Symbol (typeface)

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Symbol is one of the four standard fonts available on all PostScript-based printers, starting with Apple's original LaserWriter (1985). It contains a complete unaccented Greek alphabet (upper and lower case) and a selection of commonly used mathematical symbols. Insofar as it fits into any standard classification, it is a serif font designed in the style of Times New Roman.

Due to its non-standard character set, lack of diacritical characters, and type design inappropriate for continuous text, Symbol cannot easily be used for setting Greek language text, though it has been used for that purpose in the absence of proper Greek fonts. Its primary purpose is to typeset mathematical expressions.

Encoding[edit]

Symbol Encoding
Symbol-infobox-paths.svg
Code page layout (in DejaVu fonts). The vacant spot marked by the red Bowen knot (⌘) may be an Apple logo in some variants.
Alias(es)x-mac-symbol, ibm-1038
Language(s)Mathematical notation, Greek (partial)
DefinitionsAdobe Symbol
Mac OS Symbol
ClassificationPostScript core pi font mapped over extended ASCII
Other related encoding(s)ISO 646
Other PS pi fonts: Zapf Dingbats

The font was created by Adobe and has its own character encoding, with the Greek letters arranged according to similar Latin letters (Chi = C, etc.). The document describing the mapping to Unicode code points[1] was created before several of the characters were added to Unicode, so the original mapping assigns several of the characters to the Private Use Area (PUA). A newer mapping table for Apple's version of the font[2] uses more recently introduced Unicode code points instead. The table below mostly follows the Apple mapping.

IBM calls the encoding Code page 1038, although the code page definition predates the addition of the euro sign, and uses 0xA0 for a numeric space character.[3][4]

Beyond the use of Private Use Area code points, Adobe and Apple have a few other minor differences in code point assignments. Character 0x27 (called "suchthat" in the Adobe document) is assigned by Adobe to U+220B (∋, CONTAINS AS MEMBER) but by Apple to U+220D (∍, SMALL CONTAINS AS MEMBER), which more closely resembles the symbol usually used for such that. Apple also introduces the Apple logo as PUA code point U+F8FF for character 0xF0, a position not used in the original Adobe font.

Lowercase Greek letters appear in italics in many older versions of Symbol. While both Adobe and Apple agree on assigning characters 0x66 and 0x6A respectively to Unicode code points U+03C6 (φ, GREEK SMALL LETTER PHI) and U+03D5 (ϕ, GREEK PHI SYMBOL), some versions of the font interchange these two symbols.[3]

Mapping of the angle bracket characters at 0xE1 and 0xF1 can vary. Adobe uses code points U+2329 and U+232A (〈 and 〉), whereas Apple uses U+3008 and U+3009 (〈 and 〉). The characters U+3008 and U+3009 are fullwidth punctuation, usually rendered with additional spacing so as to align them within em squares, as appropriate in East Asian typography.[5] The characters U+2329 and U+232A, however, are canonically equivalent to U+3008 and U+3009, and are therefore changed to the latter under both NFC and NFKC Unicode normalisation.[6] This equivalence is sometimes considered mistaken,[5] but cannot be changed under the Unicode stability policy.[7] For comparison, the fullwidth Latin characters in the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block are mapped to their ASCII equivalents using compatibility mapping,[8] not canonical equivalence, and therefore only changed by NFKC and NFKD normalisation. The alternatives U+27E8 and U+27E9 (⟨ and ⟩) are now preferred for mathematical use.[6]

Symbol (typeface)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
1_
2_ SP
0020
!
0021

2200
#
0023

2203
%
0025
&
0026

220D
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C

2212
.
002E
/
002F
3_ 0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
2245
Α
0391
Β
0392
Χ
03A7
Δ
0394
Ε
0395
Φ
03A6
Γ
0393
Η
0397
Ι
0399
ϑ
03D1
Κ
039A
Λ
039B
Μ
039C
Ν
039D
Ο
039F
5_ Π
03A0
Θ
0398
Ρ
03A1
Σ
03A3
Τ
03A4
Υ
03A5
ς
03C2
Ω
03A9
Ξ
039E
Ψ
03A8
Ζ
0396
[
005B

2234
]
005D

22A5
_
005F
6_ [a]
203E
α
03B1
β
03B2
χ
03C7
δ
03B4
ε
03B5
φ
03C6
γ
03B3
η
03B7
ι
03B9
ϕ
03D5
κ
03BA
λ
03BB
μ
03BC
ν
03BD
ο
03BF
7_ π
03C0
θ
03B8
ρ
03C1
σ
03C3
τ
03C4
υ
03C5
ϖ
03D6
ω
03C9
ξ
03BE
ψ
03C8
ζ
03B6
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
8_
9_
A_ [b]
20AC
ϒ
03D2

2032

2264

2044

221E
ƒ
0192

2663

2666

2665

2660

2194

2190

2191

2192

2193
B_ °
00B0
±
00B1

2033

2265
×
00D7

221D

2202

2022
÷
00F7

2260

2261

2248

2026

23D0

23AF

21B5
C_
2135

2111

211C

2118

2297

2295

2205

2229

222A

2283

2287

2284

2282

2286

2208

2209
D_
2220

2207
®[c]
00AE
©[c]
00A9
[c]
2122

220F

221A

22C5
¬
00AC

2227

2228

21D4

21D0

21D1

21D2

21D3
E_
25CA

3008
®[c]
00AE
©[c]
00A9
[c]
2122

2211

239B

239C

239D

23A1

23A2

23A3

23A7

23A8

23A9

23AA
F_ Apple logo black.svg[d]
F8FF

3009

222B

2320

23AE

2321

239E

239F

23A0

23A4

23A5

23A6

23AB

23AC

23AD

  Letter  Number  Punctuation  Symbol  Other  Undefined

Font comparison[edit]

Uppercase
Default Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
Times Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
Symbol Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
Symbol* A B G D E Z H Q I K L M N X O P R S T U F C Y W
Lowercase
Default α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ ς σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Times α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ ς σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ ς σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Symbol* a b g d e z h q i k l m n x o p r V s t u f c y w

*encoded as ASCII for older versions of the font

HTML[edit]

The use of the Symbol font in mathematical expressions was part of a W3C recommendation for HTML 4. [10] At the time of that original recommendation (December 1997), the only native way to display many mathematical symbols in HTML was a direct use of the "Symbol" font. Such explicit references are now strongly discouraged for new documents, but they survive in many existing pages on the Internet. Also, the Symbol font provides graphics that are specifically intended as components in the two-dimensional layout of mathematical expressions. Examples include upper and lower parts of brackets or integral signs and a square-root sign without a vinculum.

Until 2010 or so, the Unicode glyph U+221A corresponding to the square-root sign (the HTML entity is named radic and has decimal code 8730) was usually rendered with a short built-in vinculum. That made it an inadequate graphical replacement for the original character from the Symbol font (itself designed around a slanted line extending all the way to the upper-right corner of the character box, without any spacing). The more recent renditions of the HTML radic entity (U+221A) no longer feature any vinculum and are thus more compatible with the standard graphical representation introduced in the Symbol font. Both styles of the square-root glyph (with or without a short vinculum) have the same disembodied meaning, so the integrity of the Unicode repertoire is not compromised by this adjustment.

Full legacy support of the Symbol font is provided by major modern web browsers like Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. That support involves a specific handling of Adobe's special encoding, which is not properly implemented in at least some versions of other browsers, including Opera, Safari and Firefox.[when?] Such browsers do not correctly render legacy HTML documents that make explicit use of the Symbol font.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The character at 0x60 does not appear in Unicode. It is described in the Adobe map as "RADICAL EXTENDER", with the Adobe glyph name "radicalex", and is mapped to the PUA code point U+F8E5. It is an over-bar for extending the radical sign over the operands of the radical operator. Some versions of the font implement this as a non-spacing character so that it can be combined (like non-spacing diacritical marks) with the operands it covers. The Unicode overbar character is shown here.
  2. ^ The euro sign does not appear in the definition of IBM-1038, which includes in this position a whitespace character specified with mnemonic "NSP" and GCGID SP310000.[3] This GCGID refers to a numeric space (i.e. U+2007); contrast SP300000 for a required space.[4] Updates to existing encodings following the euro sign's introduction are not unusual; compare the modifications made to Mac OS Roman and Mac OS Cyrillic.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The characters ®, ©, and ™ are encoded twice: one version has serifs, the other is sans-serif. The Adobe mapping uses PUA for all six characters to ensure that the presence or absence of serifs is observed, assigning the serif versions to U+F6DA, U+F6D9 and U+F6DB and the sans-serif versions to U+F8E8, U+F8E9 and U+F8EA respectively. The Apple mapping assigns the serif versions to the standard Unicode code points. Earlier versions of the Apple mapping[9] assigned the sans-serif versions to the same codepoints as Adobe, but the current version assigns the sans-serif versions to sequences consisting of the standard codepoints followed by the private use character U+F87F as a "transcoding hint".[9]
  4. ^ Apple logo, found only in Apple's version (the code point is unused in Adobe's) and in other Apple fonts. The most similar glyph in cross-platform Unicode is U+1F34E 🍎︎ RED APPLE.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Adobe Symbol Encoding to Unicode". Unicode.org. 30 March 1999.
  2. ^ "Map from Mac OS Symbol character set to Unicode 4.0 and later". Unicode.org. 5 April 2005.
  3. ^ a b c IBM. Code Page 01038 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-08.
  4. ^ a b IBM (1996). "Symbols - Personal Computer". REGISTRY, Graphic Character Sets and Code Pages. GCSGID 01310.
  5. ^ a b Karlsson, Kent (2001-01-16). "Disunify braces/brackets for math, computing science, and Z notation from similar-looking CJK braces/brackets". L2/01-033.
  6. ^ a b Unicode Technical Committee. "Public Review Issue #122: Proposal for Additional Deprecated Characters". Unicode Consortium.
  7. ^ Unicode Consortium. "Unicode Character Encoding Stability Policies".
  8. ^ Lunde, Ken (2020-01-18). "Unicode Standard Annex #11: East Asian Width".
  9. ^ a b Apple, Inc. "CORPCHAR.TXT: Registry (external version) of Apple use of Unicode corporate-zone characters". Unicode Consortium.
  10. ^ W3C (1998). "Introduction to character entity references".

Further reading[edit]

  • kiisu. "VENTURA_SYM". Eesti Keele Instituut (EKI). Tallinn, Estonia. Archived from the original on 2017-07-17. Retrieved 2017-07-17.