A440 (pitch standard)
A440 (also known as Stuttgart pitch) is the musical pitch corresponding to an audio frequency of 440 Hz, which serves as a tuning standard for the musical note of A above middle C, or A4 in scientific pitch notation. It is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization as ISO 16. While other frequencies have been, and occasionally still are, used to tune the first A above middle C, A440 is now commonly used as a reference frequency to calibrate acoustic equipment and to tune pianos, violins, and other musical instruments.
History and use
Before standardization on 440 Hz, many countries and organizations followed the French standard since the 1860s of 435 Hz, which had also been the Austrian government's 1885 recommendation. Johann Heinrich Scheibler recommended A440 as a standard in 1834 after inventing the "tonometer" to measure pitch, and it was approved by the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte the same year.
The American music industry reached an informal standard of 440 Hz in 1926, and some began using it in instrument manufacturing.
In 1936, the American Standards Association recommended that the A above middle C be tuned to 440 Hz. This standard was taken up by the International Organization for Standardization in 1955 (reaffirmed by them in 1975) as ISO 16.
A440 is widely used as concert pitch in the United Kingdom and the United States. In continental Europe the frequency of A4 commonly varies between 440 Hz and 444 Hz. In the period instrument movement, a consensus has arisen around a modern baroque pitch of 415 Hz (with 440 Hz corresponding to A♯), a 'baroque' pitch for some special church music (in particular, some German church music, e.g. the Pre-Leipzig period cantatas of Bach) known as Chorton pitch at 466 Hz (with 440 Hz corresponding to A♭), and classical pitch at 427–430 Hz.
The US time and frequency station WWV broadcasts a 440 Hz signal at two minutes past every hour, with WWVH broadcasting the same tone at the first minute past every hour. This was added in 1936 to aid orchestras in tuning their instruments.
- Apel, Willi (1969). Harvard Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674375017.
- Karp, Theodore (1983). Dictionary of Music. Northwestern University Press. p. 406. ISBN 9780810106598.
- Robert Thomas Beyer (1999). Sounds of our times: two hundred years of acoustics. Springer. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-387-98435-3.
- Helmholtz, Hermann von (1863). Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik, p.29. J. Vieweg. [ISBN unspecified].
- Martin, George (2008). The Opera Companion. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-1-57467-168-1.
- ISO 16:1975 Acoustics – Standard tuning frequency (Standard musical pitch). International Organization for Standardization. 1975.
- Nistl, Franz. "Europa E - SK". Klavierstimmung.
- Nistl, Franz. "Afrika Amerika Asien Ozeanien". Klavierstimmung.
- Oxford Composer Companion JS Bach, pp. 369–372. Oxford University Press, 1999
- "History of WWV". Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST. September 16, 2015.