Unified Hangul Code

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Unified Hangul Code
Unified Hangul Code.svg
Layout of the Unified Hangul Code
Alias(es)Windows Code Page 949, IBM Code Page 1363
Language(s)Korean
StandardWHATWG Encoding Standard (as "EUC-KR")[1]
ClassificationExtended ISO 646,[a] variable-width encoding, CJK encoding
ExtendsEUC-KR
Other related encoding(s)KPS 9566-2003, KPS 9566-2011
  1. ^ Not in the strictest sense of the term, as ASCII bytes can appear as trail bytes, although this is limited to letter bytes.

Unified Hangul Code (UHC),[2][a] or Extended Wansung,[4][b] also known under Microsoft Windows as Code Page 949 (Windows-949, MS949 or ambiguously CP949), is the Microsoft Windows code page for the Korean language. It is an extension of Wansung Code (KS C 5601:1987, encoded as EUC-KR) to include all 11172 Hangul syllables present in Johab (KS C 5601:1992 annex 3).[4][2] This corresponds to the pre-composed syllables available in Unicode 2.0 and later.

Wansung Code has the drawback that it only assigns codes for the 2350 precomposed Hangul syllables which have their own KS X 1001 (KS C 5601) codepoints (out of 11172 in total, not counting those using obsolete jamo), and requires others to use eight-byte composition sequences, which are not supported by some partial implementations of the standard.[5] UHC resolves this by assigning single codes for all possible syllables constructed using modern jamo, by making assignments outside of the encoding space used for KS X 1001.

The lead byte range is extended to 0x81–FE, and the trail byte range is extended to 0x41–5A, 0x61–7A and 0x81–FE (in EUC-KR, both ranges are 0xA1–FE). The codes outside the EUC-KR ranges are used for the additional hangul.[6]

Terminology[edit]

Unified Hangul Code is not registered with IANA as a standard to communicate information over the Internet.[7] Alternatives include UTF-8. However, the W3C/WHATWG Encoding Standard used by HTML5 incorporates the Unified Hangul Code extensions into its definition of "EUC-KR".[1]

Microsoft assigns Windows-949 the label "ks_c_5601-1987",[8][9] which properly applies to KS X 1001 itself (KS C 5601 being the original name of KS X 1001).[10] The WHATWG treat the label "ks_c_5601-1987" interchangeably with "EUC-KR" with the intent of being "compatible with deployed content".[11] The Unicode Consortium's "OBSOLETE/EASTASIA" collection of withdrawn mappings included mappings for Unified Hangul Code as "KSC5601.TXT", with the automatically derived mappings for 7-bit KS X 1001 being included as "KSX1001.TXT".[12]

IBM's code page 949 is another, otherwise unrelated, extension of EUC-KR. International Components for Unicode (ICU) uses "cp949", "949" or "ibm-949" to refer to that IBM code page,[13] and "ms949" or "windows-949" (or several variants of "ks_c_5601-1987") to refer to the Windows mapping of UHC.[14] Python, by contrast, recognises "cp949", "949", "ms949" and "uhc" as labels for UHC, and does not include an IBM-949 codec.[15] Out of the labels incorporating the code page number, the WHATWG recognise only "windows-949".[11]

IBM's code page for Unified Hangul Code is called Code page 1363 (IBM-1363), or "Korean MS-Win". It is a combination of SBCS Code page 1126 and DBCS Code page 1362.[16][17][18][19][20] It differs in having a single byte mapping of 0x5C to the Won sign (U+20A9);[21][22][23] Windows maps 0x5C to U+005C (the Unicode code point for the backslash) as in ASCII,[14] although fonts often still render it as a Won sign.[24] Unicode mapping of the wave dash (0xA1AD) also differs, with the IBM mapping favouring U+301C,[25] while the Microsoft mapping favours U+223C (Tilde Operator).[26] The IBM mapping for UHC is available as "ibm-1363" in ICU,[21] whereas the ICU "windows-949" codec is referred to as IBM-1261 in some ICU source code comments.[27]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Korean: 통합형 한글 코드[3], romanizedTonghabhyeong Hangeul Kodeu
  2. ^ Korean: 확장 완성형, romanizedHwagjang Wanseonghyeong

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b van Kesteren, Anne, "5. Indexes (§ index EUC-KR)", Encoding Standard, WHATWG
  2. ^ a b "INFO: Hangul (Korean) Character Sets", Microsoft Support, Microsoft
  3. ^ "한글 코드에 대하여" (in Korean). W3C.
  4. ^ a b Zsigri, Gyula (2002-06-18). "KSC and UHC".
  5. ^ Shin, Jungshik. "What are KS X 1001(KS C 5601) and other Hangul codes?". Hangul & Internet in Korea FAQ.
  6. ^ Lunde, Ken. "Appendix F: Vendor encoding Methods" (PDF). CJKV Information Processing (2nd ed.). O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-0-596-51447-1.
  7. ^ "Character Sets". Iana.org. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  8. ^ "Encoding.WindowsCodePage Property - .NET Framework (current version)". MSDN. Microsoft.
  9. ^ "Code Page Identifiers", Windows Dev Center, Microsoft
  10. ^ IBM; Unicode Consortium. "convrtrs.txt". International Components for Unicode. v. 59180.0.1. <quote from="Jungshik Shin"> [...] using KS C 5601 or related names to denote EUC-KR or windows-949 is very much misleading [...] It's just the name of a 94 x 94 Korean coded character set standard which can be invoked on either GL (with MSB reset) or GR (with MSB set).
  11. ^ a b van Kesteren, Anne. "4.2. Names and labels". Encoding Standard. WHATWG.
  12. ^ Jungshik Shin. "KSX1001.TXT: KS X 1001 to Unicode table". Unicode, Inc.
  13. ^ "ibm-949_P110-1999 (alias cp949)", Converter Explorer, International Components for Unicode
  14. ^ a b "windows-949-2000", Converter Explorer, International Components for Unicode
  15. ^ "codecs — Codec registry and base classes § Standard Encodings". Python 3.7.2 documentation. Python Software Foundation.
  16. ^ "Coded character set identifiers - CCSID 1363", IBM Globalization, IBM, archived from the original on 2014-11-29
  17. ^ "Code page 1126 information document". Archived from the original on 2017-01-16.
  18. ^ "CCSID 1126 information document". Archived from the original on 2016-03-27.
  19. ^ "Code page 1362 information document". Archived from the original on 2017-03-17.
  20. ^ "CCSID 1362 information document". Archived from the original on 2016-03-27.
  21. ^ a b "ibm-1363", Converter Explorer, International Components for Unicode
  22. ^ Code Page CPGID 01126 (pdf) (PDF), IBM
  23. ^ Code Page CPGID 01126 (txt), IBM
  24. ^ Kaplan, Michael S. (2005-09-17), "When is a backslash not a backslash?", Sorting it all out
  25. ^ "ibm-1363_P110-1997 (lead byte A1)". ICU Demonstration - Converter Explorer. International Components for Unicode.
  26. ^ "windows-949-2000 (lead byte A1)". ICU Demonstration - Converter Explorer. International Components for Unicode.
  27. ^ See, for reference, ucnv_lmb.cpp (Brendan Murray, Jim Snyder-Grant), where the lead byte 0x11 is commented as referring to "Korean: ibm-1261" after the definition of ULMBCS_GRP_KO, but it is mapped to the "windows-949" ICU codec in the OptGroupByteToCPName array later in the file.

External links[edit]