ASMO 449

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ASMO 449 is a 7-bit coded character set to encode the Arabic language.

History[edit]

This character set was devised by the now extinct[1] Arab Standardization and Metrology Organization in 1982[1] to be the 7-bit standard to be used in Arabic-speaking countries. The design of this character set is derived[2] from the 7-bit ISO 646 (version of 1973) but with modifications suited for the Arabic language. In code points ranging from 0x41 to 0x72 (hexadecimal), Latin letters were replaced with Arabic letters. Punctuation marks which were identical the in Latin and Arabic scripts remained the same, but where they differed (comma, semicolon, question mark), the Latin ones were replaced by Arabic ones. Only nominal letters are encoded, no preshaped forms of the letters, so shaping processing is required for display. This character set is not bidirectional and was intended to be used in right to left writing. Therefore, symmetrical punctuation marks ("(", ")", "<", ">", "[", "]", "{" and "}") appears as reversed (")", "(", ">", "<", "]", "[", "}" and "{").

ASMO 449 was registered in the International Register of Coded Character Sets as IR 089[2] in 1985 and approved as an ISO standard as ISO 9036[3] in 1987.

Character set[edit]

  Letter   Number   Punctuation   Symbol   Other   undefined

ASMO 449 (1982)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_ NUL
0000
0
SOH
0001
1
STX
0002
2
ETX
0003
3
EOT
0004
4
ENQ
0005
5
ACK
0006
6
BEL
0007
7
BS
0008
8
HT
0009
9
LF
000A
10
VT
000B
11
FF
000C
12
CR
000D
13
SO
000E
14
SI
000F
15
1_ DLE
0010
16
DC1
0011
17
DC2
0012
18
DC3
0013
19
DC4
0014
20
NAK
0015
21
SYN
0016
22
ETB
0017
23
CAN
0018
24
EM
0019
25
SUB
001A
26
ESC
001B
27
FS
001C
28
GS
001D
29
RS
001E
30
US
001F
31
2_ SP
0020
32
!
0021
33
"
0022
34
#
0023
35
¤
00A4
36
%
0025
37
&
0026
38
'
0027
39
)
0029
40
(
0028
41
*
002A
42
+
002B
43
،
060C
44
-
002D
45
.
002E
46
/
002F
47
3_ 0
0030
48
1
0031
49
2
0032
50
3
0033
51
4
0034
52
5
0035
53
6
0036
54
7
0037
55
8
0038
56
9
0039
57
:
003A
58
؛
061B
59
>
003E
60
=
003D
61
<
003C
62
؟
061F
63
4_ @
0040
64
ء
0621
65
آ
0622
66
أ
0623
67
ؤ
0624
68
إ
0625
69
ئ
0626
70
ا
0627
71
ب
0628
72
ة
0629
73
ت
062A
74
ث
062B
75
ج
062C
76
ح
062D
77
خ
062E
78
د
062F
79
5_ ذ
0630
80
ر
0631
81
ز
0632
82
س
0633
83
ش
0634
84
ص
0635
85
ض
0636
86
ط
0637
87
ظ
0638
88
ع
0639
89
غ
063A
90
]
005D
91
\
005C
92
[
005B
93
^
005E
94
_
005F
95
6_ ـ
0640
96
ف
0641
97
ق
0642
98
ك
0643
99
ل
0644
100
م
0645
101
ن
0646
102
ه
0647
103
و
0648
104
ى
0649
105
ي
064A
106
ً
064B
107
ٌ
064C
108
ٍ
064D
109
َ
064E
110
ُ
064F
111
7_ ِ
0650
112
ّ
0651
113
ْ
0652
114
}
007D
123
|
007C
124
{
007B
125
~
007E
126
DEL
007F
127

There is a variant, sometimes named ASMO 449+[4] which adds the characters NBS in 0x75, "ﹳ" in 0x76, "لآ" in 0x77, "لأ" in 0x78, "لإ" in 0x79 and "لا" in 0x7A.

Relationship with other character sets[edit]

ASMO 449 is a 7-bit character set. Although some encodings allocate this 7-bit character set in the upper part of the 8-bit character set, it should not be confused with ASMO 708. In the character sets that allocate ASMO 449 (or some variant of it) in the upper part of the 8-bit character set, the existence of apparently repeated characters is due to the fact that the characters in the lower part are for left-to-right script while the characters in the upper part are for right-to-left script. When ASMO 449 (or some variant of it) is allocated to the upper part of the 8-bit character set, it has Arabic digits.

  • Al-Arabi[4] adds the characters NBS in 0xF5, "-" in 0xF6, "÷" in 0xF7, "×" in 0xF8, "«" in 0xF9 and "»" in 0xFA, and replaces "ـ" with "`"; this character set is sometimes referred as Code Page 768 (not an official IBM code page).
  • DEC's DEC/8/ASMO[4] has the same repertoire and the same sequence of Arabic characters but dislocates them.
  • HP's Arabic-8[4] is also based on ASMO 449;
  • Apple's MacArabic adds French, German and Spanish characters in their typical code points from MacRoman, and adds letters for Persian and Urdu.
  • Apple's MacFarsi replaces the Arabic digits from MacArabic with Persian ones.
  • The Code Table 7[5] from MARC-8 allocates ASMO 449 in the lower part of the 8-bit character set and allocates the upper part with the Arabic Extension (ISO 11822 / IR 224).
  • Microsoft's Code page 709,[4] for MS-DOS, adds French and German characters in their typical code points from code page 437.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Le codage informatique de l’écriture arabe : d’ASMO 449 à Unicode et ISO/CEI 10646
  2. ^ a b "7-bit Arabic Code for Information Interchange, Arab standard ASMO-449, ISO 9036" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  3. ^ ISO 9036:1987
  4. ^ a b c d e Printronix ACA Emulation Programmer’s Reference Manual
  5. ^ Code Table 7

External links[edit]