "Pigtrop - about pig production in developing countries - Commercial farming of collared peccary / Genetic and Biodiversity / Subjects". pigtrop.cirad.fr.
  160. ^ "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: White-lipped Deer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. November 17, 2014.
  161. ^ "Deer Farming Bill Hits a Snag". MetroNews. February 17, 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  162. ^ "Musk Deer farming as a conservation tool in China (Scanned PDF, 3.7 MB)" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  163. ^ Xiuxiang, Meng; Caiquan, Zhou; Jinchu, Hu; Cao, Li; Zhibin, Meng; Jinchao, Feng; Yijun, Zhou; Yinjiu, Zhu (2006). "Musk deer farming in China". Animal Science. 82: 1–6. doi:10.1079/ASC200516.
  164. ^ "Musk deer farm in Pithoragarh dying slow death?". Hindustan Times. October 15, 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  165. ^ "Faculty of Tropical AgriScience". www.ftz.czu.cz.
  166. ^ "The golden fleece". The Guardian. October 1, 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  167. ^ Richardson, Nigel (November 11, 2017). "Can farming rhinos for their horns save the species?". The Telegraph. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  168. ^ "An Inside Look at the World's Biggest Rhino Farm". National Geographic. January 22, 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  169. ^ "Know Your Cat - Rusty-Spotted Cats". www.knowyourcat.info.
  170. ^ "Russian family keeps pet fishing cat". Retrieverman. April 12, 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  171. ^ "In Pics: Ethiopia's Harar city uses hyenas for waste management". Hindustan Times. July 18, 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  172. ^ "Taming Ethiopia's hyenas". BBC News. April 12, 2004. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  173. ^ "The hyena men of Nigeria: Nomads tame baboons and snakes to make them perform". The Independent. March 2, 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  174. ^ Brottman, Mikita (15 February 2013). Hyena. Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781861899415 – via Google Books.
  175. ^ "When Fennec Foxes Make Good Pets". The Spruce Pets.
  176. ^ Coonan, Timothy J.; Schwemm, Catherin A.; Garcelon, David K. (22 July 2010). Decline and Recovery of the Island Fox: A Case Study for Population Recovery. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139491563 – via Google Books.
  177. ^ "Thursday [Wednesday] Woof - Cerdocyon thous Edition". Observation Deck. October 10, 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  178. ^ "Dingoes: a farmer's new best friend?". Starfish Initiatives. July 16, 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  179. ^ "First dingo 'was Indonesian pet'". BBC News. September 30, 2003. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  180. ^ "They were once domestic pets, then natural selection made dingoes wild". KTH. February 10, 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  181. ^ "Wild dingoes descended from domestic dogs". New Scientist. September 29, 2003. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  182. ^ Butler, Susan (8 July 2020). The Dinkum Dictionary: The Origins of Australian Words. ISBN 9781786851369.
  183. ^ "New Guinea Singing Dog - Lafayette, IN - Official Website". www.lafayette.in.gov.
  184. ^ Rushby, Kevin (12 March 2016). "In the company of wolves: animal encounters in Narvik, Norway". The Guardian.
  185. ^ "Kazakhstan: Villagers use 'guard wolves' for protection". BBC News. BBC. December 17, 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  186. ^ "The Reindeer Riders". Messy Nessy. February 25, 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
  187. ^ "Hugging with wolves: Chinese businessman spends ¥1 million a year on his passion for 150 wild animals". South China Morning Post. December 14, 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  188. ^ al-Zaidi, Mohammed. "The Iraqi Man Who Made Local Predators His Best Friends".
  189. ^ "In a Kurdish village, wolves and sheep live in domestic harmony". Rudaw Media Network. June 19, 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  190. ^ "The Saudi Family Keeping Wolves as Pets". Tempo.co. January 26, 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  191. ^ "The wolf at our door". The Adirondack Explorer. February 23, 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  192. ^ "Therapy Wolves Become Guides for Troubled Teens". Good News Network. July 1, 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  193. ^ "The loyalty of Captain Hare's pet Spanish wolf". Retrieverman. June 29, 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  194. ^ "Rescued Coyote Becomes Lifelong Friend With The Family That Saved His Life". BuzzNick. May 21, 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  195. ^ "Dumped box of 'puppies' turn out to be baby jackals". Metro. August 29, 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  196. ^ "Suricata suricatta (meerkat)". Animal Diversity Web.
  197. ^ "Yorkshire meerkats used for therapy in care homes". BBC News. February 21, 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  198. ^ "Ruddy mongoose".
  199. ^ "Pet mongoose in Hawaii". Retrieverman. July 28, 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  200. ^ "Osphronemus goramy summary page".
  201. ^ Budi, Darmawan Setia; Alimuddin; Suprayudi, Muhammad Agus (2015). "Growth Response and Feed Utilization of Giant Gourami ( Osphronemus goramy ) Juvenile Feeding Different Protein Levels of the Diets Supplemented with Recombinant Growth Hormone". HAYATI Journal of Biosciences. 22: 12–19. doi:10.4308/hjb.22.1.12.
  202. ^ "US entrepreneurs out to prove yellowfin tuna can be farmed". Undercurrent news. July 8, 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  203. ^ "Hawaii Approves First Bigeye Tuna Farm". thefishsite.com.
  204. ^ "Caviar Dreams: Why A Florida Startup Is Farming Siberian Sturgeon Amid The Spanish Moss". Forbes. November 30, 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  205. ^ Jarvis, Peter L.; Ballantyne, James S. (2 April 2003). "Metabolic responses to salinity acclimation in juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum". Aquaculture. 219 (1–4): 891–909. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00063-2.
  206. ^ Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky (2005). "Sperm motility and fertilizing ability in the Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus". Aquaculture Research. 36 (9): 841–850. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01292.x.
  207. ^ "As sturgeon farming grows, demand concerns emerge". Global Aquaculture Alliance. November 7, 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  208. ^ "Greener alternatives for giant grouper". World Wide Fund for Nature. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  209. ^ "FAO: FIGIS query for Greasy Grouper total production". FAO - Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Branch. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  210. ^ Cunha, Maria Emília; Quental, Hugo; Barradas, Ana; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Cabrita, Elsa; Engrola, Sofia (2009). "Rearing larvae of dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), (Pisces: Serranidae) in a semi-extensive mesocosm". Scientia Marina. 73: 201–212. doi:10.3989/scimar.2009.73s1201.
  211. ^ "Barramundi aquaculture". Government of Queensland. June 27, 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  212. ^ "Nile Perch Farming in Iganga". Fit Insights. May 22, 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2020.[permanent dead link]
  213. ^ "Aquaculture". www.fishbase.se.
  214. ^ "Data" (PDF). core.ac.uk. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  215. ^ Mendoza Alfaro, Roberto; González, Carlos Aguilera; Ferrara, Allyse M. (2008). "Gar biology and culture: Status and prospects". Aquaculture Research. 39 (7): 748–763. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01927.x.
  216. ^ Clay, Tim A.; Suchy, Mark D.; Ferrara, Allyse M.; Fontenot, Quenton C.; Lorio, Wendell (2011). "Early Growth and Survival of Larval Alligator Gar, Atractosteus spatula, Reared on Artificial Floating Feed with or without a Live Artemia spp. Supplement". Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 42 (3): 412–416. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.2011.00481.x.
  217. ^ "The 7 Wonderful Gar of the World". 2016-09-06.
  218. ^ tuoitrenews (2014-11-22). "Cultivating giant carps creates giant profits in Vietnam". Vietnam Breaking News. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  219. ^ "Saving an Endangered Fish by Eating More of It - BusinessWeek Education Resource Center". resourcecenter.businessweek.com. Archived from the original on 2017-01-06. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  220. ^ ศิริสัมพันธ์, ธาวิดา (2018-04-07). ศิริวรรณ อะราไพม่า ฟาร์มนครปฐม เพาะเลี้ยงปลาช่อนอะเมซอนส่งขายทั่วโลก ได้เพียงที่เดียวในประเทศ. Technology Chaoban Magazine (in Thai).
  221. ^ "Silurus glanis (wels catfish)". www.cabi.org.
  222. ^ Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Rajabiesterabadi, Hamid; Tarkhani, Reza (2015). "Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol on iridescent shark, Pangasius hypophthalmus(Sauvage, 1878) in different size classes". Aquaculture Research. 46 (2): 405–412. doi:10.1111/are.12188.
  223. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Aquatic species". 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015.
  224. ^ Anoop, Aabha (November 1, 2016). "Reaping gold from Karimeen farming". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  225. ^ "Gulf Coast Research Laboratory". gcrl.usm.edu.
  226. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Seriola dumerili". www.fao.org.
  227. ^ "Amberjack culture" (PDF). www.oceanicinstitute.org. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  228. ^ Alam, M.S.; Watanabe, W.O.; Carroll, P.M.; Gabel, J.E.; Corum, M.A.; Seaton, P.; Wedegaertner, T.C.; Rathore, K.S.; Dowd, M.K. (2018). "Evaluation of genetically-improved (glandless) and genetically-modified low-gossypol cottonseed meal as alternative protein sources in the diet of juvenile southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma reared in a recirculating aquaculture system". Aquaculture. 489: 36–45. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.02.006.
  229. ^ "The world's most responsible eel farm is located in Denmark - Royal Danish Fish". www.royaldanishfish.com.
  230. ^ "A guide to eel farming". thefishsite.com.
  231. ^ "When an Endangered Species Endangers a Culture". The Atlantic. January 12, 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  232. ^ "Eel Farms in Maine? Idea is Gaining Traction". Maine Public Broadcasting Network. January 15, 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  233. ^ "Intensive Black Soldier Fly Farming". SymTon. July 30, 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  234. ^ "Mopane Worms – BIZ". www.bio-innovation.org.
  235. ^ "Cockroach farms multiplying in China". Los Angeles Times. October 15, 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  236. ^ Banerjee, Sanchari; Coussens, Nathan P.; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Srikanth, Jandhyam; Yagi, Koichiro J.; Gray, James S. S.; Tobe, Stephen S.; Stay, Barbara; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Ramaswamy, Subramanian (2016). "Structure of a heterogeneous, glycosylated, lipid-bound, in vivo-grown protein crystal at atomic resolution from the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata". IUCrJ. 3 (4): 282–293. doi:10.1107/S2052252516008903. PMC 4937783. PMID 27437115.
  237. ^ Kumar, Chethan (2016-07-19). "Pesky cockroaches give scientists some high-protein food for thought". Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  238. ^ Guarino, Ben (2016-07-26). "The case for cockroach milk: The next superfood?". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  239. ^ Williford, Anna; Stay, Barbara; Bhattacharya, Debashish (2004). "Evolution of a novel function: Nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata". Evolution and Development. 6 (2): 67–77. doi:10.1111/j.1525-142X.2004.04012.x. PMID 15009119. S2CID 31048064.
  240. ^ Dong, Jing; Jiang, Lian-xin; Tan, Ke-fei; Liu, Hai-Ying; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Li, Pei-jun; Ye, Chang-Chen (2009). "Stock enhancement of the edible jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye) in Liaodong Bay, China: A review". Hydrobiologia. 616: 113–118. doi:10.1007/s10750-008-9592-9. S2CID 25418081.
  241. ^ "Fully-farmed octopus from Nissui to reach market as soon as 2020". SeafoodSource. June 22, 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  242. ^ "Tantalising tentacles: octopus could be the next big thing in aquaculture". The Conservation. August 29, 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  243. ^ Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Pascual, Cristina; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Chay, Darwin; López, Nelda; Maldonado, Teresita; Domingues, Pedro M. (2007). "Energy balance of Octopus maya fed crab or an artificial diet". Marine Biology. 152 (2): 371–381. doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0692-2. S2CID 88668944.
  244. ^ Solorzano, Yesika; Viana, María Teresa; López, Lus M.; Correa, Juan Gabriel; True, Conal C.; Rosas, Carlos (2009). "Response of newly hatched Octopus bimaculoides fed enriched Artemia salina: Growth performance, ontogeny of the digestive enzyme and tissue amino acid content". Aquaculture. 289 (1–2): 84–90. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.12.036.
  245. ^ Baltazar, Paul; Rodríguez, Pilar; Rivera, William; Valdivieso, Violeta (2014). "Cultivo Experimental de Octopus Mimus, Gould 1852 en el Perú". Revista Peruana de Biología. 7 (2). doi:10.15381/rpb.v7i2.6818.
  246. ^ "Octopus Aquaculture A tour Of The Kanaloa Octopus Farm". Reefbuilders. July 10, 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  247. ^ "Octopus briareus (Caribbean reef octopus)". Animal Diversity Web.
  248. ^ Segawa, S.; Nomoto, A. (2002). "Laboratory growth, feeding, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of Octopus ocellatus". Bulletin of Marine Science. 71: 801–813.
  249. ^ "Starting your snail farm in Ghana". GhanaCulturePolitics. August 13, 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  250. ^ "Snail Farming - How to farm these slow creatures for fast profits in Africa - Smallstarter Africa". www.smallstarter.com. 2013-02-23.
  251. ^ "Slimy hagfish farms growing". The Herald. April 14, 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  252. ^ "Hagfish Slime: Biomaterial Of The Future?". IFLScience.
  253. ^ "Why is horseshoe crab blood so vital to pharmaceuticals?". Mother Nature Network. March 11, 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  254. ^ "commercial blue swimmer crab farming in Queensland". Prezi. June 24, 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  255. ^ "Crab and mud crab farm" (PDF). www.acfs.go.th. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  256. ^ Minagawa, Megumi (1993). "Relative Growth and Sexual Dimorphism in the Red Frog Crab Ranina ranina (Decapoda: Raninidae)". Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 59 (12): 2025–2030. doi:10.2331/suisan.59.2025.
  257. ^ "Could lobster farming become a new industry for Coastal areas?". 2014-07-10.
  258. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  259. ^ "Info" (PDF). www.diversifyfish.eu. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  260. ^ "Intensive frog farming takes giant leap forward". New Scientist. September 1, 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  261. ^ "London retailer to sell unusual pet". Pet Businese World. December 11, 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2020.