# Beta

Beta (, ; uppercase Β, lowercase β, or cursive ϐ; Ancient Greek: βῆτα, romanizedbē̂ta or Greek: βήτα vita) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In Ancient Greek, beta represented the voiced bilabial plosive /b/. In Modern Greek, it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/. Letters that arose from beta include the Roman letter ⟨B⟩ and the Cyrillic letters ⟨Б⟩ and ⟨В⟩.

## Name

Like the names of most other Greek letters, the name of beta was adopted from the acrophonic name of the corresponding letter in Phoenician, which was the common Semitic word *bait ('house'). In Greek, the name was βῆτα bêta, pronounced [bɛ̂ːta] in Ancient Greek. It is spelled βήτα in modern monotonic orthography and pronounced [ˈvita].

## History

The letter beta was derived from the Phoenician letter beth .

The letter Β had the largest number of highly divergent local forms. Besides the standard form (either rounded or pointed, ), there were forms as varied as (Gortyn), and (Thera), (Argos), (Melos), (Corinth), (Megara, Byzantium), (Cyclades).[1]

## Uses

The Greek alphabet on an ancient black figure vessel, with the characteristically angular beta of the time

### Algebraic numerals

In the system of Greek numerals, beta has a value of 2. Such use is denoted by a number mark: Β′.

### Finance

Beta is used in finance as a measure of investment portfolio risk. Beta in this context is calculated as the covariance of the portfolio's returns with its benchmark's returns, divided by the variance of the benchmark's returns. A beta of 1.5 means that for every 1% change in the value of the benchmark, the portfolio's value tends to change by 1.5%.

### International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, Greek minuscule beta denotes a voiced bilabial fricative [β].

A superscript version may also indicate a compressed vowel, like [ɯᵝ].

### Meteorology

The name Beta was used as a name during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season as Hurricane Beta.

### Mathematics and science

Beta is often used to denote a variable in mathematics and physics, where it often has specific meanings for certain applications. In physics a stream of unbound energetic electrons is commonly referred to as beta radiation or beta rays. In regression analysis, ⟨B⟩ symbolizes nonstandardized partial slope coefficients, whereas ⟨β⟩ represents standardized (standard deviation-score form) coefficients; in both cases, the coefficients reflect the change in the criterion Y per one-unit change in the value of the associated predictor X.

β is sometimes used as a placeholder for an ordinal number if α is already used.

In spaceflight, beta angle describes the angle between the orbit plane of a spacecraft or other body and the vector from the sun.

### Rock climbing terminology

The term "beta" refers to advice on how to successfully complete a particular climbing route, boulder problem, or crux sequence.[citation needed]

### Slang

The term "beta" has become a common adjective used colloquially to describe someone who is displaying behaviors that classify them as unremarkable and confrontational, often lacking charisma and confidence. It is often used in the phrase "beta male," which is used to describe a person of the male gender who fails to assert any dominant "alpha actions" into their character, such as lurking a group chat online without participating or substantial lacking of social awareness.

### Statistics

In statistics, beta may represent type II error, or regression slope.

### Typography

In some high-quality typesetting, especially in the French tradition, a typographic variant of the lowercase letter without a descender is used within a word for ancient Greek: βίβλος is printed βίϐλος.[2]

In typesetting technical literature, it is a commonly made mistake to use the German letter ß (a s–z or s–s ligature) as a replacement for β. The two letters resemble each other in some fonts, but they are unrelated.[3]

### Videotape formats

"Beta" can be used to refer to several consumer and professional videotape formats developed by Japan's Sony Corporation. Although similarly named, they are very different in function and obsolescence.

• Betamax was the name of a domestic videotape format developed in the 1970s and 1980s. It competed with the Video Home System (VHS) format developed by the Japanese Victor Company, to which it eventually succumbed. The Betamax format was also marketed Betacord by (Sanyo); some cassettes were simply labeled "Beta." Betamax lost in the market and is an oft-used example of a technically superior solution that failed due to market forces.
• Betacam, including Beta SP and DigiBeta, is a family of professional videotape formats launched in 1982 that was the de facto standard for professional video, advertising, and television production through the 2000s. The formats outlasted analog NTSC television, and their scarcity today is because the industry has moved to HD formats.

## Character encodings

• Greek Beta
Character Β β ϐ
Unicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA GREEK BETA SYMBOL MODIFIER LETTER SMALL BETA GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER BETA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 914 U+0392 946 U+03B2 976 U+03D0 7517 U+1D5D 7526 U+1D66
UTF-8 206 146 CE 92 206 178 CE B2 207 144 CF 90 225 181 157 E1 B5 9D 225 181 166 E1 B5 A6
Numeric character reference &#914; &#x392; &#946; &#x3B2; &#976; &#x3D0; &#7517; &#x1D5D; &#7526; &#x1D66;
Named character reference &Beta; &beta;
DOS Greek 129 81 153 99
DOS Greek-2 165 A5 215 D7
Windows 1253 194 C2 226 E2
TeX \beta
• Latin Beta
Character
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER BETA LATIN SMALL LETTER BETA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 42932 U+A7B4 42933 U+A7B5
UTF-8 234 158 180 EA 9E B4 234 158 181 EA 9E B5
Numeric character reference &#42932; &#xA7B4; &#42933; &#xA7B5;
• Mathematical Beta
Character 𝚩 𝛃 𝛣 𝛽 𝜝 𝜷
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL BETA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL BETA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL BETA
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL BETA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL BETA
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL BETA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 120489 U+1D6A9 120515 U+1D6C3 120547 U+1D6E3 120573 U+1D6FD 120605 U+1D71D 120631 U+1D737
UTF-8 240 157 154 169 F0 9D 9A A9 240 157 155 131 F0 9D 9B 83 240 157 155 163 F0 9D 9B A3 240 157 155 189 F0 9D 9B BD 240 157 156 157 F0 9D 9C 9D 240 157 156 183 F0 9D 9C B7
UTF-16 55349 57001 D835 DEA9 55349 57027 D835 DEC3 55349 57059 D835 DEE3 55349 57085 D835 DEFD 55349 57117 D835 DF1D 55349 57143 D835 DF37
Numeric character reference &#120489; &#x1D6A9; &#120515; &#x1D6C3; &#120547; &#x1D6E3; &#120573; &#x1D6FD; &#120605; &#x1D71D; &#120631; &#x1D737;
Character 𝝗 𝝱 𝞑 𝞫
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL BETA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL BETA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL BETA
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL BETA
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 120663 U+1D757 120689 U+1D771 120721 U+1D791 120747 U+1D7AB
UTF-8 240 157 157 151 F0 9D 9D 97 240 157 157 177 F0 9D 9D B1 240 157 158 145 F0 9D 9E 91 240 157 158 171 F0 9D 9E AB
UTF-16 55349 57175 D835 DF57 55349 57201 D835 DF71 55349 57233 D835 DF91 55349 57259 D835 DFAB
Numeric character reference &#120663; &#x1D757; &#120689; &#x1D771; &#120721; &#x1D791; &#120747; &#x1D7AB;

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

## References

1. ^ Jeffery 1961, p. 23.
2. ^ Haralambous, Yannis (1999). "From Unicode to typography, a case study: the Greek script" (PDF). p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-15.
3. ^ Aguilar Ruiz, Manuel José (2013). ""Las normas ortográficas y ortotipográficas de la nueva Ortografía de la lengua española (2010) aplicadas a las publicaciones biomédicas en español: una visión de conjunto" (PDF). Panace. 14 (37): 104.