Alexander Mackenzie (politician)
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|2nd Prime Minister of Canada|
November 7, 1873 – October 8, 1878
|Governor General||The Earl of Dufferin|
|Preceded by||John A. Macdonald|
|Succeeded by||John A. Macdonald|
|Born||January 28, 1822|
|Died||April 17, 1892 (aged 70)|
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Resting place||Lakeview Cemetery, Sarnia, Ontario|
(m. 1845; died 1852)
Jane Sym (m. 1853)
|Years of service||1866–74|
Mackenzie was born in Logierait, Perthshire, Scotland. He left school at the age of 13, following his father's death, and trained as a stonemason. Mackenzie immigrated to Canada when he was 19, settling in what became Ontario. His masonry business prospered, allowing him to pursue other interests – such as the editorship of a pro-Reformist of a newspaper called "the Lambton Shield." Mackenzie was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1861, as a supporter of George Brown.
In 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the new House of Commons of Canada for the Liberal Party. He became leader of the party (and thus Leader of the Opposition) in mid-1873, and a few months later succeeded John A. Macdonald as prime minister, following Macdonald's resignation in the aftermath of the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie and the Liberals won a clear majority at the 1874 election. He was popular among the general public for his humble background and apparent democratic tendencies.
As prime minister, Mackenzie continued the nation-building programme that had been begun by his predecessor. His government established the Supreme Court of Canada and Royal Military College of Canada, and created the District of Keewatin to better administer Canada's newly acquired western territories. However, it made little progress on the transcontinental railway, and struggled to deal with the aftermath of the Panic of 1873. At the 1878 election, Mackenzie's government suffered a landslide defeat. He remained leader of the Liberal Party for another two years, and continued on as a member of parliament until his death, due to a stroke.
Mackenzie was born on 28 January 1822 in Logierait, Perthshire, Scotland, the son of Mary Stewart (Fleming) and Alexander Mackenzie Sr. who were married in 1817. The site of his birthplace is known as Clais-'n-deoir "The Hollow of the Weeping", where families said their goodbyes as the convicted were led to nearby Gallows Hill. The house he was born in was built by his father and is still standing in 2019. He was the third of ten boys, seven of who survived infancy. Alexander Mackenzie Sr. was a carpenter and ship's joiner who had to move around frequently for work after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Mackenzie's father died on 7 March 1836 and at the age of thirteen Alexander Mackenzie Jr. was thus forced to end his formal education in order to help support his family. He apprenticed as a stonemason and met his future wife, Helen Neil, in Irvine, where her father was also a stonemason. The Neils were Baptist and shortly thereafter, Mackenzie converted from Presbyterianism to Baptist beliefs. Together with the Neils, he immigrated to Canada in 1842 to seek a better life. Mackenzie's faith was to link him to the increasingly influential temperance cause, particularly strong in Canada West where he lived, a constituency of which he was to represent in the Parliament of Canada.
The Neils and Mackenzie settled in Kingston, Ontario. The limestone in the area proved too hard for his stonemason tools and, not having money to buy new tools, Mackenzie took a job as a labourer constructing a building on Princess Street. The contractor on the job claimed financial difficulty and so Mackenzie accepted a promissory note for summer wages. The note later proved to be worthless. Subsequently, Mackenzie won a contract building a bomb-proof arch at Fort Henry. He later became a foreman on the construction of Kingston's four Martello Towers - Murney Tower, Fort Frederick, Cathcart Tower, and Shoal Tower. He was also a foreman on the construction of the Welland Canal and the Lachine Canal. While working on the Beauharnois Canal a one-ton stone fell and crushed one of his legs. He recovered but never regained the strength in that leg. It was while in Kingston that Mackenzie became a vocal opponent of religious and political entitlement and corruption in government.
Mackenzie married Helen Neil (1826–52) in 1845 and with her had three children, with only one girl, Mary, surviving infancy. He and Helen moved to Sarnia, Ontario (known as Canada West) in 1847 and Mary was born in 1848. They were soon joined from Scotland by the rest of Mackenzie's brothers and his mother. He began working as a general contractor, earning a reputation for being a hard working, honest man as well as having a working man's view on fiscal policy. Mackenzie helped construct many courthouses and jails across southern Ontario. A number of these still stand today including the Sandwich Courthouse and Jail now known as the Mackenzie Hall Cultural Centre in Windsor, Ontario and the Kent County Courthouse and Jail in Chatham, Ontario. He even bid, unsuccessfully, on the construction of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa in 1859. Helen died in 1852, finally succumbing to the effects of excessive doses of mercury-based calomel used to treat a fever while in Kingston. In 1853, he married Jane Sym (1825–93).
Early political involvement
Mackenzie involved himself in politics almost from the moment he arrived in Canada. He fought passionately for equality and the elimination of all forms of class distinction. In 1851 he became the Secretary for the Reform Party for Lambton. After convincing him to run in Kent/Lambton, Mackenzie campaigned relentlessly for George Brown, owner of the Reformist paper The Globe in the 1851 election, helping Brown to win his first seat in the Legislative Assembly. Mackenzie and Brown remained the closest of friends and colleagues for the rest of their lives. In 1852 Mackenzie became editor of another reformist paper, the Lambton Shield. As editor, Mackenzie was perhaps a little too vocal, leading the paper to a lawsuit for libel against the local conservative candidate. Because a key witness claimed Cabinet Confidence and would not testify, the paper lost the suit and was forced to fold due to financial hardship. After his brother, Hope Mackenzie, declined to run, Alexander was petitioned to run and won his first seat in the Legislative Assembly as a supporter of George Brown in 1861. When George Brown resigned from the Great Coalition in 1865 over reciprocity negotiations with the United States, Mackenzie was invited to replace him as the President of the Council. Wary of Macdonald's motivations and true to his principles, Mackenzie declined.
He entered the House of Commons of Canada in 1867, representing the Lambton, Ontario, riding. There was no cohesive national Liberal Party of Canada at the time and with George Brown not winning his seat, there was no official leader. Mackenzie did not believe he was the best qualified for the position and although he resisted offers of the position, he nevertheless sat as the de facto leader of the Official Opposition.
Prime Minister (1873–1878)
When the Macdonald government fell due to the Pacific Scandal in 1873, the Governor General, Lord Dufferin, called upon Mackenzie, who had been chosen as the leader of the Liberal Party a few months earlier, to form a new government. Mackenzie formed a government and asked the Governor General to call an election for January 1874. The Liberals won, having garnered 53.8% of the popular vote. The voter support of 53.8% remains the record in Canada for all federal elections. Mackenzie remained prime minister until the 1878 election when Macdonald's Conservatives returned to power with a majority government.
It was unusual for a man of Mackenzie's humble origins to attain such a position in an age which generally offered such opportunity only to the privileged. Lord Dufferin, the current Governor General, expressed early misgivings about a stonemason taking over government. But on meeting Mackenzie, Dufferin revised his opinions:
However narrow and inexperienced Mackenzie may be, I imagine he is a thoroughly upright, well-principled, and well-meaning man.
Mackenzie served concurrently as Minister of Public Works and oversaw the completion of the Parliament Buildings. While drawing up the plans for the West Block, he included a circular staircase leading directly from his office to the outside of the building which allowed him to escape the patronage-seekers waiting for him in his ante-chamber. Proving Dufferin's reflections on his character to be true, Mackenzie disliked intensely the patronage inherent in politics. Nevertheless, he found it a necessary evil in order to maintain party unity and ensure the loyalty of his fellow Liberals.
In keeping with his democratic ideals, Mackenzie refused the offer of a knighthood three times, and was thus the only one of Canada's first eight Prime Ministers not to be knighted. He also declined appointment to the UK Privy Council and hence does not bear the title "Right Honourable". His pride in his working class origins never left him. Once, while touring Fort Henry as prime minister, he asked the soldier accompanying him if he knew the thickness of the wall beside them. The embarrassed escort confessed that he didn't and Mackenzie replied, "I do. It is five feet, ten inches. I know, because I built it myself!"
As Prime Minister, Alexander Mackenzie strove to reform and simplify the machinery of government, achieving a remarkable record of reform legislation. He introduced the secret ballot; advised the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada; the establishment of the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston in 1874; and, the creation of the Office of the Auditor General in 1878. He completed the Intercolonial Railway but struggled to progress on the national railway due to a worldwide economic depression, almost coming to blows with the then Governor General Lord Dufferin over imperial interference. Mackenzie stood up for the rights of Canada as a nation and fought for the supremacy of Parliament and honesty in government. Above all else, he was known and loved for his honesty and integrity.
However, his term was marked by economic depression that had grown out of the Panic of 1873, which Mackenzie's government was unable to alleviate. In 1874, Mackenzie negotiated a new free trade agreement with the United States, eliminating the high protective tariffs on Canadian goods in US markets. However, this action did not bolster the economy, and construction of the CPR slowed drastically due to lack of funding. In 1876 the Conservative opposition announced a National Policy of protective tariffs, which resonated with voters. When an election was held at the conclusion of Mackenzie's five-year term, the Conservatives were swept back into office in a landslide victory.
Supreme Court appointments
- Sir William Buell Richards (Chief Justice) – September 30, 1875
- Télesphore Fournier – September 30, 1875
- William Alexander Henry – September 30, 1875
- Sir William Johnstone Ritchie – September 30, 1875
- Sir Samuel Henry Strong – September 30, 1875
- Jean-Thomas Taschereau – September 30, 1875
- Sir Henri Elzéar Taschereau – October 7, 1878
After his government's defeat, Mackenzie remained Leader of the Opposition for another two years, until 1880. He was soon struck with a mysterious ailment that sapped his strength and all but took his voice. Sitting in silence, he nevertheless remained an undefeated MP until his death in 1892 from a stroke that resulted from hitting his head during a fall. He died in Toronto and was buried in Lakeview Cemetery in Sarnia, Ontario.
Mackenzie's first biography in 1892 referred to him as Canada's Stainless Statesman (Buckingham and Ross 1892, dedication introduction). Here are a number of other references to his character. He was a devout Baptist and teetotaller who found refuge in, and drew strength from, his family, friends and faith (Buckingham and Ross 1892, pps. 55,93,100, Forster). He was also a loyal friend and an incorrigible prankster (stuffed chimney on young in-laws; rolled boulder down Thunder Cape towards friend A. McKellar; burned Tory campaign placards in hotel woodstove early in morning) (Thomson 1960, pps. 18, 87). Unpretentious and down to earth (Buckingham and Ross 1892, pps. 99, 633, 660), his public official austerity in striking contrast to private compassion and giving nature (Buckingham and Ross 1892, pps. 99-100). He was the soul of honour and integrity (Marquis 1903, p.401), a proud man who sought no recognition or personal enrichment and accepted gifts reluctantly (Thomson 1960, pps. 354, 367). He preferred to follow than lead (un-referenced - many times he refused leadership offers) and often found duty outweighed heavy burden of office (Thomson 1960, p. 343, Buckingham and Ross 1892, pps. 294,441, 631). He was uncompromising on his principles; perhaps too much so (Marquis 1903, p.460, Buckingham and Ross 1892, pps. 211, 518, Forster). An historian at the time said, “He was, and ever will remain, the Sir Galahad of Canadian politics” (Marquis 1903, p. 418).
Very proud of his Scottish heritage he was forever a Scot “Nemo me impune lacessit” (no one attacks me with impunity) (Ross 1913, p. 56). The Upper Canada rebellion leader W.L. Mackenzie referred to him as “He is every whit a self-made, self-educated man. Has large mental capacity and indomitable energy.” (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 120). And Canada's Governor General, Lord Dufferin said of him he is “as pure as crystal, and as true as steel, with lots of common sense.” (Thomson 1960, p.211). A close friend, Chief Justice Sir Louis Davies said he was “the best debater the House of Commons has ever known.” (Mackenzie's newspaper scrapbook "Days of Giants", Library and Archives Canada). A friend and colleague in Cabinet who went on to become prime minister of Canada, Sir Wilfred Laurier said he was “one of the truest and strongest characters to be met within Canadian history. He was endowed with a warm heart and a copious and rich fancy, though veiled by a somewhat reticent exterior, and he was of friends the most tender and true.” (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p.633). Another friend and colleague, who went on to become premier of Ontario, Sir George Ross said “Mackenzie was sui generis a debater. His humorous sallies blistered like a blast from a flaming smelter. His sterling honesty is a great heritage, and will keep his memory green to all future generations.” (Ross 1913, p. 31). At his eulogy, Rev. Dr. Thomas compared him to the Duke of Wellington who “stood four square, to all the winds that blow.” (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 643, Tennyson’s Ode to the Death of the Duke of Wellington).
Newspaper around the world and in Canada had this to say about him. The London Times – the untiring energy, the business-like accuracy, the keen perception and reliable judgment, and above all the inflexible integrity which marked his private life, he carried without abatement of one jot into his public career. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 663). The Westminster Review – a man, who although, through failing health and failing voice, he had virtually passed out of public life, yet retained to the last the affectionate veneration of the Canadian people as no other man of the time can be said to have done. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 651, The Westminster Review Volume 137). The Charlottetown Patriot – in all that constitutes the real man, the honest statesman, the true patriot, the warm friend, and sincere Christian, he had few equals. Possessed of a clear intellect, a retentive memory, and a ready command of appropriate words, he was one of the most logical and powerful speakers we have ever heard. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 662). The St. John Telegraph – he was loved by the people and his political opponents were compelled to respect him even above their own chosen leader. As a statesman, he has had few equals. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 660). The Montreal Star – it is one of the very foremost architects of the Canadian nationality that we mourn. In the dark days of ’73 Canadians were in a state of panic, distrusting the stability of their newly-built Dominion; no one can tell what would have happened had not the stalwart form of Alexander Mackenzie lifted itself above the screaming, vociferating and denying mass of politicians, and all Canada felt at once, there was a man who could be trusted. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 661). The Toronto Globe – he was a man who loved the people and fought for their rights against privilege and monopoly in every form. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 661). The Philadelphia Record – Like Caesar, who twice refused a knightly crown, Alexander Mackenzie refused knighthood three times. Unlike Caesar, he owed his political overthrow to his incorruptible honesty and unswerving integrity. (Buckingham and Ross 1892, p. 660).
In their 1999 study of the Prime Ministers of Canada, which included the results of a survey of Canadian historians, J.L. Granatstein and Norman Hillmer found that Mackenzie was in the No. 11 place just after John Sparrow David Thompson.
The following are named in honour of Alexander Mackenzie:
- The Mackenzie Mountain Range in the Yukon & Northwest Territories.
- The Mackenzie building, and the use of the Mackenzie tartan by the bands at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario. 'Alexander Mackenzie', the Royal Military College of Canada March for bagpipes, was composed in his honour by Pipe Major Don M. Carrigan, who was the College Pipe Major 1973 to 1985.
- Mackenzie Hall in Windsor, Ontario.
- Alexander Mackenzie Scholarships in Economics and Political Science at McGill University and University of Toronto
- Alexander MacKenzie Park in Sarnia, Ontario.
- Alexander Mackenzie High School in Sarnia, Ontario.
- Alexander Mackenzie Housing Co-Operative Inc. in Sarnia, Ontario.
- Mackenzie Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario
- Mackenzie Tower, West Block,Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Ontario
- A monument is dedicated to his tomb in Lakeview Cemetery, Sarnia, Ontario
- "Honourable Alexander Mackenzie" (1964) by Lawren Harris, head of the Department of Fine Arts, Mount Allison University now hangs in the Mackenzie Building, Royal Military College of Canada. The unveiling ceremony was performed by the Right Honourable Louis St. Laurent, a Canadian former Prime Minister, and the gift was accepted by the Commandant, Air Commodore L.J. Birchall. The painting was commissioned in memory of No. 244, Lieut.-Col, F.B, Wilson, O.B.E, her deceased husband, by Mrs, F.W. Dashwood. Also taking part in the ceremony was the Honourable Paul Hellyer, Minister of National Defence, President and Chancellor of the College. In attendance was Mrs. Burton R. Morgan of Ottawa, great-granddaughter of Alexander Mackenzie.
- Burgess tickets presented to Alexander Mackenzie in Dundee, Dunkeld, Logierait, Irvine, and Perth Scotland.
- Éric Grenier, "Size of Justin Trudeau's government breaks records, for better and worse Biggest seat gains in Canada's history delivered a majority government — with one of its smallest mandates" (Dec 2 2015): <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/grenier-historical-trudeau-government-1.3344130>.
- Canada's Prime Ministers, 1867 – 1994: Biographies and Anecdotes. [Ottawa]: National Archives of Canada, . 40 p.
- "Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada – Former Prime Ministers and Their Grave Sites – The Honourable Alexander Mackenzie". Parks Canada. Government of Canada. December 20, 2010. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Hillmer, Norman; Granatstein, J. L. "Historians rank the BEST AND WORST Canadian Prime Ministers". Diefenbaker Web. Maclean's. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- Archie Cairns – Bk1 Pipe Music 'Alexander Mackenzie' (Slow March) by Pipe Major Don M. Carrigan 1995
- Source: Royal Military College of Canada – Review Yearbook (Kingston, Ontario Canada) Class of 1965page 191
- William Buckingham, George William Ross "The Honourable Alexander Mackenzie: His Life and Times". 1892. Toronto: Rose Publishing Company Limited, 678 pages
- Sir George W. Ross "Getting into Parliament and After", 1913. Toronto: William Briggs, 343 pages
- T.G. Marquis "Builders of Canada from Cartier to Laurier", 1903. Toronto: John C. Winston and Co., 570 pages
- John Charles Dent "The Canadian Portrait Gallery". Vol. 1 1880. Toronto John B. Magurn
- Ben Forster, "MACKENZIE, ALEXANDER," in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 12, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed November 10, 2017, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mackenzie_alexander_12E.html.
- Wikiquotes, http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Alexander_Mackenzie
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Mackenzie (politician).|
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|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alexander Mackenzie (politician)|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Mackenzie, Alexander.|
- Photograph:Alexander Mackenzie, 1874 – McCord Museum
- "Alexander Mackenzie". Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online ed.). University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016.
- Alexander Mackenzie – Parliament of Canada biography
|Party political offices|
| Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada
|Vacant|| Leader of the Opposition
Sir John A. Macdonald
Sir John A. Macdonald
| Prime Minister of Canada|
Hector Louis Langevin
| Minister of Public Works
1873 – 1878
Sir John A. Macdonald
| Leader of the Opposition
|Parliament of Canada|
| Member of Parliament for Lambton
1867 – 1882
| Member of Parliament for York East
1882 – 1892
William Findlay Maclean