|Native to||United States|
|Ethnicity||Ye Iswąˀ (Catawba)|
|Extinct||1959, with the death of Samuel Taylor Blue|
The last native speaker of Catawba died before 1960. Red Thunder Cloud, apparently an impostor born Cromwell Ashbie Hawkins West, claimed to speak the language until he died in 1996 (Goddard 2000). The Catawba tribe is now working to revive the Catawba language.
There is also a [ɡ] sound, which happens to be an allophone of /k/. /ʃ/ is rare.
Short vowel sounds /i, e, a, u/ can be unstressed, ranging to [ɪ, ə~ɛ, ɑ, ʊ]. Back vowel sounds can range from /u/ to [o], and a short /a/ can range to a back vowel sound [ɑ].
- Catawba at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Catawba". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Rudes, Costa, Blair, David (2003). Essays in Algonquian, Catawban, and Siouan Linguistics in Memory of Frank T. Siebert, Jr.
- Ives Goddard, 2000. "The Identity of Red Thunder Cloud", Smithsonian Institution, reprinted from Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter. (accessed 8 Apr 2010)
- Catawba Indian Language
- Catawba Texts
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