Archaeological site of Atapuerca
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
Karst cave in Atapuerca
|Official name||Archaeological Site of Atapuerca|
|Part of||Atapuerca Mountains|
|Inscription||2000 (24th session)|
The archaeological site of Atapuerca is located on the Atapuerca Mountains in the north of Spain. The archaeological significance of the area became increasingly apparent during the construction of a railway line as deep trenches were cut through the rocks and sediments of the Gran Dolina site, the Galería Elefante and at Sima de los Huesos. The subsequent excavation of 1964 under the direction of Francisco Jordá Cerdá succeeded with the discovery of anthropogenic artifacts and human fossils from a broad time range of early humans, hunter-gatherer groups to Bronze Age occupants and modern human settlers. Further campaigns expanded and interdisciplinary work has been undertaken by several teams, led by Emiliano Aguirre from 1978 to 1990 and later jointly by Eudald Carbonell, José María Bermúdez de Castro and Juan Luis Arsuaga.
The site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, under the name, Archaeological Site of Atapuerca. The government of Castile and León has designated the site an Espacio cultural and under the title Zona Arqueológica sierra de Atapuerca the site is protected under Spanish law as it was induced into the Bien de Interés Cultural heritage register.
Portalón (1910 to present)
The combined work of archaeologists Jesús Carballo (1910 to 1911), Geoffrey Clark (1971), José María Apellániz (1973 to 1983) and the current team of Juan Luis Arsuaga accounts for the documentation of the excavation sequence of ceramic objects from all relevant sediment layers since the Neolithic.
Galería de la Eduarda y el Kolora (1972)
Galería (1978 to present)
Among numerous faunal and floral fossils, a jaw fragment was found during the 1970s and a skull fragment in 1995, which both belong to Homo heidelbergensis. They date to between 600,000 and 400,000 years BP.
Trinchera Dolina (1981 to present)
The Gran Dolina (also Trinchera Dolina, En: Dolina trench) site is a huge cavern, which has been excavated since September 1981. Its sediments were divided into eleven stratae (TD-1 to TD-11)
- TD-11: Mousterian tools found.
- Level TD-10 presumed to have been a Homo heidelbergensis camp with tools and bison fossils.
- Level TD-8, accessible since 1994, it contained remarkable carnivore fossils.
- In level TD-7, a bovine leg in anatomical position was recovered in 1994.
- TD-6 (Aurora stratum): In 1994 and 1995, over 80 bone fragments of five or six hominids found, between 850,000 and 780,000 years old, being at least 250,000 years older than any other hominid yet discovered in western Europe. About 25% of the bones have manipulation marks that suggest cannibalism. Classification of these remains is still being debated; suggestions range from Homo erectus to Homo heidelbergensis and Homo antecessor. Some researchers, who are familiar with the stratigraphic material of Gran Dolina, argue that Homo antecessor may be the ancestor of Homo heidelbergensis, who in turn gave rise to Homo neandertalensis. The Homo erectus-like fossils were also found with retouched flake and core stone tools.
- Level TD-5 is assumed to have been a carnivore den.
- In TD-4 (dated to 780,000 BP), four lithic pieces were found during the 1991 excavation and several remnants of Ursus dolinensis, a sparsely described bear species.
- At the lowest levels (TD-1 and TD-2), no fossils.
Sima de los Huesos (1983 to present)
Sima de los Huesos (Pit of Bones) accounts for the greatest number of valuable scientific discoveries and knowledge acquired with far-reaching implications. This site is located at the bottom of a 13 m (43 ft) deep shaft, or "chimney", accessible via the narrow corridors of the Cueva Mayor.
Since 1997, the excavators have located more than 5,500 human skeletal remains deposited during the Middle Pleistocene period, at least 350,000 years old, which represent 28 individuals of Homo heidelbergensis. Associated finds include Ursus deningeri fossils and a hand axe called Excalibur. It has received a surprisingly high degree of attention, and a number of experts support the hypothesis that this particular Acheulean tool made of red quartzite seems to have served as a ritual offering, most likely for a funeral. The idea sparked a renewal of the disputed evolutionary progress and the stages of human cognitive, intellectual and conceptual development. Ninety percent of the known Homo heidelbergensis fossil record have been obtained at the site. The fossil bone pit includes:
- The complete cranium, Skull 5, nicknamed Miguelón, the fragmented cranial remains of Skull 4, nicknamed Agamenón and Skull 6, nicknamed Rui (a reference to the medieval military leader El Cid).
- A complete pelvis (Pelvis 1), humorously nicknamed Elvis
- Mandibles, teeth, a lot of postcranial bones (femora, hand and foot bones, vertebrae, ribs, etc.)
- Remains of a child with craniosynostosis were found and dated to 530,000 BP. The find was considered to provide evidence for food sharing in early human populations.
- Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a 400,000 year old femur has been sequenced, the oldest hominin mtDNA recovered as of 2013. The mtDNA was found to be closer to the mtDNA of Denisova hominins than to the mtDNA of Neanderthals.
- In 2016, nuclear DNA analysis results determined the Sima hominins to be Neanderthals and not Denisova hominins, and the divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans predates 430,000 years.
- In 2019, analysis of Neanderthal teeth found at Sima de los Huesos indicates that modern humans and Neanderthals separated from a common ancestor more than 800,000 years ago.
- In 2020, analysis of tooth enamel of hominids found at the sites of Sima del Elefante, Gran Dolina-TD6 and Sima de los Huesos concluded that Atapuerca hominids grew faster than modern humans.
Some excavators have stated that the concentration of bones in the pit allows the suggestion of a traditional burial culture among the cave's inhabitants. A competing theory cites the lack of small bones in the assemblage and suggests that the fossils were washed into the pit by non-human agents.
Sima del Elefante (1996 to present)
According to José María Bermúdez de Castro, co-director of research at Atapuerca, the Sima del Elefante findings support "anatomical evidence of the hominids that fabricated tools more than one million years ago", which may have been the earliest among Western European hominids. The first discovery in June 2007 was a tooth, followed by a fragment of a jawbone and a proximal phalanx in 2008.
Cueva del Mirador (1999 to present)
Orchids Valley (2000 to 2001) and Hundidero (2004 to 2005)
Stone tools of the Upper Paleolithic have been extracted from this locality.
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- "Landforms And Geomorphological Processes In The Duero Basin. Pleistocene Geoarcheology Of Ambrona And Atapuerca Sites" (PDF). Geomorfologia.es. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "MEMORIA del Espacio Cultural "Sierra de Atapuerca"" (PDF). Jcyl.es. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Domínguez, Nuño (23 July 2020). "Hallada una nueva presencia humana en Atapuerca hace 600.000 años". El País (in Spanish). Prisa. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
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- "Prehistoric skull with puncture wounds could be world's first murder mystery". Msn.com. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Greenspan, Stanley (2006-02-07). How Symbols, Language, and Intelligence Evolved from Early Primates to Modern Human. ISBN 978-0-306-81449-5.
- "Excalibur, the rock that may mark a new dawn for man". The Guardian. January 9, 2003. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
- Gracia, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Carretero, José Miguel; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald (21 April 2009). "Craniosynostosis in the Middle Pleistocene human Cranium 14 from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (16): 6573–6578. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900965106. PMC 2672549. PMID 19332773.
- Callaway, Ewen (December 2013). "Hominin DNA baffles experts". Nature. 504 (7478): 16–17. Bibcode:2013Natur.504...16C. doi:10.1038/504016a. PMID 24305130.
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- Meyer, Matthias; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; de Filippo, Cesare; Nagel, Sarah; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Nickel, Birgit; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald; Viola, Bence; Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay; Pääbo, Svante (March 2016). "Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins". Nature. 531 (7595): 504–507. Bibcode:2016Natur.531..504M. doi:10.1038/nature17405. PMID 26976447. S2CID 4467094.
- Gómez-Robles, Aida (May 2019). "Dental evolutionary rates and its implications for the Neanderthal–modern human divergence". Science Advances. 5 (5): eaaw1268. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw1268. PMC 6520022. PMID 31106274.
- Modesto-Mata, Mario; Dean, M. Christopher; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Bromage, Timothy G.; García-Campos, Cecilia; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Martín-Francés, Laura; Martinón-Torres, María; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María (December 2020). "Short and long period growth markers of enamel formation distinguish European Pleistocene hominins". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 4665. Bibcode:2020NatSR..10.4665M. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61659-y. PMC 7069994. PMID 32170098.
- "'First west Europe tooth' found". BBC News. 2007-06-30.
- Hopkin, Michael (26 March 2008). "Fossil find is oldest European yet". Nature: news.2008.691. doi:10.1038/news.2008.691.
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